In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Lissotes latidens (Broad-toothed Stag Beetle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002p) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (20/11/2002) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2002a) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Lissotes latidens |
|Species author||Westwood, 1871|
|Reference||ANZECC Threatened Fauna List May 2000|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Lissotes latidens
Common name: Broad-toothed Stag Beetle
Other names: Wielangta Stag Beetle
This medium-sized stag beetle is flightless and dull black in colour, 1318 mm in length. Males have prominent jaws shaped like bull's horns (FPA 2002).
The Broad-toothed Stag Beetle occurs at around 38 sites in south-eastern Tasmania in the area between Orford and Copping, and on Maria Island. Its distribution is centred on the Wielangta State Forest (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; TSSC 2002p).
The extent of occurrence of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle is around 280 km² (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; TSSC 2002p). Approximately 20% of forest cover within the species' area of occurrence has been cleared since European settlement, primarily for grazing (Meggs 1999).
The area of suitable habitat for the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle within its range is around 43 km² (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003).
Current populations of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle are severely fragmented, especially in the western part of its range where it is largely restricted to patches of wet forest along watercourses (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003). Only around 15% of the species' current area of occurrence consists of potentially suitable habitat. This has possible serious consequences for the species as small isolated populations are at risk from localised extinction (Meggs 1999; TSSC 2002p).
A survey in 1999 discovered a further 26 sites where the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle was known to occur, raising the known range from 93 km² to the current estimate of 280 km² (Meggs 1999).
The overall adult population of the Broad-Toothed Stag Beetle is estimated to be over 2500 individuals; some smaller populations consist of over 250 mature individuals (Meggs 1999).
Twelve percent of the known potential habitat (wet forest) of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle is protected in Maria Island National Park, an area making up 5.4 km² of its range. Areas on the mainland that are also protected for conservation include some small streamside reserves (6.1% of known potential habitat) and wildlife habitat strips (9.1% of known potential habitat) (Meggs 1999; TSSC 2002p).
The Broad-toothed Stag Beetle occupies wet eucalypt forest dominated by Eucalyptus obliqua, E. regnans and E. globulus, which may occur either as extensive stands of wet forest or as patches in dry eucalypt forest (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; FPA 2002; TSSC 2002p). This beetle has a preference for forest with a well-developed overstorey and understorey and greater than 10% ground cover of fallen dead wood (Meggs 1999). Both adults and larvae live in the soil, with decaying logs providing shelter from desiccation, predation and habitat disturbance (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; FPA 2002). The larva is found in shallow depressions in the soil underneath decaying logs (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; Meggs 1999). Within its range, it does not inhabit dry eucalypt forest or agricultural land (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003).
The Broad-toothed Stag Beetle is a slow grower because of a poor diet of rotting wood and they remain larvae for years (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; DPIW 2007a; Meggs 1999).
The Broad-toothed Stag Beetle has a possible peak in activity during October or December, which may indicate a breeding season (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; Meggs 1999).
The larva of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle feed on rotting logs on the ground (DPIW 2007a).
The Broad-toothed Stag Beetle is a wingless beetle and is very limited in its ability to colonise new sites (Meggs 1999).
At least three methods have been used in sampling populations of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle. These are rolling logs, breaking open logs and searching leaf litter plots. These methods are more accurate and less destructive than using pitfall traps to provide data on species abundance (Meggs 1999).
The Broad-toothed Stag Beetle is active from September to April (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; Meggs 1999).
The biggest threat facing the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle is habitat loss, predominantly through clearing and forestry practices (DPIW 2007a; TSSC 2002p). Nearly 90% of this species' potential habitat occurs on private land or in State Forest and appears to be severely fragmented. Proposals in 2003 indicated that 370 ha (9%) of the wet forest within the range of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle would be converted to eucalypt plantation before 2006 (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003). After clearfelling, it has been estimated that between 4050 and 80 years is needed before large-diameter logs become available as habitat for log-dependent invertebrates such as the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; DPIW 2007a; Meggs 1999). Decline is possible in the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence due to the vulnerability of the species to these threats (TSSC 2002p).
Ongoing threats include extensive conversion of native forest to plantation forest; frequent or hot burns leading to loss of ground litter layer and decaying logs; and targeted removal of decaying logs, including firewood collection or heaping for burning (DPIW 2007a; TSSC 2002p).
Illegial insect collection is another threat to this species (TSSC 2002p), as the beetle is much sought after. Damage to logs as a result of collecting has contributed to a reduction in the species' food supply, as the logs dried out too rapidly (DPIW 2007a).
The Forestry Practices Authority (Tasmania) (FPA 2002) has the following management objectives for the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle:
- Conduct pre-logging surveys for the beetle in any coupe that contains suitable habitat within and near the beetle's known range
- Protect and maintain stream-side reserves in dry forest where the presence of the beetle and its habitat is confirmed
- Maintain the amount and quality of rotting logs in all operations (FPA 2002).
Before logging can proceed in an area believed to contain potential habitat of the Broad-toothed Stag Beetle, forest industry personnel are required to seek advice from the Forest Practices Board and the Parks and Wildlfe Service (Clarke & Spier-Ashcroft 2003; Forest Practices Board 1998).
The Department of Primary Industries and Water (Tasmania) is aiming to educate foresters and other land managers of the need to take this species into consideration when developing their management plans. Collectors are also being made aware of the damage caused by breaking up rotting logs and of the need to consider the implications of collecting threatened species (DPIW 2007a).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Lissotes latidens (Broad-toothed Stag Beetle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002p) [Listing Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Lissotes latidens (Broad-toothed Stag Beetle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002p) [Listing Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Lissotes latidens (Broad-toothed Stag Beetle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2002p) [Listing Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Bryant, S. & J. Jackson (1999b). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Hobart, Tasmania: Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service.
Clarke, G. & F. Spier-Ashcroft (2003). A Review of the Conservation Status of Selected Australian Non-Marine Invertebrates. [Online]. Environment Australia, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/non-marine-invertebrates/index.html.
Department of Primary Industries and Water (DPIW) (2007a). Broad-toothed Stage Beetle. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries and Water. Hobart. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/BHAN-54Q3NF?open.
Forest Practices Authority (FPA) (2002). Broad-toothed Stage Beetle Lissotes latidens. [Online]. Forestry Practices Authority. Hobart. Available from: http://www.fpa.tas.gov.au/fileadmin/user_upload/PDFs/Zoology_Ecology/tfm_broad_toothed_stag_beetle.pdf.
Forest Practices Board (1998). Threatened fauna manual for production forests in Tasmania. Hobart.
Meggs, J. M. (1999). Distribution, habitat characteristics and conservation requirements of the broad-toothed stag beetle Lissotes latidens (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): a report to the Forest Practices Board and Forestry Tasmania. Forestry Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2002p). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Lissotes latidens (Broad-toothed Stag Beetle). [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/l-latidens.html.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Lissotes latidens in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 9 Mar 2014 10:07:26 +1100.