Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, key biological and ecological characteristics of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo combined with the ongoing threats of habitat loss, competition for nest hollows and injury/death by European Honeybees and nest hollow shortage and competition from other species indicate that the species can be better managed with a recovery plan in place (26/05/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Referral guidelines for three species of Western Australian black cockatoos (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012p) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (77) (26/05/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009k) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Calyptorhynchus banksii naso [67034]
Family Cacatuidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Gould, 1837
Reference http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/2384/482/
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Calyptorhynchus bankssi naso

Common name: Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo

Other names: Red-Tailed Black Cockatoo (south-western)


The taxonomic status of this subspecies is conventionally accepted (AFD 2012). The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo was originally named Psittacus banksii (Latham 1790) from a specimen collected at Endeavour River in Queensland (Higgins 1999). The south-west subspecies, Calyptorynchus banksii naso, was first recognised and described by Gould in 1836 (1836, 1865). Ford (1980) examined the morphological and ecological divergence and convergence in isolated populations of the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (C. banksii) and supported the recognition of the south-west subspecies of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (C. b. naso). Other C. banksii subspecies include (Cameron 2007):

  • C. b. graptogyne from western Victoria and south-east South Australia, listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act
  • C. b. banksii from northern and eastern Queensland and north-east New South Wales (NSW)
  • C. b. macrorhynchus from the Northern Territory and Kimberley
  • C. b. samueli from central Australia including south-west Queensland, inland NSW and mid-west WA.

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is 55–60 cm in length and 570–870 g in weight (Higgins 1999). Male and female Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are mostly glossy black with a pair of black central tail feathers, a crest, robust bill and bright red, orange or yellow barring in the tail (Higgins 1999).

Males of the subspecies are distinguished by broad red tail panels that are only visible when taking off or alighting (Higgins 1999). They have a dark brown iris, dark grey eye-ring and blackish legs. The female is distinguished by yellow or whitish spots on the feathers of the head and upper wing coverts. Their tail feathers are bright red and orange, grading to yellow on the inner margins, and have variable black horizontal barring. Females have yellow or orange barring on the tips of the feathers of the throat, breast, belly and under-tail coverts and a light grey bill with a dark grey tip (Johnstone & Storr 1998). The juvenile is similar to the adult female but has a white eye-ring (Higgins 1999; Johnstone & Storr 1998). The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo has a loud cry of 'Karee' or 'Krar-raak' (Johnstone & Storr 1998).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is endemic to south-west WA from Gingin in the north and east to Mt Helena, Christmas Tree Well, West Dale (rarely to Brookton), North Bannister (rarely to Wandering) Mt Saddleback, Kojonup, Rocky Gully, upper King River and east to the Green Range (Johnstone & Storr 1998). Small isolated breeding populations are on the Swan Coastal Plain and can be found during the fruiting season of Cape Lilac (Melia azederach) (WA CALM 2006; Stranger 1997).The subspecies has been sighted at over 130 locations in the state's south-west (WA CALM 2006).

Historically, the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo once occurred between Albany, Augusta and Perth, and north along the Swan Coastal Plain to Dandaragan (Johnstone 1997), but was rare on the Swan Coastal Plain by the early 1900s (Alexander 1921).

The extent of occurrence is estimated to be approximately 52 198 km² (WA CALM 2006). The former distribution, in the 1900s, was around 80 843 km² and the current distribution represents a decline of 35%. Declines are the result of clearing of the margins of the forests for agriculture in the early 1900s (Mawson & Johnstone 1997). The population was projected to decline by 30% or more between 2005–2015 (Chapman 2005).

Little information is available on captive populations of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos, however, seven individiuals were released into the wild in June 2009 from the Cockatoo Rehabilitation Centre in Martin. The birds all originated from the same area and had been at the rehabilitation centre for up to a year, recovering from injuries sustained from being hit by cars, or from entanglement with barbed wire (WA DEC 2009a).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is unlikely to have a fragmented population because it inhabits vegetation that is fairly continuous due to the connectivity of the state forest timber reserves. However, there are several small isolated populations on the Swan Coastal Plain and in some eastern parts of its range (WA CALM 2006). It is also possible that not all of the forest contains suitable habitat and there could be some fragmentation of the subspecies' distribution. Further research is required to confirm this (WA CALM 2006).

Between 1995 and 2000 the WA Department of Conservation and Land Management conducted three surveys to determine the distribution of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Abbott 1998a, 1998b). The surveys were undertaken across the subspecies' range during spring and summer to coincide with the breeding season when birds are likely to stay near breeding sites (WA CALM 2006). The first two surveys (1995–1997) yielded 615 records or about 2000 birds in each survey (Abbott 1998b). The number of individuals sighted in the third survey (1999–2000) is unknown.

Johnstone and colleagues (2013a; Johnstone & Kirkby 2008) undertook extensive surveys between 1993 and 2010 in south-west WA locating 128 nest trees and measuring site/nest characteristics.

The Cockatoo Care Program, a partnership between the Western Australian Museum and the Water Corporation, has also collected over 4500 records from 'community observation cards' and 'frequent sighting forms' (Johnstone & Kirkby 2005).

The current population of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos is estimated to be 15 000 birds (Abbott 1998b; Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). Abundance is likely to have declined given the large contraction of inhabited range (Mawson & Johnstone 1997) and a 14% decline in density has been suggested in areas that have been partially cleared (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Extreme fluctuations are known to have occurred in regional population numbers, particularly on the eastern side of their range when birds migrate to wetter areas or in response to food availability (TSSC 2009s). Population fluctuations have also occurred in response to devastating fires (Chapman 2005; WA CALM 2006).

Important populations necessary for the subspecies' long-term survival and recovery are unknown but key breeding areas are currently being mapped by the Western Australian Museum (WA CALM 2006).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo has been sighted in the Blackwood River National Park, D'Entrecasteaux National Park, John Forest National Park, Leeuwin Naturaliste National Park, Scott National Park and Stirling Ranges National Park. It has also been sighted in over 100 state forest timber reserves. None of these reserves are actively managed for the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (WA CALM 2006).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo inhabits the dense Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), Karri (E. diversicolor) and Marri (Corymbia calophylla) forests receiving more than 600 mm average rainfall annually (Saunders et al. 1985; Saunders & Ingram 1995), mainly in the hilly interior (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Although most records are in Jarrah-Marri forests, the subspecies has been observed in a range of other forest and woodland types, including Blackbutt (E. patens), Wandoo (E. wandoo), Tuart (E. gomphocephala), Albany Blackbutt, Yate (E. cornuta) and Flooded Gum (E. rudis) (Abbott 1998a, 1998b).

Understorey composition is not a determining factor for the presence of the species, although the following vegetation associations have been observed at sites with nest trees:

Overstorey Understorey Number of nests observed 
Jarrah/Marri Mixed understorey of Balga (Xanthorrhoea spp.), Kingia (Kingia australis) and Snottygobble (Persoonia spp.) 51
Jarrah/Marri Parrot Bush (Banksia sessillis) 19
Jarrah/Marri Holly-leaved Mirbelia (Mirbelia dilatata) 4
Jarrah/Marri Bull Banksia (Banksia grandis) 4
Open Jarrah/Marri?Wandoo Absent 3
Bullich Taxandria spp. 3
Jarrah/Marri Sheoak (Allocasuarina fraseriana) 2
Jarrah/Marri Open parkland 1

Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos have been observed breeding at less than four years old (Chapman 2005). The subspecies has a life expectancy of 25–50 years (Brouwer et al. 2000; Johnstone 1999) and their generation length is likely to be between 6–25 years (WA CALM 2006).

Like all Black Cockatoos (Higgins 1999), the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is monogamous and pairs probably form a lifetime bond (Smith & Saunders 1986). Breeding has been recorded in every month with peaks in autumn-winter (April-June) and spring (August-October) (Johnstone et al. 2013). Breeding varies between years (e.g. few breeding events were observed in 1999, 2001 and 2008; but many in 2006 and 2009) and occurs at times of Jarrah and Marri fruiting (Johnstone et al. 2013).

A survey of 128 nests (in large tree hollows) found 95 in living Marri and the remainder in dead Marri, live Jarrah, live Blackbutt, live Bullich (E. megacarpa), live Wandoo and dead trees of unknown species (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Trees were generally much larger than surrounding trees or in an area with remnant old trees. Trees ranged in height from 8.3–43 m (mean 20.24 m) the circumdrence at breast height from 1.5–5.4 m (mean 2.89 m) and an estimate of tree age from 119–419 years (mean 221.68) (Johnstone et al. 2013a). In many settings, nests were clumped in remnat patches of veteran Marri with 19 nests within a 230 m radius at one site. Nests were generally characteristed as high in the tree (mean 14.49 m), deep and with a broad floor. Hollows higher in trees possibly reduce the risk of predation from terrestrial fauna. Loss of nest trees was estimated at 16.6% per decade, which was the result of wind fall, bulldozing in fire clean-up or burnt (Johnstone et al. 2013a). Nests have been observed to have up to seven separate clutches (Johnstone et al. 2013).

The effective clutch size of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is one. Two eggs are sometimes (but rarely) laid, but only one chick fledges (Johnstone & Storr 1998). In captivity, the female may lay again if the first egg fails to hatch (Lendon 1979), but this has not been recorded for wild birds (Chapman 2005). The eggs are laid on woodchips or charcoal and the female incubates the egg (Johnstone & Storr 1998). During the incubation period, the male feeds with the flock and flies back to the nest to feed the female once or twice a day (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). During the nestling stage the female feeds outside the nest (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). The incubation period is 29–31 days and the nestling period is 75–85 days (Johnstone 1997).

The young are fed by the parents for 3–4 months after fledging (Lendon 1979; Sindel & Lynn 1989) and juvenile birds may take up to a year to learn how to extract seed from Marri fruits, during which time they are fed by both parents (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). It is probable that less than 10% of the population of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are be capable of breeding in any one year (Johnstone & Kirkby 2005) and birds may only breed every 2–3 years. Breeding success for the subspecies has been described as low and, in 2007, only one pair successfully raised a chick out of 60 breeding ecents (Johnstone 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2009s). More recently, an estimated fledging success of 60% was recorded (Johnstone et al. 2013).

Around 90% of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo's diet is made up of the seeds from Marri and Jarrah fruits (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). Other feed trees include Blackbutt, Albany Blackbutt (E. staeri), Forest Sheoak, Snottygobble and the non-indigenous native Spotted Gum (E. maculata) and Cape Lilac (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999; Johnstone & Storr 1998).

During feeding, Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos appear to select Marri trees which carry nuts with high seed numbers and total weight (Cooper et al. 2003). A feed tree with a high fruit yield in one year requires at least three years to replenish sufficient resources to fruit successfully again. Therefore, because the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos cannot feed from the same trees each year, they must assess the seed yield of the fruits from individual trees each time they fruit. However, the subspecies' method for determining which trees have the highest seed yield is unclear (Cooper et al. 2003).


A detailed study of the food and feeding behaviour of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo was conducted at Bungendore Park and Jarrahdale between 1996–1999 (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). During the study, the birds fed on Marri throughout the year but switched to Jarrah and other foods in March and June when Marri fruits were less abundant. The subspecies also appeared to return to individual trees to feed, on a daily basis, until the supply of fruit was exhausted (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999). The production of Marri fruit takes about 17 months from bud initiation and individual Marri trees may take up to three years to recover from a large flowering effort (Mawson 1995a). In most years, only about 20–50% of Marri trees produce a large crop of fruits and a small proportion of the trees produce only male flowers, which fail to fruit (Mawson 1995a). The slow and patchy flowering and seeding of Marri trees highlights the need for foraging habitat to consist of a mosaic of tree species and age classes.

Flocks of up to 50 individuals (Abbott 1998a) spend the night roosting in trees and leave at sunrise, splitting into smaller family groups, of around 10 birds, and moving into adjacent forest. After a short period of preening and basking in the sunlight they feed for 10–12 hours before moving off to creeks or dams to drink. On dark, they return to their roosts (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999).

The seasonal movements of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are irregular (Sedgwick 1949a).

Based on body weight/home range equations derived from many bird species, the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (body weight about 600 g) has a predicted breeding home range of about 116–187 ha (Abbott 2001a). The Western Australian Museum is studying the home range/territories of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo as part of the Cockatoo Care Program (WA CALM 2006).

The Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo cannot be confused with any other bird species in south-west Western Australia. It is the only large black bird with scarlet/vermilion feathers on the tail. It also has a discordant but distinctive call resembling 'kar-rark' (Abbott 2001a). The bill of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo is significantly longer and wider than Western Australia's Inland Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (C. b.samuelii) (Ford 1980).

Habitat assessment
Habitat assessment is the primary technique used to determine use of an area by the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo. Assessmant includes the extent, type and quality of the vegetation present, including the presence and extent of plants known to be used by the species. In potential breeding habitat measurements of the DBH of trees in the patch of woodland/forest can be made to determine if the habitat could be breeding habitat. Surveys for foraging habitat should be undertaken in any remaining vegetation containing proteaceous heath/woodland, eucalypt woodlands or forest (particularly Marri and Jarrah forest) and in areas dominated by Pinus spp.

Additional information on black cockatoo use of an area can be determined by searching for signs of use. Habitat can be searched for evidence of use by black cockatoos (for example feeding signs or feeding debris), including sighting records. The presence of cockatoo droppings and feathers, or 'chewed' Banksia cones or Marri nuts, can indicate feeding by black cockatoos (including, if possible, the identification of bite patterns to indicate which black cockatoo species fed there). This can be assessed at any time of year, as cones can remain on the ground for many months. Cones and nuts should be identified by a suitably qualified person.

Targeted surveys
Short-term surveys for bird presence are unlikely to give a true representation of habitat use by black cockatoos, due to the highly mobile nature of these birds and their reliance on different areas of habitat at different times of the year and between years.

The following tables give guidance to conducting surveys aimed at detecting the presence of black cockatoos at a site. The methodology was developed during a workshop in 2008 (Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop 2008). Consideration should be given to the timing, effort, methods and area to be covered in the context of the proposed action. If surveys are conducted outside recommended periods or conditions, survey methods and effort should be adjusted to compensate for the decreased likelihood of detecting the birds. Surveys should be conducted by a suitably qualified person with experience in surveying for black cockatoos.

Surveys for breeding birds
Surveys for breeding black cockatoos should be conducted in likely breeding habitat, focusing on the hollows of large, mature nesting trees (see species habitat descriptions for likely nest tree species).

Aim To detect black cockatoos, especially (but not exclusively) nesting females to confirm that breeding is taking place on the site. Notes: female birds may be flushed from the nest if the trunk of the tree is rubbed with a stick. For Forest Red-tail Black Cockatoos the presence of lone males may indicate there is a nest nearby.
Timing During the peak breeding season: Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are capable of breeding in any month of the year, but peak activity is expected in October/November.
Effort Over at least two suitable days, at approximately monthly intervals.


Surveys for foraging birds and/or foraging habitat
Surveys for black cockatoo foraging habitat should be undertaken in any remnant vegetation containing proteaceous heath/woodland, eucalypt woodlands or forest (particularly Marri and Jarrah forest) and in areas dominated by Pinus spp.

Aim 1) To record the presence and extent of foraging habitat; 2) to detect black cockatoos foraging at the site; and 3) estimate the number of birds using the site.
Timing One survey in winter. Two further surveys in spring.
Exception: In Marri habitats, the best time to survey for black cockatoos is December to April with three surveys conducted during this period.
Effort A total of three surveys should be undertaken. A survey should consist of both morning and evening visits, for two hours after dawn and two hours before dusk.
Surveyors should look for black cockatoos and listen for their characteristic calls.
Additional Information The presence of cockatoo droppings and feathers, or 'chewed' Banksia cones or Marri nuts, can indicate feeding by black cockatoos (including, if possible, the identification of bite patterns to indicate which black cockatoo species fed there). This can be assessed at any time of year, as cones can remain on the ground for many months. Cones and nuts should be identified by a suitably qualified person.


Surveys for roost sites
Roosts are generally located in the tallest trees in an area. Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos mainly roost in tall Jarrah and Marri trees within or on the edges of forests. Surveys for roosts should target these areas. Different roosts may be used by birds during the non-breeding period and by non-breeding birds during breeding period. Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos may also use roosts while breeding. Surveys for roosts should be timed to detect use during either and/or both of these periods.

Aim 1) To look for evidence that a roost site occurs on the site; 2) to detect black cockatoos roosting at the site; and, 3) estimate the number of birds using the roost.
Timing Daytime surveys can be made at any time of year to look for evidence that a roost site occurs on site; including habitat features such as tall trees in proximity to water and foraging habitat, records, cockatoo feathers and/or droppings. Following site assessment, dawn visits should be made at all likely roost sites in both a) non-breeding season (autumn/winter) and b) breeding season (see above).
Effort A minimum of two dawn surveys per season, at approximately monthly intervals, should be conducted over at least one hour on windless mornings in the a) non-breeding season and b) breeding season. A survey should consist of a visit to the site, at least 30 minutes before sunrise. Surveyors should listen for black cockatoo calls until at least 30 minutes after sunrise and attempt to quietly move in the direction of calls to estimate the number of birds as they leave the roost. Counts are best made by standing under a flight path (e.g. a road, track or open area that the birds cross) and looking back towards the roost against an open skyline. Subsequent visits may be required to count the birds as they leave the roost. Roost sites may also be located by following birds returning to the roost in the evening.
Additional Information The presence of cockatoo feathers and droppings at a site may also indicate roosting.



Further information
Breeding habitat should be surveyed during the breeding season, with efforts made to determine if the area is used for nesting and/or foraging. Forest Red-tail Black Cockatoos tend to forage near the nest during the breeding season. Surveys should note the distance, size and connectivity of remnant habitat patches in breeding areas (e.g. from satellite images).

When not breeding, black cockatoos tend to aggregate in large flocks and move through the landscape in search of food. These flocks base themselves at roost sites and use the roosts to access the local foraging resources. Numbers tend to be largest at the roost site between dusk and dawn (Johnstone & Kirkby 2008). The number of birds using a roost site will also vary seasonally. While sub-adults and other non-breeding birds will use roost sites all year round, the largest numbers will occur during the non-breeding period, when breeding adults and their young will join the non-breeding birds at roost sites. To get an accurate picture of the importance of a roost site, surveys should be conducted in both the breeding and non-breeding season.

Roosting flocks break up into foraging flocks at dawn, moving into foraging habitat. Away from roost sites Johnstone and Kirkby (2008) found that the largest flocks of Baudin's Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) are usually recorded within the first two hours of daylight, and in the two hours before dark, as flocks split again into smaller family groups during the middle of the day. The first two hours after dawn and before dark are therefore the best times to search for foraging black cockatoos.

In addition to the identification of black cockatoos by sighting or hearing, skilled observers will be able to infer their presence from tell-tale signs. For example, the scars left on Marri and other woody fruits can be used to distinguish between different species of black cockatoo. While the longer-billed Baudin's Black Cockatoo are able to extract seeds with minimal damage to the outer fruit, Carnaby's (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) must tear open the fruit casing to get to the seeds inside (Cooper 2000; Stojanovic 2008). Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos feed similarly to Carnaby's black-cockatoos, tearing into the fruit to get at the seeds (Johnstone & Kirkby 1999; Cooper 2000).

Key threats to the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo are habitat loss, nest hollow shortage and competition for available nest hollows from other species, and injury or death from the European Honeybee (Apis mellifera), illegal shooting (Chapman 2005) and fire (WA CALM 2006). Climate change is an additional threat that is likely to exacerbate other threats as a result of changes to biodiversity and ecosystem function (Chambers et al. 2005).

Habitat loss
Habitat loss is a historic, current and future threat to the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo. It appears to be the principal cause of the historic decline of the subspecies as a result of agriculture, timber harvesting, woodchipping and mining within its range (Johnstone 1997; Mawson & Johnstone 1997). The long-term effects of this habitat loss may not yet have been fully realised because of the subspecies' long life-span (Brouwer et al. 2000). In the remaining habitat, selective removal of Marri for timber, mining, woodchipping and agriculture has resulted in further declines (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The impacts of previous forest management practices for timber and woodchipping on Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo populations have not yet been quantified. However, forestry practices such as clear felling and 80-year cut rotations may restrict the availability of nest hollows (Saunders & Ingram 1995). Many forms of mining in south-west Western Australia also initially involve clear felling of forests (Chapman 2005).

Nest Hollow Shortage
Nest hollow shortage is a historic, current and future threat to the subspecies, though the extent of the impact of nest hollow shortages is unknown (TSSC 2009s). The number of nest sites available may be limiting the subspecies' ability to breed (Garnett & Crowley 2000) as they nest in large hollows 80–90 cm in diameter (Johnstone 1997), between 8–14 m above the ground and with a depth of hollow of 1–5 m (Johnstone & Storr 1998). The landscape in the south-west of Western Australia is highly modified with only about 10% of the original vegetation remaining. Hollows suitable for use by Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are considered scarce (Chapman 2005). Analyses have shown that trees with hollows large enough for use by Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos may need to be at least 130–220 years of age (Abbott & Whitford 2002; Johnstone 1997). Loss of nest trees has been estimated at 16.6% per decade, as the result of wind fall, bulldozing in fire clean-up or fire (Johnstone et al. 2013a).

Changes to silvicultural prescriptions also ensure five primary habitat trees and 6–8 secondary habitat trees are retained per hectare during timber harvesting. The establishment of designated fauna habitat zones (excluded from logging) within each logging coupe has also increased the number of tree hollows protected in state forest reserves (WA EPA & WA CC 2003). However, it is important to note that the presence of large trees does not indicate that they are all suitable for use by a particular subspecies. There are many factors which affect hollow usage, including the hollow's proximity to water and food and other competitor's requirements. While opposing views exist as to whether nest hollow shortage is a threat, the majority of evidence available suggests that it is likely to be a significant constraint on the reproductive success of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (TSSC 2009s).

Competition
Competition for available nest hollows with other birds is an additional threat. Observations of competition for nest sites between Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos and Carnaby's Cockatoo, Galahs (Cacatua roseicapilla) and Corellas (Cacatua spp.) are increasing (Chapman 2005; WA CALM 2006). Competition for nest hollows and injury or death from European Honeybees is a current and future threat to the subspecies. The European Honeybee can form long-term hives in tree hollows and can kill nesting females and chicks in the nest by stinging. European Honeybees pose a significant threat to the ability of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos to survive and breed, and this is likely to increase with the the southward movement of bees in response to change to a warmer climate in Western Australia (Chapman 2005).

Illegal Shooting
Another historic threat to the subspecies is fatality from illegal shooting. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this may still occur (TSSC 2009s). During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos were shot for food, for sport and to obtain their tail feathers for ornamental and decorative purposes (Abbott 2001a). Records of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos being illegally shot were also collected during a 1999–2000 survey (Abbott 2001a). These observations indicate that illegal shooting of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos is likely to have had an impact on the population in the early 1990s and this impact continues to the present day. Reports of orchardists still shooting Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos are received in Western Australia in most years. Prosecutions for these acts are undertaken whenever sufficient evidence is available (TSSC 2009s).

Fire
Wildfires caused by lightening or arson are potentially a catastrophic threat to the subspecies. Wildfires can destroy habitat by causing older trees containing hollows to fall, reducing the amount of habitat available. Wildfires also temporarily reduce food availability and therefore could threaten the survival of the subspecies (WA CALM 2006).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
There should be a recovery plan for this subspecies. Key biological and ecological characteristics of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo combined with ongoing threats of habitat loss, competition for nest hollows and injury/death by European Honeybees, nest hollow shortage and competition from other species, indicates that the subspecies can be better managed with a recovery plan in place.

Recovery Actions
The Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus baudinii) and Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Draft Recovery Plan, June 2005-June 2015 (Chapman 2005) suggests a series of recovery actions for the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo:

  • Determine and implement ways to remove Honeybees from nesting hollows.
  • Identify factors affecting the number of breeding attempts and breeding success and manage nest hollows to increase recruitment.
  • Determine and implement ways to minimise the effects of mining on habitat loss.
  • Determine and implement ways to manage forests for the conservation of Forest Black Cockatoos.
  • Identify and manage important groups of each species and protect from threatening processes.
  • Map feeding and breeding habitat critical to survival and important populations, and prepare management guidelines for these habitats.
  • Determine population numbers and distribution.
  • Determine the patterns and significance of movement.
  • Maintain the Cockatoo Care program and use other opportunities to promote the recovery of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos.

These actions are the responsibility of, and will be undertaken by, the Western Australian Museum, Western Australian Universities, Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Water Corporation.

The Conservation Advice for the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos (TSSC 2009t) outlines research priorities and priority actions for the protection of the subspecies. These include:

  • Continue to develop and test effective means of removing European Honeybee hives that have established in key breeding areas and work to keep the area free of European Honeybees.
  • Identify factors affecting the number of breeding attempts and breeding success and manage nest hollows to increase recruitment.
  • Support and enhance the Cockatoo Care monitoring program or any existing monitoring programs.
  • More precisely assess population size and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
  • Map feeding and breeding habitat critical to survival and prepare management guidelines for these habitats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Determine and implement ways to minimise the effects of mining on habitat loss.
  • Determine and implement ways to manage forests for the conservation of the subspecies.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and reduction of non-managed European Honeybees in the region.
  • Develop and implement a communication strategy to stop illegal shooting of Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoos and improve compliance with the relevant legislation.

  • Ford (1980) studied the morphological and ecological divergence and convergence in isolated populations of the Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo.
  • Abbott (1998b) examined the hypothesis that a shortage of nest sites limits the distribution of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.
  • Johnstone and Kirkby (1999) investigated the diet of the subspecies.
  • Cooper and colleagues (2003) published the characteristics of Marri fruits in relation to foraging behaviour of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo.
  • Research is being conducted by the Western Australian Museum on distribution, status and breeding ecology.

The following documents may inform the conservation of this subspecies:

  • Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii) and Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Draft Recovery Plan, June 2005-June 2015 (Chapman 2005)
  • The Conservation Advice for the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (TSSC 2009t)

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for recreational purposes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:illegal control Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009t) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by ducks Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009s) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Natural System Modifications:Indirect and direct habitat loss due to human activities Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan (Chapman, T., 2008) [Recovery Plan].

Abbott, I. (1998a). Counting cockatoos: The status of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo. Landscope. 13 (2):10-16.

Abbott, I. (1998b). Conservation of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo, a hollow-dependent species, in the eucalypt forests of Western Australia. Forest Ecology and Management. 109:175-185.

Abbott, I. (2001a). Karrak watch: a summary of the information about the Forest Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo (FOREST RED-TAILED BLACK COCKATOO) of south-west Western Australia. [Online]. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://science.calm.wa.gov.au/articles/2001-10-04/. [Accessed: 18-Jun-2009].

Abbott, I. & K. Whitford (2002). Conservation of vertebrate fauna using hollows in forests of south-west Western Australia: strategic risk assessment in relation to ecology, policy, planning, and operations management. Pacific Conservation Biology. 7(4):240-255.

Alexander, W.B. (1921). The birds of the Swan River district. Emu. 20:149-168.

Brouwer, K., M.L. Jones, C.E. King & H. Schifter (2000). Longevity records for Psittaciformes in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook. 37:299-316.

Cameron, M. (2007). Cockatoos. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Chambers, L.E., L.Weston & M.A. Hughes (2005). Climate change and its impact on Australia's avifauna. Emu. 105:1-20.

Chapman, T. (2005). Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii) and Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Draft Recovery Plan, June 2005-June 2015 (Department of Conservation and Land Management: Perth). Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Chapman, T. (2008). Forest Black Cockatoo (Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Forest Redtailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso) Recovery Plan. [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/wa-forest-black-cockatoos.html.

Cooper, C. (2000). Food manipulation by southwest Australian cockatoos. Eclectus. 8:3-9.

Cooper, C.E., P.C.Mawson, R. Johnstone, T. Kirby, J. Prince, S.D. Bradshaw & H. Robertson (2003). Characteristics of marri (Corymbia calophylla) fruits in relation to the foraging behaviour of the forest red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso). Journal of the Royal Societ of Western Australia. 86(4):139-142.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2012p). Referral guidelines for three species of Western Australian black cockatoos. [Online]. DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/wa-black-cockatoos.html.

Ford, J. (1980). Morphological and ecological divergence and convergence in isolated populations of the Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo. Emu. 80:103-120.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gepp, T., S. Bird, G. Scott & E. Carroll (2009). Towards and Offset Policy for the Conservation of Carnaby's Black-cockatoo on the Swan Coastal Plain. For the Western Australia Department oF Environment and Conservation. Perth: ENV Australia Pty Ltd.

Gould, J. (1836). Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 25 October 1836. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 46:104-106.

Gould, J. (1865). Handbook to the Birds of Australia. London: Author.

Higgins, P.J. (ed.) (1999). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Four - Parrots to Dollarbird. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Johnstone, R.E. (1997). Current studies on three endemic Western Australian cockatoos. Eclectus. 3:34--35.

Johnstone, R.E. (1999). Western Australian Museum Information, Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso. Perth: Western Australian Museum.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Perth, Western Australia: West Australian Museum.

Johnstone, R.E. & T. Kirkby (1999). Food of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso in south-west Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist. 22:167-177.

Johnstone, R.E. & T. Kirkby (2005). Cockatoos in crisis. Landscope. 21(2):59-61.

Johnstone, R.E. & T. Kirkby (2008). Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in South-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 25:107-118.

Johnstone, R.E., T. Kirkby & K. Sarti (2013). The breeding biology of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso Gould in south-western Australia. II. Breeding behaviour and diet. Pacific Conservation Biology. 19(3). In press.

Johnstone, R.E., T. Kirkby & K. Sarti (2013a). The breeding biology of the Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus banksii naso Gould in south-western Australia. 1. Characteristics of nest trees and nest hollows. Pacific Conservation Biology. 19(3). In press.

Latham, J. (1790). Index ornithologicus sive systema ornithologiae. General Synopsis of Birds. 1:107.

Lendon, A.H. (1979). Australian Parrots in Field and Aviary. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Mawson, P. & R. Johnstone (1997). Conservation status of parrots and cockatoos in Western Australia. Eclectus. 2:4-9.

Mawson, P.R. (1995a). The Red-capped Parrot Purpureicephalus spuris (Kuhl 1820): a pest by nature or necessity?. Ph.D. Thesis. Perth: University of Western Australia.

Saunders, D.A. & J.A. Ingram (1995). Birds of Southwestern Australia: An Atlas of Changes in the Distribution and Abundance of the Wheatbelt Avifauna. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Saunders, D.A., I. Rowley & G.T. Smith (1985). The effects of clearing for agriculture on the distribution of Cockatoos in the southwest of Western Australia. In: Keast, A., H.F. Recher, H. Ford & D. Saunders, eds. Birds of Eucalypt Forests and Woodlands. Page(s) 309-321. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.

Sedgwick, E.H. (1949a). Bird movements in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist. 2:25-33.

Sindel, S. & R. Lynn (1989). Australian Cockatoos: Experiences in the Field and Aviary. Austral, New South Wales: Singil Press.

Smith, G.T. & D.A. Saunders (1986). Clutch size and productivity in three sympatric species of Cockatoo (Psittaciformes) in the south-west of Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 13:275--285.

Stojanovic, D. (2008). Not so black and white: the complex conservation of Carnaby's black-cockatoo. Wildlife Australia Magazine. Autumn:18-23.

Stranger, R.H. (1997). Red-tailed black cockatoo feeding on berries of Cape lilac. Western Australian Naturalist. 21:182-183.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009s). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/67034-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009t). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calyptorhynchus banksii naso (Forest Red-tailed Black Cockatoo). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/67034-conservation-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop (2008). Proceedings of the Western Australia Black Cockatoo Workshop, August 2008. Perth, Western Australia.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Vulnerable forest red-tailed black cockatoos released into wild. Media Release. 9 June 2009. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/media-releases/index.html.

Western Australia Environment and Protection Authority (WA EPA) & Western Australia Conservation Commission (WA CC) (2003). Proposed Forest management plan (2004-2013): Conservation Commission of Western Australia : report and recommendations of the Environmental Protection Authority, Western Australia. Perth: Western Australia Environmental Protection Authority & Western Australia Conservation Commission.

Whitford, K.R. (2002). Hollows in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) trees I. Hollow sizes, tree attributes and ages. Forest Ecology and Management. 160:201-214.

Whitford, K.R. & M.R. Williams (2002). Hollows in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) trees II. Selecting trees to retain for hollow dependant fauna. Forest Ecology and Management. 160:215-232.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calyptorhynchus banksii naso in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 20 Apr 2014 03:56:10 +1000.