Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, the Threatened Species Scientific Committee indicated that the 'Draft Fauna Recovery Plan: Threatened Tasmanian stag beetles 2006-2011', being prepared by the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water, may be suitable for adoption as a recovery plan under the EPBC Act (19/12/2008).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (68) (Bornemissza's stag beetle) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008e) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Bornemissza's Stag Beetle): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014sa) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Scientific name Hoplogonus bornemisszai [66754]
Family Lucanidae:Coleoptera:Insecta:Arthropoda:Animalia
Species author Bartolozzi, 1996
Infraspecies author  
Reference Bartolozzi, L. (1996). A new species of Hoplogonus. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges. 69: 483-487
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Hoplogonus bornemisszai

Common name: Bornemissza's Stag Beetle

The taxonomy of this species is conventionally accepted (Bartolozzi 1996).

Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is a large, flightless stag beetle. Males have an average body length of 24 mm and females 18 mm. This species is a sheen black colour. Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is ground-dwelling to a depth of 22–35 cm. The body is divided into three segments with large elongated, clasping mandibles (jaws) protruding from the head. These jaws are significantly smaller in females. (FPA TAS 2002a; TSSC 2008afe)

Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is endemic to north-eastern Tasmania and found within an area east of the Blue Tier. The species' range is centered near the Terry's Hill area, north of the Ransom River (TSSC 2008afe).

Since 2006, Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is known from five locations. The close proximity of sightings makes the species locations somewhat contiguous, although proposed foresty operations may lead to fragmentation (Munks et al. 2004; TSSC 2008afe).

The current estimated extent of occurrence for the species is approximately 10 km². It is unlikely that future surveys will significantly increase the extent of occurrence because much of the current known distribution is surrounded by unsuitable habitat (dry eucalypt forest) (Munks et al. 2004).

An estimated area of occupancy of 7 km² is provided by Munks and colleagues (2004) where potential habitat (defined as mature wet or damp eucalypt and mixed forest) is used as a surrogate for area of occupancy (TSSC 2008afe).

Only a limited number of live adult individuals have been recorded (TSSC 2008afe). The habitat of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle has been surveyed on numerous occasions (Meggs et al. 2003; Munks et al. 2004; Richards 1999), although few live individuals have been found during surveying (Munks et al. 2004).

The total population number of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is estimated, based on observation, to be between several hundred and several thousand (P. McQuillan 2005, pers. comm.). Another estimate, based on extrapolating density of carcasses observed over the estimated area of potential habitat, led to a much higher number (between 1.4 million and 24.5 million) (Munks et al. 2004), but it is recognised that, due to the species' patchy distribution, low density and cryptic characteristics, population estimates are difficult using this method (Munks et al. 2004).

There are no data available to indicate whether population size of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle has experienced a reduction. However, some parts of the species' range have already been converted to plantation and agricultural land. Munks and colleagues (2004) state that this activity permanently removes habitat.

The species' populations may also be subject to future declines. Of the species' unreserved habitat, more than half the area has been identified as having potential for wood production to meet sustainable yield targets (Munks et al. 2004).

Bornemissza's Stag Beetle occurs in mature wet or damp eucalypt and mixed forest in north-eastern Tasmania. The species can occur in dry eucalypt forest within close proximity to areas of wet or damp forest or drainage lines (Munks et al. 2004). However, a number of records indicate that the species also occurs in dry eucalypt forest, within close proximity either to areas of wet/damp forest or moist drainage lines. Bryant and Jackson (1999b) and Meggs and colleagues (2003) suggest that the species' habitat may be specialised (wet, damp, flat and cool forested sites subject to low disturbance).

Of the potential habitat for this species, 79% is in unreserved land (64% state forest and 15% private land) and of this approximately 54% has been identified for potential wood production to meet sustainable yield targets. Some 20% of the species' potential habitat is currently reserved or bound by a covenant that precludes forestry activity (Munks et al. 2004).

The biology and habitat of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle and Simpson's Stag Beetle (Hoplogonus simsoni), which occurs in the same area, are broadly similar (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; Meggs et al. 2003). Adult Simpson's Stag Beetles can live for three years. Pupae are thought to emerge in late summer, after laying dormant within the soil over winter, as sexually immature beetles. Simpson's Stag Beetle break out in spring to look for mates on the ground. Many males are seen in the early part of summer and it is assumed that they do most of their mate searching during this time. Female Simpson's Stag Beetles are more prevalent in late summer amongst the forest floor looking for a place to lay their eggs. The reproductive cycle may take more than one year to complete (Bryant & Jackson 1999b; Meggs et al. 2003).

The nature of the Bornemissza's Stag Beetle reproduction and habits suggest it is unlikely to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in numbers, although due to the difficulty in locating live adult individuals this is not certain (P. McQuillan 2005, pers. comm.).

Larvae feed on well-decayed woody organic material as found in complex old forest. Lucanid larvae are thought to derive much of their nutrition from organic matter that has been modified by fungi (Lawrence 1989).

Larvae are either subterranean or live and feed at the interface between decaying logs and the embedding soil. If exposed to the sun by mechanical disturbance they readily desiccate since luncanid larvae cannot close their spiracles against water loss (Lawrence 1989).

Surveying for Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is most efficiently undertaken during spring to summer. Given the restricted distribution of the species, rolling over a large proportion of logs in the species habitat is thought to be a threatening process as individuals may be crushed and the microclimate under the log may be changed. Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is nocturnal and cryptic in nature, making search efficiency relatively low. Pitfall trapping may be effective if sufficient time is available (i.e. several weeks) (Bartolozzi 1996).

The primary threat to Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is any activity that opens the forest canopy, or disturbs the soil and litter layer, leading to exposure to sunlight and dehydration (such as forest practices, land clearing, fire or the impacts of climate change). Clearing of habitat is likely to lead to the species becoming more accessible to predators such as the omnivorous Black Currawong (Strepera Fuliginosa), which can learn to follow forestry operations (P. McQuillan 2005, pers. comm.).

Establishment of plantations, or clearing for agriculture, within the range of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is likely to permanently remove the species' habitat (Munks et al. 2004). Some parts of the species' range have been converted to plantation/agricultural land, and areas of forest supporting the species are suitable for conversion to both plantation and pasture/crop usage indicating that this threat is both historical and current. Munks and colleagues (2004) indicate that 79% of the potential habitat of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle is in unreserved private land and state forest, and that more than half of the unreserved land has been identified for potential wood production to meet sustainable yield targets.

Forestry practices pose the greatest threat to Bornemissza's Stag Beetle given that much of its habitat in state forestry areas has been identified as having potential for wood production (Munks et al. 2004). These practices include selected logging, clearfell, burn and sow operations.

High intensity burns as part of forestry operations or wildfire are possible serious threats that have potential to destroy habitat. Firewood collection occurs on all tenures and may remove moist woody habitat (TSSC 2008afe).

Munks and colleagues (2004) indicate that evidence of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle has been found in forest that is regenerating 14 years after forestry practices. These may have survived the clearfell, burn and sow operations due to moist refuges or they may have recolonised the site. However, Munks and colleagues (2004) recommend caution due to the small area sampled, and that there be a review of the effects of forest practices following the long-term study on the related Simpson's Stag Beetle.

Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision

The Threatened Species Scientific Committee recommended there should be a recovery plan for Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Bornemissza's stag beetle). The committee also indicated that the 'Draft Fauna Recovery Plan: Threatened Tasmanian stag beetles 2006–2011', being prepared by the Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries and Water, may be suitable for adoption as a recovery plan under the EPBC Act.

Management Objectives for Production Forest Areas as outlined in the Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (FPA TAS 2002a) include the following threat abatement actions:

  • All contiguous wet forest within the southern and central range of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle should be managed as a Wildlife Priority Area (Special Management Zone - Fauna). No further logging should take place in this area until the results of a monitoring study on the effects of clearfelling and regeneration practices on Bornemissza's Stag Beetle are available.
  • There should be no further plantation development within the range of the species until the impacts of plantation development on other species within the genus are assessed.
  • Habitat should be retained in drier areas within the range of the species by increasing the width of streamside reserves to include all wet vegetation along drainage lines.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (TSSC 2008afo) outlines the following priority actions:

  • habitat protection
  • monitoring of land use
  • raise community awareness
  • appropriate fire management

The Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (TSSC 2008afe), the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (TSSC 2008afo) and the Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania (FPA TAS 2002) provide brief overviews of Bornemissza's Stag Beetle and some management recommendations.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Strepera fuliginosa (Black Currawong) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Reduced habitat shading Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afe) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afo) [Conservation Advice].

Bartolozzi, L. (1996). A new species of Hoplogonus Parry, 1875 (Coleoptera, Lucanidae). Mitteilungen der schweizerischen entonomologischen Gesellschaft. 69:483-487.

Bryant, S. & J. Jackson (1999b). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Hobart, Tasmania: Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service.

Forest Practices Authority Tasmania (FPA Tas.) (2002a). Threatened Fauna Manual for Production Forests in Tasmania. [Online]. Available from: http://www.fpa.tas.gov.au/fileadmin/user_upload/PDFs/Zoology_Ecology/tfm_bornemisszas_stag_beetle.pdf.

Lawrence, J.F. (1989). Mycophagy in the Coleoptera: feeding strategies and morphological adaptations. Wilding, N., M. Collins, P.M. Hammond & J.F. Webber, eds. Insect-Fungus Interactions: Royal Entomological Society Symposium Series. 14:1-23. London: Academic Press.

McQuillan, P. (2005). Personal Communication.

Meggs, J.M., S.A. Munks & R. Corkrey (2003). The distribution and habitat characteristics of a threatened lucanid beetle, Hoplogonus simsoni, in north-east Tasmania. Pacific Conservation Biology. 9:172-186.

Munks, S., K. Richards, J. Meggs, M. Wapstra & R. Corkrey (2004). Distribution, habitat and conservation of two threatened stag beetles, Hoplogonus bornemisszai and H. vanderschoori (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) in north-east Tasmania. Australian Zoologist. 32(4):586-596.

Richards, K. (1999). Occurrence of Hoplogonus bornemisszai (Bornemisszas stag beetle) and H. vanderschoori (Vanderschoors stag beetle) in priority coupes, north-east Tasmania. Unpublished report to Forestry Tasmania and the Forest Practices Board.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afe). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66754-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afo). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hoplogonus bornemisszai. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66754-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hoplogonus bornemisszai in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 21 Aug 2014 01:29:01 +1000.