Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (01/07/2002) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2002c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Critically Endangered (PE) (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta [67099]
Family Cinclosomatidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Schodde & Mason, 1999
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta.

Common name: Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges).

Other names: At the species level, the Spotted Quail-thrush has also been known as the Spotted Ground-thrush, Spotted Babbling-thrush, Spotted Groundbird, Spotted-shouldered Thrush, Babbling Ground-dove, Babbling Ground-thrush, Babbling Groundbird, Babbling Thrush, Ground Dove, Ground Thrush, and Groundbird (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is a conventionally accepted subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Higgins & Peter 2002; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is about 24 to 30 cm long. It has a wingspan of about 32 to 40 cm, and a mass of about 85 to 145 g. The adult male and the adult female are both olive-brown above with bold black streaks, and white below with a grey breast, yellow-brown flanks and bold black streaks and spots along the sides of the body. The sexes differ markedly in appearance in adult and immature plumages, but are alike in juvenile plumage. The differences between the sexes in adult and immature plumages are numerous and complex, but essentially consist of a more complex and intensely coloured pattern of markings in the male (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) has been recorded singly, in pairs, and in small family groups (Bransbury 1984; Close 1972; McGilp 1930; Schodde 1954).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is confined to the Mount Lofty Ranges in South Australia (Schodde & Mason 1999). It was last recorded in 1981 near Spring Mount Conservation Park (Pickett 2007, pers. comm.). The last published records were obtained in 1977 when it was reported near Ashbourne and at Waitpinga Conservation Park, Spring Mount Forest and Parawa (Blakers et al. 1984; Bransbury 1984; Higgins & Peter 2002). The only other records since the early 1960s are of two birds observed at Clarendon Ridge until 1963, and single birds observed near Happy Valley around 1963, at Deep Creek Conservation Park around 1964, in the Mount Crawford area of Warren Conservation Park in 1965 and around 1969, and at Onkaparinga Gorge, near Clarendon, in 1972 (Close 1972). The limited records since 1977 suggests that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is probably extinct (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The extent of occurrence has been estimated, with low reliability, to be 10 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the absence of any records since 1981 (a single breeding record) (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Pickett 2007, pers. comm.) suggests that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is probably extinct (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Its distribution in the Mount Lofty Ranges formerly extended from Para Wirra Recreation Park and Williamstown, or possibly from as far north as Angaston, south to Encounter Bay and Cape Jervis (Blakers et al. 1984; Clarke 1967; Cleland 1924; Ford 1983).

The area of occupancy has been estimated, with low reliability, to be 1 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

If the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is extant, it is likely to be confined to a single, small location (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

There are no captive populations of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) has been poorly surveyed. There have not been any published targeted surveys for this subspecies. There have, however, been a number of general surveys of avifauna in the Mount Lofty Ranges (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Paton et. al. 1994; SAOA 1977) that, with the exception of a few records in 1977 (Blakers et al. 1984), and a single breeding record in 1981 (Garnett & Crowley 2000), have been unsuccessful in locating any Spotted Quail-thrushes (Mount Lofty Ranges).

The population size of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) has been estimated, with low reliability, to consist of 10 adult birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the absence of any records since 1981 (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Pickett 2007, pers. comm.) suggests that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is probably extinct (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

If the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is still extant, it is likely to occur in single, small, intra-breeding population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) was 'fairly numerous' and 'fairly common' early in the 20th century (McGilp 1922; North 1901-1904). The subspecies became rare by the 1930s (Ashby 1932) (although birds were still present at Mitcham and Happy Valley, and on the western Fleurieu Peninsula [Rix 1942; Symon 1940; Wade 1938]) and very rare by the 1950s (Terrill & Rix 1950). It was recorded on only a few occasions in the 1960s and 1970s (Blakers et al. 1984; Bransbury 1984; Close 1972) and was last recorded in 1981 (Blakers et al. 1984; Bransbury 1984; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Pickett 2007, pers. comm.). If the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is still extant, it is likely to be in decline and at extreme risk of becoming extinct (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is probably extinct. If an extant population survives it is likely to be very small (Garnett & Crowley 2000), and therefore if any population is found in the future it will obviously be crucial to the long-term survival of the subspecies.

The generation length is estimated, with low reliability, to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) and the other recognised subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, or between the Spotted Quail-thrush and any other species of bird. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs in the wild because the known distribution of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) does not overlap with the known distributions of the other two subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, or with the known distributions of any other members of the genus Cinclosoma (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The few records of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) obtained in the 1960s and 1970s include sightings in Deep Creek Conservation Park, Waitpinga Conservation Park and Warren Conservation Park (Bransbury 1984; Close 1972). The final record of the subspecies was obtained in 1981 near Spring Mount Conservation Park (Pickett 2007, pers. comm.).

There is little published information on the habitat of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges). Based on the few details available, it occurs in sclerophyll woodlands that are dominated by Eucalyptus trees (especially E. fasciculosa and peppermints) and have sparse understorey vegetation, and in heathlands (Clarke 1967; Cleland 1924; Close 1972; Schodde 1954; Terrill & Rix 1950). It has been recorded in a valley (Schodde 1954), in a gorge and across a ridge (Close 1972) which suggests that, like the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Ford 1983; Green 1995), it probably exhibits a preference for woodlands on stony slopes and ridges.

No information is available on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality in the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges). However, the nominate subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, C. p. punctatum, is capable of surviving to more than four years of age (Marchant 1992), and it is likely that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) has a similar life expectancy.

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) produces clutches of eggs from August to November (Ford 1983). The few clutches that have been recorded have contained two or three eggs (Ashby 1932; McGilp 1922; Pickett 2007, pers. comm.). The eggs are a rich stone colour and are marked with spots and blotches, mainly in a zone around the broader end (Ashby 1932). There is a single unpublished record of a nest in a Eucalyptus fasciculosa tree (Pickett 2007, pers. comm.). The breeding biology of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is otherwise unrecorded, although it is likely to be similar to that of the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, summarised below.

Based on observations of the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, C. p. punctatum and C. p. dovei, the Spotted Quail-thrush builds a cup-shaped nest of grass, leaves, bark, roots and twigs. The nest is placed on the ground, often in a shallow depression, in the shelter of a log or large stone, or at the base of a fern, shrub, tree or tussock of grass (Higgins & Peter 2002; Howe 1931; North 1901-1904). Clutches consist of two or three (or, in C. p. dovei, occasionally four or five) eggs (Campbell 1900; Higgins & Peter 2002; Howe 1931; North 1901-1904). The eggs are incubated by the female only for a period of about 14 days (Howe 1931). The nestlings are fed by both parents (Higgins & Peter 2002). They depart the nest about 14 days after hatching (Howe 1931) and continue to be fed by both parents for an unknown period of time (Higgins & Peter 2002). Pairs are claimed to rear two, and possibly sometimes three, broods in a season (Howe 1931; North 1901-1904).

Like the other better-known subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) probably nests on the ground and, as such, is likely to be vulnerable to native and introduced terrestrial predators (including feral cats Felis catus and foxes Vulpes vulpes), and to disturbance caused by dogs Canis familiaris and humans (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Paton 2002, pers. comm.). The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) was shot by humans (Boles 1988), but there are no other published records of predators. Predators of the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush include Spotted-tailed Quolls Dasyurus maculatus, Eastern Quolls D. viverrinus, feral cats Felis catus and Laughing Kookaburras Dacelo novaeguineae (Higgins & Peter 2002; Napier 1969). Feral Cats and Laughing Kookaburras occur within the known distribution of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) (Higgins 1999; Strahan 2004). Spotted-tailed Quolls and Eastern Quolls formerly occurred within the known distribution of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges), but each of these species is now extinct in the Mount Lofty Ranges (Pickett 2007, pers. comm.; Strahan 2004).

The diet of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) consists of insects (including grasshoppers and beetles) and the seeds of grasses, sedges, legumes and other plants (including species of Acacia and Avena) (Lea & Gray 1935). The bones of a small unidentified vertebrate have been recorded amongst the stomach contents of the nominate subspecies, C. p. punctatus (Lea & Gray 1935), and it is possible that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) may also take similar items.

The foraging behaviour of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) has not been recorded. However, the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush forage on the ground, by turning over pieces of litter (such as bark, leaves and small sticks), and by picking food items from grass stems and other low vegetation (Fletcher 1909; Green 1995; Hyem 1953). It is likely that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) forages in a similar manner.

The movements of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) are unknown. However, the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush are mostly reported to be resident or sedentary (Higgins & Peter 2002). It is likely that the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is also a resident or sedentary subspecies.

No information is available on home ranges or territories of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges). However, a banded male of the nominate subspecies C. p. punctatum remained within an area of about 6 ha during a period of more than four years (Marchant 1992) and, in mature Eucalyptus forest at Boola Boola State Forest in Victoria, territories of the nominate subspecies C. p. punctatum were recorded at a density of 0.22 territories per ha (Loyn 1980). It is likely that the home ranges and territories of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) are of a similar size.

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is a highly distinctive bird that, within its known range, is unlikely to be confused with any other species (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is an elusive bird (Cleland 1924) and, like the other subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, is probably also shy, unobtrusive and wary (Higgins & Peter 2002). On the basis of this information, it is presumed to be somewhat difficult to detect.

The recommended method to survey for the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) is to conduct area searches or transect-point surveys in suitable habitat. The birds can be detected by sight or by call. It is recommended that surveys be conducted early in the morning, when calls are likely to be most frequent (Littler 1910a; Marchant 1992), and in the breeding season, when males are likely to call from elevated perches (Frith 1969; Marchant 1992).

The decline and probable extinction of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) has mainly been attributed to the loss, fragmentation and degradation of its habitat (Close 1972; Ford & Howe 1980; Garnett & Crowley 2000). This has primarily been caused by habitat clearance (only about 10% of native vegetation remains intact in the Mount Lofty Ranges) (Close 1972; Ford & Howe 1980). However, wildfires (especially the severe Ash Wednesday fires of 1983) are also likely to have eliminated at least some birds and areas of habitat; and the close proximity of human settlement to the Mount Lofty Ranges may have caused nearby Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) habitat to become degraded, and may also have exposed the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) to increased levels of predation by feral cats and foxes, and increased levels of disturbance by dogs and humans (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Paton 2002, pers. comm.). It is probable that the invasion of its habitat by noxious weeds also contributed to the decline of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) (Paton 2002, pers. comm.).

The following actions have been recommended (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but none of these actions have been implemented:

  • Survey potential habitat, especially in the area of the last sighting.
  • Develop a contingency plan in the event that the subspecies is rediscovered.
  • Establish a captive population of the much more common nominate subspecies C. p. punctatum (presumably to assist in the development of suitable husbandry techniques).
  • If rediscovered, capture some progeny to establish a captive breeding population.

A brief assessment of the Spotted Quail-thrush (Mount Lofty Ranges) and its threats and management is included in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering natural materials:Removal of bush rocks Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat clearance for rural, peri-urban and urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Spotted Quail-thrush (Mt Lofty Ranges)) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002b) [Listing Advice].

Ashby, E. (1932). Bird notes. South Australian Ornithologist. 11:232-233.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Boles, W.E. (1988). The Robins and Flycatchers of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

Bransbury, J. (1984). Bird Report, 1977-1981. South Australian Ornithologist. 29:121-168.

Campbell, A.J. (1900). Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield, Private.

Clarke, G. (1967). Birds of Para Wirra National Park. South Australian Ornithologist. 24:119-134.

Cleland, J.B. (1924). The birds of the Encounter Bay district. South Australian Ornithologist. 7:172-184.

Fletcher, J.A. (1908). Bird notes from Cleveland, Tasmania. Emu. 9:79-83.

Ford, H. & R. Howe (1980). The future of birds in the Mount Lofty Ranges. South Australian Ornithologist. 28:85-89.

Ford, J. (1983). Evolutionary ecology and ecological relationships between quail-thrushes. Emu. 83:152-172.

Frith, H.J. (1969). Birds in the Australian High Country. Sydney: Reed.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Green, R.H. (1995). The Fauna of Tasmania: Birds. Launceston, Tasmania: Potoroo Publishing.

Higgins, P.J., ed. (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 4: Parrots to Dollarbird. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter, eds. (2002). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 6: Pardalotes to Shrike-thrushes. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Howe, F.E. (1931). Some observations on the domestic economy of the Genus Cinclosoma (Quail Thrushes). Emu. 30:292-295.

Hyem, E.L. (1953). Notes on the nesting of the Spotted Quail-Thrush. Emu. 53:273-276.

Lea, A.M. & J.T. Gray (1935). The food of Australian birds: an analysis of the stomach contents. Part 2. Emu. 35:63-98.

Littler, F.M. (1910a). A Handbook of the Birds of Tasmania and its Dependencies. Launceston: Published privately.

Loyn, R.H. (1980). Bird populations in a mixed eucalypt forest used for production of wood in Gippsland, Victoria. Emu. 80:145-156.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marchant, S. (1992). A bird observatory at Moruya, NSW 1975-84. Eurobodalla Natural History Society.

McGilp, J.N. (1922). Notes by the late Dr. Angove, Tea-tree Gully, S.A. South Australian Ornithologist. 6:114-118.

McGilp, L.K. (1930). Bird notes. South Australian Ornithologist. 10:174.

Napier, J.R. (1969). Birds of the Break O'Day Valley, Tasmania. Australian Bird Watcher. 3:179-192.

North, A.J. (1901-1904). Nests and Eggs of Birds Found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania Special Catalogue 1. Volume 1. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Paton, D.C. (2002). Personal communication. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide.

Paton, D.C., G. Carpenter & R.G. Sinclair (1994). A second bird atlas of the Adelaide region. Part 1: Changes in the distributions of birds: 1974-75 versus 1984-85. South Australian Ornithologist. 31:151-193.

Pickett, M. (2007). Personal communication.

Rix, C.E. (1942). Additions to the birds of the Happy Valley district with a further record of Hylacola pyrrhopygia. South Australian Ornithologist. 16:40-41.

Schodde, R. (1954). Trip to national park, Belair. South Australian Ornithologist. 21:35.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1999). The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

South Australian Ornithological Association (SAOA) (1977). A Bird Atlas of the Adelaide Region. South Australian Ornithological Association, Adelaide.

Strahan, R., ed. (2002). The Mammals of Australia, second edition. Sydney Australian Museum/Reed New Holland.

Symon, O. (1940). Some birds of the western part of the Fleurieu Peninsula. South Australian Ornithologist. 15:68-72.

Terrill, S.E. & C.E. Rix (1950). The birds of South Australia: their distribution and habitat. South Australian Ornithologist. 19:53-100.

Wade, H. (1938). Bird notes. South Australian Ornithologist. 14:232.

Willson, A. & J. Bignall (2009). Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/adelaide-and-mount-lofty-ranges.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 09:15:58 +1000.