Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Island Thrush (Christmas Island) (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005w) [Listing Advice].
 
Approved Conservation Advice for Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus (Christmas Island thrush) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014ay) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/04/2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Scientific name Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus [67122]
Family Muscicapidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Sharpe, 1887
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus.

Common name: Island Thrush (Christmas Island), Christmas Island Thrush.

Other names: Christmas Island Ground-thrush.

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is a conventionally accepted subspecies of the Island Thrush Turdus poliocephalus (Clement & Hathaway 2000; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is 21 to 22 cm long. It has a wingspan of about 34 cm, and a mass of 44 to 68 g (Johnstone & Storr 2004; Higgins et al. 2006a; Voous 1964). It has brown to dark-grey upperparts, a white chin and throat, a grey-brown to grey breast, dull orange flanks, and a belly that is dull orange on the sides and white in the centre. It has dark brown irides, a prominent ring of yellow to orange-yellow skin around each eye, a yellow to orange bill, and yellow to orange-yellow legs and feet. The male and female are almost identical, but they do vary slightly in the colour of the bill. Juvenile birds can be distinguished from the adults, with the most obvious difference being a series of streaks and spots that cover part of the upperparts, and most of the underparts, of juvenile birds (Higgins et al. 2006a; Johnstone & Storr 2004). Immature birds are very similar to the adults, but retain some aspects of the juvenile plumage (Higgins et al. 2006a).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) occurs singly, in twos, and in small groups (Gibson-Hill 1947; Johnstone & Storr 2004).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is confined to Christmas Island (Schodde & Mason 1999), where it is considered to be widespread (Carter 1994, 2000b; Craig 1996; Doughty 2003; Hansbro 2000; James & Retallick 2007; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988). It was introduced to the Cocos (Keeling) Islands between 1885 and 1900, but this population has since become extinct (Gibson-Hill 1949b, 1950c; Stokes 1994; Stokes et al. 1984).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with high reliability, to be 137 km². The extent of occurrence is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be 137 km² (James 2007, pers. comm.). This figure is based on the results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 (James & Retallick 2007) and is larger than an earlier estimate of 100 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The clearance of about 25% of the native vegetation on Christmas Island for industrial and municipal purposes (Stokes 1988; van Tets 1975) has not resulted in a reduction in the area of occupancy (James & Retallick 2007).

In 2000 it was surmised that the area of occupancy was declining in response to the spread of the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant Anoplolepis gracilipes, which can attack and reduce the breeding success of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island), and could indirectly alter the structure, composition and suitability of Island Thrush (Christmas Island) habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000; O'Dowd et al. 1999; TSSC 2005ap). However, the spread of the Yellow Crazy Ant was halted by a successful island-wide aerial baiting campaign conducted in September 2002 (TSSC 2005ap) and the results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 show that the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is currently secure on Christmas Island (James & Retallick 2007). It has been reported that some small supercolonies have reformed, and that some new colonies of the Yellow Crazy Ant have formed, since the completion of the aerial baiting campaign (TSSC 2005ap). If these reports are correct there might be some potential for the area of occupancy to decline in future if management of the Yellow Crazy Ant is not maintained.

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is confined to a single location (Schodde & Mason 1997; TSSC 2005ap).

There are no captive populations of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island). In 2000 it was recommended that a captive breeding colony be established if the population of the Yellow Crazy Ant on Christmas Island could not be controlled (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the spread of the Yellow Crazy Ant was halted by an island-wide aerial baiting campaign in September 2002 (TSSC 2005ap), and a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 indicate that the population of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is currently secure (James & Retallick 2007), thus eliminating the need for a captive breeding program.

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is considered widespread on Christmas Island (Carter 1994, 2000b; Craig 1996; Doughty 2003; Hansbro 2000; James & Retallick 2007; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988), and therefore neither the distribution nor habitat of the thrush is severely fragmented.

There have been two major systematic field surveys for the Island Thrush (Christmas Island). The first was conducted in August 2002 at selected sites on the eastern part of the island (Corbett et al. 2003). The second was conducted in 2005 and 2006 and involved a series of surveys at 128 sites distributed across most of the island (James & Retallick 2007). The distribution of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is well known from the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 (James & Retallick 2007), but there are no reliable estimates of population size. The population size was estimated at 20 000 to 50 000 birds based on the results of the survey conducted in August 2000 (Corbett et al. 2003), but this estimate was based on small samples of the total population and a survey method that fails to account for the potential for birds to move during the survey process, and is therefore considered to be unreliable (James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007).

There are no reliable estimates of population size. The most recent estimate of population size is 20 000 to 50 000 birds. This estimate is based on the results of a systematic survey conducted in August 2002 (Corbett et al. 2003) but is considered to be unreliable because it was based on small samples of the total population and a survey method that fails to account for the potential for birds to move during the survey process (James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007). The population size had earlier been estimated at 15 000 adult birds (TSSC 2005ap) based on an estimate of breeding density by Davis (2002); 4 000 adult birds on an unknown basis (Garnett & Crowley 2000); 20 000 or more birds based on opportunistic observations (Craig 1996); and 100 000 to 1 000 000 breeding pairs (or 200 000 to 2 000 000 adult birds) evidently based on opportunistic observations (van Tets 1975).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) occurs in a single, intra-breeding population on Christmas Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is claimed to have undergone a moderate decline in numbers in response to habitat alteration, predation by introduced animals, and hunting by humans (Stokes 1988). In 2000 it was surmised that numbers were declining in response to the spread of the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant, and it was predicted that the population size would decline to less than 20% of its then size over three generations unless the expansion of the Yellow Crazy Ant could be curtailed (Garnett & Crowley 2000). In response, an island-wide aerial baiting campaign was initiated in September 2002 to halt the spread of the ant (TSSC 2005ap). The results of a series of surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006 indicate that no decline in numbers have occurred and the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) remains widespread on Christmas Island (James & Retallick 2007).

The generation length is estimated, with low reliability, to be four years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) and any other subspecies of the Island Thrush, or between the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) and any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs in the wild because the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is the only subspecies of the Island Thrush, and the only member of the genus Turdus and family Muscicapidae, that breeds on Christmas Island (Gibson-Hill 1947; Stokes 1988; Reville 1993).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) occurs throughout Christmas Island National Park (James & Retallick 2007), which accounts for more than 60% of the total land area of Christmas Island (Environment Australia 2002i).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is common in most habitats on Christmas Island, including tall closed evergreen rainforest, open semi-deciduous rainforest, secondary regrowth, thickets of weeds and semi-deciduous vines, settled areas (where it forages on lawns and nests on buildings), and on the Christmas Island golf course (Carter 2000b; Commonwealth of Australia 2002; Doughty 2003; Gibson-Hill 1947; James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988; van Tets & van Tets 1967). It is most common in tall closed evergreen rainforest and open semi-deciduous rainforest on the coastal and higher terraces and plateau of Christmas Island (Commonwealth of Australia 2002; Gibson-Hill 1947; James & Retallick 2007). It is least common in disturbed habitats (such as urban areas, regrowth and post-mining wasteland) and in suboptimal endemic vegetation such as thickets of Pandanus and patches of low vegetation in coastal areas (James & Retallick 2007; Stokes 1988).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities that are listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It is sympatric with and occupies the same habitats as the listed Christmas Island Pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi, Christmas Island Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus natalis, Emerald Dove (Christmas Island) Chalcophaps indica natalis, Christmas Island Shrew Crocidura attenuata trichura; Christmas Island Blind Snake Typhlops exocoeti, Christmas Island Gecko Lepidodactylus listeri and Christmas Island Hawk-Owl Ninox natalis (James 2007, pers. comm.; James & Retallick 2007).

No information is available on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality.

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) mainly breeds from October to March (Andrews 1900; Carter 2000b; Gibson-Hill 1947). It builds a cup-shaped nest from twigs, leaves, vine stems, moss and other plant material (Gibson-Hill 1947; Johnstone & Storr 2004). The nest is usually placed in a fork in a sapling, or among the branches of a shrub or tree, or sometimes in the crown of a tree-fern, in a creeper on a tree, or on a ledge on a building (Gibson-Hill 1947; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Reville 1993).

Clutches of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) consist of two or sometimes three eggs (Gibson-Hill 1947; James 2007, pers. comm.; Reville 1993). The eggs are pale greenish-blue with rufous-brown and occasionally mauve-brown blotches. The eggs are incubated by the female (Gibson-Hill 1947). The incubation period is claimed to be 18 days in length and the fledging period is claimed to be 17 to 19 days in length (Gibson-Hill 1947), but a more recent study has shown that the incubation and fledging periods are both 12 days in duration (James 2007, pers. comm.). The young continue be tended by the adults for 12 or more days after departing the nest (James 2007, pers. comm.). Pairs are capable of producing a second clutch immediately after the departure of the previous brood (James 2007, pers. comm.) and can rear several broods in a single breeding season (Reville 1993).

The breeding success of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is largely unknown, but one study found that success is extremely poor (none of 33 breeding attempts observed were successful) in areas inhabited by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Davis 2002).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) feeds mainly on seeds and invertebrates (including insects and their larvae, earthworms and millipedes) (Carter 2000b; Gibson-Hill 1947; Gray 1981; James 2007, pers. comm.; Johnstone & Storr 2004). It is also known to eat House Geckos Hemidactylus virgatus (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) forages on the ground amongst leaf litter, picks at the bark of dead trees and fallen timber, and occasionally seeks food in the canopy (Gibson-Hill 1947; Johnstone & Storr 2004). It also forages on lawns, in clearings (van Tets & van Tets 1967) and on the Christmas Island golf course (Carter 2000b; James 2007, pers. comm.), and on rare occasions collects geckos from pergolas (James 2007, pers. comm.). Its tendency to forage on the ground exposes the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) to contact with terrestrial predators such as cats Felis catus, Black Rats Rattus rattus and Yellow Crazy Ants (Stokes 1988; TSSC 2005ap), and possibly also to competition for food resources with Yellow Crazy Ants (TSSC 2005ap).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is sedentary and resident on Christmas Island (Carter 1994; Gibson-Hill 1947; Higgins et al. 2006a; Stokes 1988).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) establishes territories in the breeding season that are vigorously defended by the males (Gibson-Hill 1947). It inhabits small home ranges and tends to nest near the perimeter rather than centre of the home range (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is unlike any other species on Christmas Island (Higgins et al. 2006a).

The Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is readily detected. It is considered widespread, occurs in most habitats on Christmas Island (including settled areas), is very easily approached (sometimes to within a metre or so) and will frequently approach humans (Carter 1994; Craig 1996; Gibson-Hill 1947; James 2007, pers. comm.; Stokes 1988).

The recommended method to survey for the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is to conduct area searches or transect surveys in suitable habitat (Birds Australia 2006a). It is recommended that surveys be conducted at dawn and/or at dusk when the birds are most vocal (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The threats to the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) in the past were habitat alteration, predation by cats Felis catus and Black Rats Rattus rattus, and hunting by humans (Gibson-Hill 1947; Stokes 1988). These processes are thought to have caused a moderate decline in the population size of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) (Stokes 1988). However, the only quantitative evidence that any of these processes have caused a decline in numbers of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) was obtained by a recent study which found that population densities are approximately 20% lower in disturbed habitats than they are in undisturbed native rainforest (James & Retallick 2007). The incidence of hunting by humans has now subsided (Stokes 1988) and evidently ceased (James 2007, pers. comm.). The threat from habitat alteration has declined with the formation of Christmas Island National Park, but suitable habitat continues to be lost through the clearance of vegetation for mining operations, urban expansion, road widening and other construction projects (James 2007, pers. comm.). The current impact of predation is unknown, but apparently low as the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) population appears to be widespread and secure (Carter 1994, 2000b; Craig 1996; Doughty 2003; Hansbro 2000; James & Retallick 2007; Johnstone & Storr 2004; Reville 1993; Stokes 1988) even though cats and Black Rats are abundant on Christmas Island (James 2007, pers. comm.). Some mortality currently occurs as a result of collisions with vehicles, but this has not been quantified (James 2007, pers. comm.).

The current major threat to the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) is the introduced Yellow Crazy Ant (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005ap). There is insufficient evidence to indicate that the Yellow Crazy Ant has caused a decline in the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) population, but it has the potential to impact on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) in a variety of ways. It can attack the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) directly (although healthy individuals seem able to remove ants before serious injury occurs) and reduce its breeding success in ant-infested areas (in one study none of 33 breeding attempts observed in infested areas were successful). It could also compete with the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) for food (Davis 2002; TSSC 2005ap).

The Yellow Crazy Ant could also impact on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) indirectly. One potential mechanism for this could be the elimination of the dominant Red Crab Gecarcoidea natalis from areas of native rainforest. This is because, in the absence of the Red Crab, the seeds that are normally eaten by the crab germinate and produce a dense layer of seedlings on the normally much more open rainforest floor. This change in the structure of the rainforest makes it more difficult for the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) to seek food on the ground, and could possibly result in long-term changes in the structure and composition, and perhaps suitability, of the rainforest habitat (O'Dowd et al. 1999; TSSC 2005ap). The elimination of the Red Crab might also allow introduced predators such as Black Rats (which are known to have caused the extinction of the Island Thrush on other islands) and cats to increase in abundance in which instance predation pressure on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) could increase (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005ap).

The Yellow Crazy Ant could also impact on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) indirectly through its mutually-beneficial relationship with scale insects. Populations of scale insects can increase greatly in the presence of the Yellow Crazy Ant, and large populations of scale insects can have detrimental effects on the rainforest canopy. The degradation of the canopy could result in a change in the composition of the rainforest, and this in turn could reduce the suitability of the rainforest for the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) (O'Dowd et al. 1999; TSSC 2005ap).

The Yellow Crazy Ant was introduced to Christmas Island between 1915 and 1934. Its distribution on the island expanded after its introduction and, prior to the implementation of an island-wide aerial baiting campaign in September 2002, it occupied 24.4% of the native rainforest on Christmas Island (TSSC 2005ap). The potential for the the Yellow Crazy Ant to impact on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) has been demonstrated by a study which showed that the abundance of juvenile Island Thrushes (Christmas Island) is reduced by 84%, and breeding success is reduced to nil, in areas of rainforest that have been invaded by the Yellow Crazy Ant. Furthermore, the same study also found that some behaviours exhibited by the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) are altered in areas of rainforest that are infested with ants. This appears to be because the habit of the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) to perch in low vegetation and forage on the ground, where densities of the Yellow Crazy Ant are greatest, makes the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) susceptible to harassment or attack by the Yellow Crazy Ant (Davis 2002; TSSC 2005ap).

In 2000 it was speculated that Island Thrush (Christmas Island) numbers would decline by more than 80% over three generations (12 years) in the face of the rapidly expanding Yellow Crazy Ant population (Garnett & Crowley 2000). This outcome has been averted, at least in the short term, by the implementation of an island-wide aerial baiting campaign in September 2002 that reduced the activity of Yellow Crazy Ant colonies by 98 to 100% and, consequently, greatly reduced the potential of the Yellow Crazy Ant to impact on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) and its habitat (TSSC 2005ap). However, the aim of the baiting program was to control, rather than eradicate, the Yellow Crazy Ant population, and the reformation of some small supercolonies, and the formation of some new colonies, has been reported (TSSC 2005ap).

The extinction of other subspecies of the Island Thrush on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island suggests that the Island Thrush (including, probably, the Christmas Island subspecies) is susceptible to extinction and that its status should therefore be monitored.

The following recovery actions have been implemented:

  • Research has been conducted on the Yellow Crazy Ant on Christmas Island, and a management strategy for the ant has been developed. Measures introduced to control the ant on Christmas Island include a successful island-wide aerial baiting campaign that was implemented in September 2002 (Davis 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Slip 2002; TSSC 2005ap). In addition, a threat abatement plan has recently been prepared to guide the management and control of introduced tramp ants (including the Yellow Crazy Ant) in Australia and its territories (Commonwealth of Australia 2006).

The following recovery actions have been recommended:

  • Continue to employ measures to control the spread and abundance of the Yellow Crazy Ant (Garnett & Crowley 2000; TSSC 2005ap).

There have not been any major studies on the Island Thrush (Christmas Island).

No recovery, conservation or threat abatement plans have been prepared for the Island Thrush (Christmas Island). However, a brief recovery outline for the Island Thrush (Christmas Island) appears in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The Threat Abatement Plan to Reduce the Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories has been prepared to guide the management and control of introduced tramp ants (including the Yellow Crazy Ant) in Australia and its territories (Commonwealth of Australia 2006).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Island Thrush (Christmas Island) (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005w) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Anoplolepis gracilipes (Yellow Crazy Ant, Gramang Ant, Long-legged Ant, Maldive Ant) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Island Thrush (Christmas Island) (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005w) [Listing Advice].

Andrews, C.W. (1900). A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). London: British Museum (Natural History).

Birds Australia (2006a). Personal communication. November 2006.

Carter, M. (1994). Birds of Australia's Christmas Island. Wingspan. 13:18-21.

Carter, M. (2000b). Christmas Island, Western Australia. Australian Birding Magazine. 6 (3,4):23-24.

Clement, P. & R. Hathway (2000). Thrushes. Christopher Helm, London.

Commonwealth of Australia (2002). Third Christmas Island National Park Management Plan. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Commonwealth of Australia (2006). Threat Abatement Plan to Reduce the Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage.

Craig, M. (1996). Birding on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Western Australian Bird Notes. 78:14-16.

Davis, N. (2002). The Invasive Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: Impacts on the Frugivorous Bird Fauna. Hons. Thesis. Honours thesis, Monash University.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006p). Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/trampants.html.

Doughty, C. (2003). The birds of Christmas Island. Bird Observer. 824:14-15.

Environment Australia (2002i). Christmas Island National Park Management Plan. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1947). Notes on the birds of Christmas Island. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum. 18:87-165.

Gibson-Hill, C.A. (1949b). The birds of the Cocos-Keeling Islands (Indian Ocean). Ibis. 91:221-243.

Hansbro, P. (2000). Observations from Christmas Island, 25 December 1999 to 1 January 2000. Australian Birding. 6(3,4):25, 28.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & S.J. Cowling, eds. (2006a). Boatbill to Starlings. In: Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. 7. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

James, D.J. (2007). Personal communication. January 2007, Department of the Environment and Water Resources.

James, D.J. & K. Retallick (2007). Forest Birds of Christmas Island: A Baseline Survey of Abundance. Parks Australia North Christmas Island Biodiversity Monitoring Programme. Canberra, ACT: Department of Finance and Administration and the Department of the Environment and Water Resources.

O'Dowd, D.J., P.T. Green, & P.S. Lake (1999). Status, impact and recommendations for research and management of exotic invasive ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions, Monash University.

Reville, B.J. (1993). A Visitor's Guide to the Birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. In: second edition. Christmas Island Natural History Association, Christmas Island.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Slip, D. (2002). Invasive Ants on Christmas Island Action Plan, February 2000-February 2003. Parks Australia North, Christmas Island.

Stokes, T. (1988). A review of the birds of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Occasional Paper.

Stokes, T. (1994). An update on birds of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin. 405:1-6.

Stokes, T., W. Sheils & K. Dunn (1984). Birds of the Cocos - Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Emu. 84:23-28.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2005ap). NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Island Thrush (Christmas Island) (Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/turdus-poliocephalus-eurythropleurus.html#conservation.

van Tets, G.F. (1975). A report on the conservation of resident birds on Christmas Island. Bulletin of the International Council for Bird Preservation. 12:238-242.

van Tets, G.F. & P.A. van Tets (1967). A report on the resident birds of Christmas Island. Emu. 66:309-317.

Voous, K.H. (1964). Notes on a collection of birds from Christmas Island. Nytt Magasin for Zoologi. 12:38-47.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 14:51:06 +1000.