Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/05/2003) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2003e) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Scientific name Adclarkia dawsonensis [67458]
Family Camaenidae:Pulmonata:Gastropoda:Mollusca:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.qmuseum.qld.gov.au/nature/endangered/html/boggomoss_snail.html

Scientific Name: Adclarkia dawsonensis

Common Name: Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail

This species, described in 1996, is the only member of the genus Adclarkia (Stanisic 1996).

The helicoid shell of the Boggomoss Snail is light brown, becoming greenish-yellow towards the horn, with a white lip. It is thin and semi-transparent, with an average diameter of about 2.3 cm, and is made up of 5 1/8–5 5/8 whorls. The shell is 1.5 cm high with a slightly elevated spire and a very small central depression. The animal itself is light brown to white, with the amount of grey around the neck, on the sides of the foot and above the tail differing between specimens. Black blotches on the lung roof are visible through the shell (Stanisic 1996, 2008).

The Boggomoss Snail is found in the Greater Taroom area of south-eastern Queensland. It occurs in the Dawson Valley, north-east of Taroom, on the Dawson River (Stanisic 1996, 2008). There are two subpopulations of the snail. One subpopulation is found in boggomoss (artesian spring) habitat on private property on the Dawson River near Taroom (Stanisic 2008; TSSC 2003g). The other population occurs on a camping and water reserve between Tarooma and Theodore, at the Isla-Delusion crossing of the Dawson River (Stanisic 2008).

The extent of occurrence of the Boggomoss Snail is estimated to be 0.435 km². The site on private propery is approximately 0.5 ha and the population at the camping and water reserve covers approximately 43 ha (Stanisic 2008). The area of occupancy is less than 10 km² (TSSC 2003g).

The Isla-Delusion camping and water reserve and the boggomoss habitat on private property are the only two locations at which this species is known to occur. There is a record of a Boggomoss Snail shell from a recently deceased snail being found at a third site (Cockatoo Creek, south of Taroom); however no live Boggomoss Snails have been recorded from this site. The Cockatoo Creek site is in poor condition and it is not known if there is a living population at that location (Stanisic 2008).

Stanisic (2008) states that there are areas of habitat suitable for the translocation of the Boggomoss Snail in the Taroom-Theodore area, but notes that specific sites have not yet been identified.

The species' distribution can be considered to be highly fragmented as it occurs as only two small and relatively isolated subpopulations.

Intensive field surveys were conducted during 1993–1998 by staff of the Queensland Museum. The snail has not been found in the suitable habitat surrounding its current locations (Stanisic 2008).

A species specific survey was conducted between October–December 2008 (BAAM 2009). Two new subpopulations of the Boggomoss Snail were found on Mt Rose Station and several individuals were located upstream of the existing Isla-Delusion Road population, however this is not considered to be a new population (BAAM 2009).

The Boggomoss Snail has an estimated population size of under 600 individuals. There are estimated to be fewer than 100 individuals at the Mt Rose Station site, and fewer than 500 individuals at the Isla-Delusion site (Stanisic 2008). A 2009 survey presented a significantly greater estimate of snail population numbers of 11 497–23 323 (SKM 2009). The report suggested that it is highly likely that additional populations occur in suitable habitat that has not been surveyed (SKM 2009).

There is no quantitative data available on the population trend for the Boggomoss Snail, as the species was not described until 1996. Although no quantitative data is available, it has been suggested that the Boggomoss Snail has undergone a severe reduction in numbers. One figure given is a loss of at least 80–90% of the population over the last 10 years due to a decline in suitable habitat. The reduction in numbers is an inference based on the almost total destruction of its preferred habitat - riparian on alluvial flats in the Dawson River Valley (TSSC 2003g). There are claims that it will decline by 5% over the next three years and has a 50% probability of becoming extinct in the wild in the next 20 years (TSSC 2003g).

Given the low population numbers of the Boggomoss Snail, both subpopulations may be considered critical to the species' survival. The Isla-Delusion site, containing the larger population, is particularly important (Greenslade 2000).

None of the populations of Boggomoss Snail occur in a protected reserve system. Grazing, land clearing and quarrying are permitted at the Isla-Delusion stock and water reserve (Greenslade 2000).

The Dawson Valley lies within the Brigalow Belt of eastern Queensland, characterised by Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) forest and woodland on clay soil (Young et al. 1999). Boggomoss Snails are restricted to the moister riparian (riverside) and boggomoss habitats on alluvial flats between Taroom and Theodore (Stanisic 2008). Most of this habitat has been cleared for farming and little original vegetation remains (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003).

At the Isla-Delusion site, the Boggomoss Snail is found in a small patch of riparian habitat in a stock and water reserve. The vegetation is dominated by forest red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), palm trees (Livistona sp.) and sandpaper fig (Ficus sp.) (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003). At this site the snail lives under logs in dense vegetation (Stanisic 2008).

At Mt Rose Station the snail is found associated with a boggomoss. Boggomosses are a series of small, raised peat bogs that form when water from aquifers of the Great Artesian Basin is pushed to the surface through mound springs. The vegetation is dominated by water-tolerant species, such as Coolibah trees (Eucalyptus coolibah), sedges, ferns and mosses (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; Noble et al. 1998). At the boggomoss site the snail lives in leaf-litter at the base of sandpaper figs (Stanisic 2008).

The rainfall in this area is 500–750 mm per year (Young et al. 1999). The soils are mostly well-drained brown/grey loam and clay derived from basalt (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003).

The life history of the Boggomoss Snail is unknown. Stanisic (2008) suggests that the species may have a similar lifespan (10–20 years) to that of other land snails in arid northern Australia. The Boggomoss Snail is known to aestivate (hibernate) in very dry periods. It is a free sealer, hibernating in the litter or soil under logs and sealing the opening of the shell with a calcified mucous covering (Stanisic 2008).

It is assumed that, like many other snails, the Boggomoss Snail feeds on decaying plant matter, bacteria and fungi (Bishop 1981, cited in Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003).

Land Clearing
Land clearing is the main threat to the Boggomoss Snail. Over the last three decades six million hectares of Brigalow-dominated communities have been cleared, and this process is still continuing (Glazning 1995). In 1984, there was an indication that only about 0.5% of the original Brigalow-associated communities still remained in Queensland (Sattler & Webster 1984). Within the Brigalow Belt, only 2.2% of Brigalow-dominated habitats are estimated to be reserved in protected areas (Young et al. 1999). Much of the remaining stands are found on freehold land and are threatened by development (Fensham et al. 1998; Pulsford 1984). This widespread habitat loss is believed to make the small pockets of boggomosses extremely vulnerable to direct land clearing and habitat change, such as drying out, once the surrounding vegetation is removed (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003).

Fire
Fire is also a major threat (Stanisic 1996). The small size of the boggomoss remnants makes them more vulnerable to the effects of fire, and particularly sensitive to hot fires (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003). Fire can affect the snail population directly, by incineration and dehydration, or indirectly through destruction of the leaf-litter that forms the snail's habitat (Stanisic 2008).

Grazing and trampling
Current leasing arrangements of the Isla-Delusion site as a stock reserve allow for cattle grazing (Greenslade 2000). Stock grazing has a detrimental effect on the Boggomoss Snail's habitat by introducing weeds to the area and causing compaction of the soils and leaf-litter (Greenslade 2000; Stanisic 2008). Snails may also be directly trampled. Stock grazing has been known to cause damage to boggomoss habitats in the past (Stanisic 1996). The boggomoss on private property has been fenced to protect the habitat from cattle grazing and trampling. However, this has led to more grass at the site, which increases the fuel load and leads to a greater risk of wildfire (Stanisic 2008).

Other land uses
Tree removal, development work for pastoral purposes, and quarrying are also permitted at the Isla-Delusion reserve. These processes could have a negative impact on the habitat of the Boggomoss Snail and threaten the species' survival.

Hydrological changes
Since the Boggomoss Snail is reliant on moist habitat, changes in hydrology at either of the current subpopulation sites could threaten the species' survival (Clark & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; Stanisic 2008).

Predation
The Boggomoss Snail is not known to be under threat from predation. Land snails are known to be preyed on by rats, birds, beetles, ants and other snails, and these are present in the Boggomoss Snail habitat (Stanisic 2008).

The boggomoss at Mt Rose Station has been fenced to protect the Boggomoss Snail from damage due to cattle grazing (Stanisic 2008).

A National Recovery Plan for the Boggomoss Snail has been prepared (Stanisic 2008). Priority actions from this plan include: research the ecology and lifecycle of the Boggomoss Snail; establishment of a conservation covenant for the Mt Rose Station population; and protection of the snail's habitat through assessing and controlling weeds, developing a fire plan, surveying for additional snail populations, and fencing critical habitat to exclude cattle.

Stanisic (1996) conducted a study of the appearance and habitat of the Bogomoss Snail when it was first formally described. Further study was undertaken for the development of the National Recovery Plan (Stanisic 2008).

A National Recovery Plan has been developed for the Boggomoss Snail (Stanisic 2008).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2003g) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis (Stanisic, J., 2008) [Recovery Plan].

Clarke, G. & F. Spier-Ashcroft (2003). A Review of the Conservation Status of Selected Australian Non-Marine Invertebrates. [Online]. Environment Australia, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/non-marine-invertebrates/index.html.

Fensham, R.J., J.C. McCosker & M.J. Cox (1998). Estimating clearance of Acacia-dominated ecosystems in central Queensland using land-system mapping data. Australian Journal of Botany. 46:305-319.

Glazning, A. (1995). Native vegetation clearance, habitat loss and biodiversity decline. An overview of recent native vegetaton clearance in Australia and its implications for biodiversity. Page(s) 32. Department of the Environment, Sports and Territories, Canberra.

Greenslade, P. (2000). Dawson River snail site at Isla/Delusion Crossing. Australian Heritage Commission.

Noble, J.C., M.A. Habermeh, C.D. James, J. Landsberg & A.C. Langston (1998). Biodiversity implications of water management in the Great Artesian Basin. Rangeland Journal. 20(2):275 - 300.

Pulsford, I.F. (1984). Conservation status of Brigalow Acacia harpophylla in New South Wales. In: Bailey, A., ed. The Brigalow Belt of Australia. Page(s) 161-75. The Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane.

Sattler, P.S. & R.J. Webster (1984). The conservation status of Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla) communities in Queensland. In: Bailey, A., ed. The Brigalow Belt in Australia. Page(s) 149-160. The Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane.

Stanisic, J. (1996). New land snails from the boggomoss environments in the Dawson Valley, Southeastern Queensland (Eupulmonata: Charapidae and Carmaenidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39:343-354.

Stanisic, J. (2008). Recovery Plan for the boggomoss snail Adclarkia dawsonensis. [Online]. Report to Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Canberra. Brisbane, Queensland: Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/a-dawsonensis.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2003g). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Adclarkia dawsonensis (Boggomoss Snail, Dawson Valley Snail). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/a-dawsonensis.html.

Young, P.A.R., B.A. Wilson, J.C. McCosker, R.J. Fensham, G. Morgan & P.M. Taylor (1999). Brigalow belt. In: Sattler, P. & R. Williams, eds. The conservation status of Queensland's bioregional ecosystems. Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Adclarkia dawsonensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 27 Jul 2014 04:09:32 +1000.