Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, key biological and ecological characteristics of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo combined with the ongoing threats of habitat loss, competition for nest hollows and injury/death by European Honeybees and nest hollow shortage and competition from other species indicate that the species can be better managed with a recovery plan in place (26/05/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Referral guidelines for three species of Western Australian black cockatoos (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012p) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (77) (26/05/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009k) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Calyptorhynchus banksii naso [67034]
Family Cacatuidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Gould, 1837
Reference http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/2384/482/
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Calyptorhynchus bankssi naso

Common name: Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo

Other names: Karrak (Noongar), Red-Tailed Black Cockatoo (south-western)


The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo was originally named Psittacus banksii (Latham 1790) from a specimen collected at Endeavour River in Queensland (Higgins 1999). The south-west subspecies, Calyptorynchus banksii naso, was first recognised and described by Gould in 1836. Ford (1980) examined the morphological and ecological divergence and convergence in isolated populations of the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (C. banksii) and supported the recognition of the south-west subspecies of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (C. b. naso). Other C. banksii subspecies include (Cameron 2007):

  • C. b. graptogyne from western Victoria and south-east South Australia, listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act
  • C. b. banksii from northern and eastern Queensland and north-east New South Wales (NSW)
  • C. b. macrorhynchus from the Northern Territory and Kimberley
  • C. b. samueli from central Australia including south-west Queensland, inland NSW and mid-west WA.

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is 55-60 cm in length and 570-870 g in weight (Higgins 1999). Males and females are mostly glossy black with a pair of black central tail feathers, a crest, robust bill and bright red, orange or yellow barring in the tail (Higgins 1999). Males are distinguished by broad red tail panels that are only visible when taking off or alighting (Higgins 1999). They have a dark brown iris, dark grey eye-ring and blackish legs. Females are distinguished by yellow or whitish spots on the feathers of the head and upper wing coverts. Their tail feathers are bright red and orange, grading to yellow on the inner margins, and have variable black horizontal barring. Females have yellow or orange barring on the tips of the feathers of the throat, breast, belly and under-tail coverts and a light grey bill with a dark grey tip (Johnstone & Storr 1998). The juvenile is similar to the adult female but has a white eye-ring (Higgins 1999; Johnstone & Storr 1998). The subspecies voice is a loud cry of 'Karee' or 'Krar-raak' (Johnstone & Storr 1998).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is endemic to south-west WA in an area bounded by Gingin, Mt Helena, Christmas Tree Well, West Dale (rarely to Brookton), North Bannister (rarely to Wandering), Mt Saddleback, Kojonup, Rocky Gully, upper King River and Green Range (east of Albany) (Johnstone & Storr 1998). The subspecies is now absent from north of Perth to Dandaragan (Johnstone 1997), some inland areas (e.g. Toodyay) (Johnstone & Storr 1998) and only occurs as tiny breeding populations on the Swan Coastal Plain (Baldivis, Stakehill, Lake Mclarty and Capel) that is considered inviable in the long term (Johnstone pers. comm. cited in Garnett et at. 2011). The subspecies has been rare on the Swan Coastal Plain since the early 1900s (Alexander 1921), but, more recently, they can now be found on the plain at any time of year in search of the White Cedar (Melia azedarach) foraging habitat (Stranger 1997).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is most common in the northern Darling Range from about Collie north to Mundaring and is very local throughout the lower south-west (Garnett et al. 2011). It inhabits vegetation that is fairly continuous due to the connectivity of state forest timber reserves, however, quality of habitat within this are is not consistent and there are several small isolated populations on the Swan Coastal Plain and in the eastern parts of its range (WA CALM 2006). Extreme fluctuations have been observed in regional population numbers, particularly on the eastern side of their range when birds migrate to wetter areas or in response to food availability (TSSC 2009s). Population fluctuations have also occurred in response to large scale fires (Chapman 2005; WA CALM 2006).

The Forest Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo's extent of occurrence is 61 000 km² with a stable trend (Garnett et al. 2011). This estimate is of high reliability (Garnett et al. 2011). The subspecies has disappeared from 30% of its former range, has suffered a marked decline in numbers since the 1950s (Johnstone et al. 2013a; Mawson & Johnstone 1997) and a 14% decline in density has been suggested in areas that have been partially cleared (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Declines are attributed to the destruction and fragmentation of habitat (especially Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) - Marri (Corymbia calophylla) forest) (Johnstone et al. 2013a), and the decline in Marri along the eastern side of the Darling Scarp (possibly due to climate change), logging, the impact of competitors for nest hollows, and fire (Chapman 2008; Garnett et al. 2011). Declines, based on past, present and future threats, are estimated to be 30-49% over three generations (58 years), which is likely to be due to increasing competition and deteriorating habitat quality (Garnett et al. 2011). The subspecies' area of occupancy is estimated to be 20 000 km², which is an estimate of low reliability (Garnett et al. 2011).

No information is available on captive populations of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, however, there is evidence of injured individuals (by car strike or barbed wire entanglement) being rehabilitated and released into wild by the Cockatoo Rehabilitation Centre in Martin (WA DEC 2009a).

Johnstone and colleagues (2013, 2013a) and Johnstone and Kirkby (2008) undertook extensive surveys between 1993 and 2010 in south-west WA. Their studies located 128 nest trees and site/nest characteristics were measured. The WA Government undertook surveys in spring and summer between 1995-2000: the first two surveys (1995-1997) yielded 615 records or about 2000 birds in each survey (Abbott 1998a, 1998b); the number of individuals sighted in the third survey (1999-2000) is unknown.

The Cockatoo Care Program, a partnership between the Western Australian Museum and the Water Corporation, has also collected over 4500 records from 'community observation cards' and 'frequent sighting forms' (Johnstone & Kirkby 2005).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo was formerly common, but is now rare to uncommon and patchily distributed (Johnstone et al. 2013a). The subspecies' current population is estimated to be 15 000 birds, with a declining trend (Garnett et al. 2011). This is an estimate of medium reliability (Garnett et al. 2011). In the late 1990s, the population was also estimated to be 15 000 birds (Abbott 1998b; Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). Up to 2006, the subspecies had been sighted at over 130 locations (WA CALM 2006).

Only about 10% of birds are thought to breed annually, and productivity is often low (Garnett et al. 2011). In 2008, no breeding occurred in over 80 monitored nests and no juveniles were detected in flocks; 2006 was also a poor breeding year (Johnstone cited in Garnett et al. 2011).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo has been sighted in the Blackwood River National Park, D'Entrecasteaux National Park, John Forest National Park, Leeuwin Naturaliste National Park, Scott National Park and Stirling Ranges National Park. It has also been sighted in over 100 state forest timber reserves (WA CALM 2006).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo inhabits the dense Jarrah, Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) and Marri forests receiving more than 600 mm average rainfall annually (Saunders et al. 1985; Saunders & Ingram 1995), mainly in the hilly interior (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Although most records are in Jarrah-Marri forests, the subspecies has been observed in a range of other forest and woodland types, including Blackbutt (E. patens), Wandoo (E. wandoo), Tuart (E. gomphocephala), Albany Blackbutt (E. staeri), Yate (E. cornuta) and Flooded Gum (E. rudis) (Abbott 1998a, 1998b).

Understorey composition is not a determining factor for the presence of the species, however, at a study of 128 nest sites, the following vegetation associations were observed at sites where 88 of the nest trees occurred (Johnstone et al. 2013a):

Overstorey Understorey Number of nests observed
Jarrah/Marri Mixed understorey of Balga (Xanthorrhoea spp.), Kingia (Kingia australis) and Snottygobble (Persoonia spp.) 51
Jarrah/Marri Parrot Bush (Banksia sessillis) 19
Jarrah/Marri Holly-leaved Mirbelia (Mirbelia dilatata) 4
Jarrah/Marri Bull Banksia (Banksia grandis) 4
Open Jarrah/Marri/Wandoo Absent 3
Bullich Taxandria spp. 3
Jarrah/Marri Sheoak (Allocasuarina fraseriana) 2
Jarrah/Marri Open parkland 1

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo have been observed breeding at less than four years old (Chapman 2005). The subspecies has an estimated life expectancy of 34.4 years and generation length of 19 years (Garnett et al. 2011).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is monogamous and pairs probably form a lifetime bond (Smith & Saunders 1986). Breeding has been recorded in every month with peaks in autumn-winter (April-June) and spring (August-October) (Johnstone et al. 2013). Breeding varies between years (e.g. few breeding events were observed in 1999, 2001 and 2008; but many in 2006 and 2009) and occurs at times of Jarrah and Marri fruiting (Johnstone et al. 2013).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo mainly nests in old veteran and stag Marri, often nesting in clusters in the landscape, in deep hollows at a mean height of 14.5 m with a broad floor space (Johnstone et al. 2013a). A survey of 128 nests (in large tree hollows) found 95% were in living Marri that were older than 209 years and the remainder in dead Marri, live Jarrah, live Blackbutt, live Bullich (E. megacarpa), live Wandoo and dead trees of unknown species (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Trees were generally much larger than surrounding trees or in an area with remnant old trees. Trees ranged in height from 8.3-43 m (mean 20.24 m) the circumference at breast height from 1.5-5.4 m (mean 2.89 m) and an estimate of tree age from 119-419 years (mean 221.68) (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Nesting may take place only when Marri is fruiting heavily (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). In many settings, nests were clumped in remnant patches of veteran Marri with 19 nests within a 230 m radius at one site. Nests were generally characterised as high in the tree (mean 14.49 m), deep and with a broad floor. Hollows higher in trees possibly reduce the risk of predation from terrestrial fauna. Loss of nest trees was estimated at 16.6% per decade, which was the result of wind fall, fire or bulldozing in fire clean-up (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Nests have been observed to have up to seven separate clutches (Johnstone et al. 2013).

The effective clutch size of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is one. Two eggs are sometimes (but rarely) laid, but only one chick fledges (Johnstone & Storr 1998). In captivity, the female may lay again if the first egg fails to hatch (Lendon 1979), but this has not been recorded for wild birds (Chapman 2005). The eggs are laid on woodchips or charcoal and the female incubates the egg (Johnstone & Storr 1998). During the incubation period, the male feeds with the flock and flies back to the nest to feed the female once or twice a day (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). During the nestling stage the female feeds outside the nest (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). The incubation period is 29-31 days and the nestling period is 75-85 days (Johnstone 1997).

The young are fed by the parents for 3-4 months after fledging (Lendon 1979; Sindel & Lynn 1989) and juvenile birds may take up to a year to learn how to extract seed from Marri fruits, during which time they are fed by both parents (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). It is probable that less than 10% of the population of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are be capable of breeding in any one year (Johnstone & Kirkby 2005) and birds may only breed every 2-3 years. Breeding success for the subspecies has been described as low and, in 2007, only one pair successfully raised a chick out of 60 recorded breeding events (Johnstone 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009s). More recently, an estimated fledging success of 60% was recorded (Johnstone et al. 2013).

Ninety percent of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo total diet consists of Marri and Jarrah seeds (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999), and it depends on both feed trees during breeding periods (Johnstone et al. 2013). Other feed trees include Blackbutt, Albany Blackbutt (E. staeri), Forest Sheoak (Allocasuarina torulosa), Snottygobble (Persoonia spp.) and the non-indigenous native Spotted Gum (E. maculata) and Cape Lilac (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999; Johnstone & Storr 1998). Marri trees with a high fruit yield in one year require at least three years to replenish sufficient resources to fruit successfully again (Cooper et al. 2003; Mawson 1995a).

A detailed study of the food and feeding behaviour of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo was conducted at Bungendore Park and Jarrahdale between 1996-99 (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). During the study, the birds fed on Marri throughout the year but switched to Jarrah and other foods in March and June when Marri fruits were less abundant. The subspecies also appeared to return to individual trees to feed, on a daily basis, until the supply of fruit was exhausted (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). The production of Marri fruit takes about 17 months from bud initiation (Mawson 1995a). In most years, only about 20-50% of Marri trees produce a large crop of fruits and a small proportion of the trees produce only male flowers, which fail to fruit (Mawson 1995a). The slow and patchy flowering and seeding of Marri trees highlights the need for foraging habitat to consist of a mosaic of tree species and age classes.

Flocks of up to 50 individuals (Abbott 1998a) spend the night roosting in trees and leave at sunrise, splitting into smaller family groups, of around 10 birds, and moving into adjacent forest. After a short period of preening and basking in the sunlight they feed for 10-12 hours before moving off to creeks or dams to drink. On dark, they return to their roosts (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999).

Based on body weight/home range equations derived from many bird species, the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (body weight about 600 g) has a predicted breeding home range of about 116-187 ha (Abbott 2001a). The seasonal movements of the subspecies are irregular (Sedgwick 1949a).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo cannot be confused with any other bird species in south-west WA. It is the only large black bird with scarlet/vermilion feathers on the tail. It also has a discordant but distinctive call resembling 'kar-rark' (Abbott 2001a). The bill of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is significantly longer and wider than WA's Inland Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii samuelii) (Ford 1980).

Habitat assessment
Habitat assessment is the primary technique used to determine use of an area by the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo. Assessmant includes the extent, type and quality of the vegetation present, including the presence and extent of plants known to be used by the species. In potential breeding habitat measurements of the DBH of trees in the patch of woodland/forest can be made to determine if the habitat could be breeding habitat. Surveys for foraging habitat should be undertaken in any remaining vegetation containing proteaceous heath/woodland, eucalypt woodlands or forest (particularly Marri and Jarrah forest) and in areas dominated by Pinus spp.

Targeted surveys
Given their mobility and reliance on varying habitat during and between years, short-term surveys are unlikely to give a true representation of habitat use by the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.

The following tables give guidance to conducting surveys aimed at detecting the presence of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo at a site. The methodology was developed during a workshop in 2008 (Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop 2008). Consideration should be given to the timing, effort, methods and area to be covered. If surveys are conducted outside recommended periods or conditions, survey methods and effort should be adjusted to compensate for the decreased likelihood of detecting the birds. Surveys should be conducted by a suitably qualified person with experience in surveying for black cockatoos.

  Survey target
Nests Foraging habitat Roosts
Overview Should be conducted in likely breeding habitat, focusing on the hollows of large, mature nesting trees. Should be undertaken in any remnant vegetation containing proteaceous heath/woodland, eucalypt woodlands or forest (particularly Marri and Jarrah forest) and in areas dominated by Pinus spp. Roosts are generally located in the tallest trees in an area, mainly in Jarrah and Marri trees, within or on the edges of forests.
Aim To detect nesting females to confirm that breeding is taking place at the site. 1) To record the presence and extent of foraging habitat; 2) to detect foraging at the site; and 3) estimate the number of birds using the site. 1) To look for evidence that a roost site occurs on the site; 2) to detect roosting at the site; and, 3) estimate the number of birds using the roost.
Timing During the peak breeding season (October/November), although breeding is possible throughout the year. One survey in winter. Two further surveys in spring.
Exception: In Marri habitats, the best time to survey for black cockatoos is December to April with three surveys conducted during this period.
Daytime surveys can be made at any time of year to look for evidence that a roost site occurs on site; including habitat features such as tall trees in proximity to water and foraging habitat, records, cockatoo feathers and/or droppings. Following site assessment, dawn visits should be made at all likely roost sites in both the non-breeding season and peak breeding season.
Effort Over at least two suitable days, at approximately monthly intervals. A total of three surveys should be undertaken. A survey should consist of both morning and evening visits, for two hours after dawn and two hours before dusk. A minimum of two dawn surveys per season, at approximately monthly intervals, should be conducted over at least one hour on windless mornings in both the non-breeding and breeding seasons. A survey should consist of a visit to the site, at least 30 minutes before sunrise.
Additional Information Female birds may be flushed from the nest if the trunk of the tree is rubbed with a stick. For Forest Red-tail Black Cockatoos the presence of lone males may indicate there is a nest nearby. Breeding birds tend to forage near the nest during the breeding season. Surveys should note the distance, size and connectivity of remnant habitat patches in breeding areas (e.g. from satellite images). The presence of cockatoo droppings and feathers, or 'chewed' Banksia cones or Marri nuts, can indicate feeding by black cockatoos. The presence of cockatoo droppings and feathers, or 'chewed' Banksia cones or Marri nuts, can indicate feeding by black cockatoos. Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos must tear open the fruit casing to get to the seeds inside eucalypt fruit (similar to Carnaby's Black Cockatoo) (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999; Cooper 2000). This can be assessed at any time of year, as cones can remain on the ground for many months. Cones and nuts should be identified by a suitably qualified person. Different roosts may be used by birds during the non-breeding period and by non-breeding birds during breeding period. Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos may also use roosts while breeding. Surveys for roosts should be timed to detect use during either and/or both of these periods. The presence of cockatoo feathers and droppings at a site may indicate roosting.

Nest hollow shortage
Nest hollow shortage is the principal ongoing threat to the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Garnett et al. 2011), although the extent of the impact is unknown (TSSC 2009s). Trees with hollows large enough for use by the subspecies may need to be at least 209 years old (Johnstone et al. 2013a) and such trees are scarce and have been preferentially felled (Abbott & Whitford 2002 cited in Garnett et al. 2011; Chapman 2008). Only 10% of remnant vegetation remains in south-west WA and 16.6% of nest trees are lost per decade as the result of wind fall, fire and bulldozing in fire clean-up (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Wildfires can destroy habitat by causing older trees containing hollows to fall, reducing the amount of habitat available and reducing food availability.

Competition for hollows is severe with other cockatoos, including Carnaby's Black Cockatoo and corellas (Cacatua spp.), Wood Duck (Cheononetta jubatta) and, most significantly, feral populations of the European Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) (Johnstone et al. 2013a). European Honey Bees pose a significant threat to the ability of the subspecies to survive and breed, and this is likely to increase with the the southward movement of bees in response to the predicted warmer climate in south-west WA (Chapman 2008).

Some estimates of available nest hollows within suitable habitat (e.g. Abbott (1998b), Whitford and Williams (2002)) may have significantly over estimated the the actual number of nest trees available (Johnstone et al. 2013a). For instance, Jarrah was included in these studies. but this species is rarely used as a nest tree (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Similarly, hollows that look suitable from the ground may be unsuitable when assessed at height, and the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo may preferentially use hollows that are in close proximity to each other, rather than hollows throughout the landscape (Johnstone et al. 2013a).

Clearing
Habitat loss for agriculture, timber harvesting and mining is the principal cause of historic decline of the subspecies (Johnstone 1997; Mawson & Johnstone 1997). The long-term effects of habitat loss may not be fully realised due to the subspecies' longevity (Brouwer et al. 2000). In remaining habitat, selective removal of Marri for timber, mining and agriculture has resulted in further declines (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Traditional forestry practices such as clear felling and 80-year cut rotations restrict the availability of nest hollows (Saunders & Ingram 1995). More recent silvicultural practices prescribe that five primary habitat trees and 6–8 secondary habitat trees are retained per hectare during timber harvesting. The establishment of designated fauna habitat zones (excluded from logging) within each logging coupe also aims to increase the number of tree hollows protected in state forest reserves (WA EPA & WA CC 2003). However, not all large trees are suitable for nesting (TSSC 2009s), so adequate consideration must be given to assessing and modifying prescriptions as necessary.

Illegal Shooting
Illegal shooting is a historic threat (TSSC 2009s), but there is evidence of shooting throughout the 1990s and 2000s (Abbott 2001a; TSSC 2009s). During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos were shot for food, for sport and to obtain their tail feathers for ornamental and decorative purposes (Abbott 2001a). Reports of WA orchardists shooting the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo are received in most years and prosecutions for these actions are undertaken whenever sufficient evidence is available (TSSC 2009s).

Fire
Wildfires caused by lightning or arson are potentially a catastrophic threat to the subspecies. Wildfires can destroy habitat by causing older trees containing hollows to fall, reducing the amount of habitat available. Wildfires also temporarily reduce food availability and therefore could threaten the survival of the subspecies (WA CALM 2006).

Chapman (2008) and Garnett and colleagues (2011) suggest the following recovery actions for the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo:

  • Monitor the progress of recovery.
  • Determine and implement:
    • ways to minimise the impacts of mining
    • ways to manage forests for the conservation of the species
  • Develop and implement:
    • a management plan for the control and reduction of European Honey Bees
    • a communication strategy to stop illegal shooting and improve compliance with relevant legislation.
  • Identify factors affecting the number of breeding attempts and breeding success and manage nest hollows to increase recruitment.
  • Undertake research to better understand:
    • factors affecting the number of breeding attempts and breeding success
    • the relative impacts of threatening processes
    • the location of feeding and breeding habitat critical to survival
    • patterns and significance of movement
    • whether there are important population groups.
  • Maintain the Cockatoo Care program and use other opportunities to promote the recovery of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.

Johnstone and colleagues (2013a) suggest that clusters of old growth Marri trees (i.e. trees >200 years old) and trees in the next age bracket (>100 years) (that will replace the older trees) need to be protected in perpituity for the subspecies.

  • Ford (1980) studied the morphological and ecological divergence and convergence in isolated populations of the Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo.
  • Abbott (1998b) examined the hypothesis that a shortage of nest sites limits the distribution of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.
  • Johnstone and Kirkby (1999) investigated the diet of the subspecies.
  • Cooper and colleagues (2003) published the characteristics of Marri fruits in relation to foraging behaviour of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.
  • Johnstone and colleagues (2013, 2013a) undertook a 17 year study of nest tree and nest hollow characteristics, diet and feeding behaviour.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for recreational purposes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:illegal control Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by ducks Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Natural System Modifications:Indirect and direct habitat loss due to human activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].

Abbott, I. (1998a). Counting cockatoos: The status of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo. Landscope. 13 (2):10-16.

Abbott, I. (1998b). Conservation of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, a hollow-dependent species, in the eucalypt forests of Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management. 109:175-185.

Abbott, I. (2001a). Karrak watch: a summary of the information about the Forest Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo (FOREST RED-TAILED BLACK COCKATOO) of south-west Western Australia. [Online]. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://science.calm.wa.gov.au/articles/2001-10-04/. [Accessed: 18-Jun-2009].

Abbott, I. & K. Whitford (2002). Conservation of vertebrate fauna using hollows in forests of south-west Western Australia: strategic risk assessment in relation to ecology, policy, planning, and operations management. Pacific Conservation Biology. 7(4):240-255.

Alexander, W.B. (1921). The birds of the Swan River district. Emu. 20:149-168.

Brouwer, K., M.L. Jones, C.E. King & H. Schifter (2000). Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook. 37:299-316.

Cameron, M. (2007). Cockatoos. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Chapman, T. (2005). Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii) and Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Draft Recovery Plan, June 2005-June 2015 (Department of Conservation and Land Management: Perth). Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Chapman, T. (2008). Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan. [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/wa-forest-black-cockatoos.html.

Cooper, C. (2000). Food manipulation by southwest Australian cockatoos. Eclectus. 8:3-9.

Cooper, C.E., P.C.Mawson, R. Johnstone, T. Kirby, J. Prince, S.D. Bradshaw & H. Robertson (2003). Characteristics of marri (Corymbia calophylla) fruits in relation to the foraging behaviour of the forest red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso). Journal of the Royal Societ of Western Australia. 86(4):139-142.

Ford, J. (1980). Morphological and ecological divergence and convergence in isolated populations of the Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo. Emu. 80:103-120.

Garnett, S., J. Szabo & G. Dutson (2011). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Higgins, P.J. (ed.) (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Four - Parrots to Dollarbird. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Johnstone, R.E. (1997). Current studies on three endemic Western Australian cockatoos. Eclectus. 3:34--35.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Perth, Western Australia: West Australian Museum.

Johnstone, R.E. & T. Kirkby (1999). Food of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso in south-west Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist. 22:167-177.

Johnstone, R.E. & T. Kirkby (2005). Cockatoos in crisis. Landscope. 21(2):59-61.

Johnstone, R.E. & T. Kirkby (2008). Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in South-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 25:107-118.

Johnstone, R.E., T. Kirkby & K. Sarti (2013). The breeding biology of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso Gould in south-western Australia. II. Breeding behaviour and diet. Pacific Conservation Biology. 19(3). 143-55.

Johnstone, R.E., T. Kirkby & K. Sarti (2013a). The breeding biology of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso Gould in south-western Australia. 1. Characteristics of nest trees and nest hollows. Pacific Conservation Biology. 19(3). 121-42.

Latham, J. (1790). Index ornithologicus sive systema ornithologiae. General Synopsis of Birds. 1:107.

Lendon, A.H. (1979). Australian Parrots in Field and Aviary. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Mawson, P. & R. Johnstone (1997). Conservation status of parrots and cockatoos in Western Australia. Eclectus. 2:4-9.

Mawson, P.R. (1995a). The Red-capped Parrot Purpureicephalus spuris (Kuhl 1820): a pest by nature or necessity?. Ph.D. Thesis. Perth: University of Western Australia.

Saunders, D.A. & J.A. Ingram (1995). Birds of Southwestern Australia: An Atlas of Changes in the Distribution and Abundance of the Wheatbelt Avifauna. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Saunders, D.A., I. Rowley & G.T. Smith (1985). The effects of clearing for agriculture on the distribution of Cockatoos in the southwest of Western Australia. In: Keast, A., H.F. Recher, H. Ford & D. Saunders, eds. Birds of Eucalypt Forests and Woodlands. Page(s) 309-321. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.

Sedgwick, E.H. (1949a). Bird movements in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist. 2:25-33.

Sindel, S. & R. Lynn (1989). Australian Cockatoos: Experiences in the Field and Aviary. Austral, New South Wales: Singil Press.

Smith, G.T. & D.A. Saunders (1986). Clutch size and productivity in three sympatric species of Cockatoo (Psittaciformes) in the south-west of Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 13:275--285.

Stranger, R.H. (1997). Red-tailed black cockatoo feeding on berries of Cape lilac. Western Australian Naturalist. 21:182-183.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009s). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/67034-listing-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop (2008). Proceedings of the Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop, August 2008. Perth, Western Australia.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Vulnerable forest red-tailed black cockatoos released into wild. Media Release. 9 June 2009. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/media-releases/index.html.

Western Australia Environment and Protection Authority (WA EPA) & Western Australia Conservation Commission (WA CC) (2003). Proposed Forest management plan (2004-2013): Conservation Commission of Western Australia : report and recommendations of the Environmental Protection Authority, Western Australia. Perth: Western Australia Environmental Protection Authority & Western Australia Conservation Commission.

Whitford, K.R. & M.R. Williams (2002). Hollows in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) trees II. Selecting trees to retain for hollow dependant fauna. Forest Ecology and Management. 160:215-232.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calyptorhynchus banksii naso in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 18 Sep 2014 23:24:15 +1000.