Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Tympanocryptis pinguicolla
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan] as Tympanocryptis pinguicolla.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011m) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Tympanocryptis pinguicolla.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
ACT:Eastern Lined Earless Dragon (Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla): Action Plan No. 3 (ACT Government, 1997i) [State Action Plan].
ACT:A Vision Splendid of the Grassy Plains Extended: ACT Lowland Native Grassland Conservation Strategy (ACT Government, 2005a) [State Action Plan].
ACT:Grassland Earless Dragon (Tympanocryptis pinguicolla) - An endangered species (Australian Capital Territory Department of Territory and Municipal Services (ACT TAMS), 2006a) [Information Sheet].
NSW:South-eastern lined earless Dragon - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1996f) [Internet].
NSW:Grassland Earless Dragon - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005mr) [Internet].
VIC:Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Brereton, R & G. Backhouse, 2003) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Contingency for Grassland Earless Dragon - Melbourne Strategic Assessment (Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2011a) [Management Plan].
State Listing Status
ACT: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1980 (Australian Capital Territory): 2013) as Tympanocryptis pinguicolla
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013) as Tympanocryptis pinguicolla
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014) as Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
Scientific name Tympanocryptis pinguicolla [66727]
Family Agamidae:Squamata:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Mitchell, 1948)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Smith et al., Australian Journal of Ecology (1999,47,551-564) describe it as a distinct species.
Other names Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla [66634]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Tympanocryptis pinguicolla was formerly known as T. lineata pinguicolla. The susbspecies was elevated to full species status by Smith and colleagues (1999), who used allozyme electrophoresis to study the systematics of south-eastern Australian Tympanocryptis.

Some morphological differences have been observed between the Canberra and Cooma populations of Grassland Earless Dragons (Nelson 2004 cited in Robertson & Evans 2006; Scott & Keogh 2001). The DNA differences identified in these populations indicate that these populations will be described as seperate species in the future (Scott & Keogh 2001).

Work on populations of Grassland Earless Dragons from the Darling Downs area, Queensland, suggest these populations to be more closely related to Tympanocryptis tetraporophora (Melville et al. 2007).

Earless dragons lack an external ear opening and functional tympanum (ear drum). Adult Grassland Earless Dragons range in size from 50–70 mm snout-vent length (SVL) (Smith 1994) with a head to tail length generally less than 150 mm. The adults have stout bodies and short robust legs, with a body mass between 5–9 g. The main morphological differences separating the Grassland Earless Dragon from others in the genus Tympanocryptis are the greater number of mid-dorsal scales, and the greater number of scattered, enlarged, spinous dorsal scales; which are also higher than wide (Mitchell 1948; Smith et al. 1999).

The Grassland Earless Dragon is a pale grey or fawn to reddish-brown. It has a broad, pale vertebral stripe ending on the rump, and two narrower pale grey or white stripes on either side (Cogger 2000; Robertson & Evans 2006), which separate darker transverse patches into individual segments. Some individuals have yellow or orange colouration on the throat, sides of the head, flanks, ventral surface, groin and under the tail. Such colouration has been suggested to be male reproductive colours (Jenkins & Bartell 1980), with only adult males displaying orange, predominantly in the autumn and spring. Females and juveniles may have some yellow colouring, but this appears to be limited to the gular region (throat area) and the sides of the head (Langston 1996; Robertson & Evans 2006).

There are three isolated populations of the Grassland Earless Dragon. These occur in the ACT/NSW Southern Tablelands region, southern Victoria and south-east Queensland. Recent records indicate that the species has undergone dramatic decreases in its geographic range (Robertson & Cooper 2000).

In NSW, the Grassland Earless Dragon has been recorded from Bathurst (Osborne et al. 1993b), south through the ACT to the Monaro grasslands in the Southern Tablelands (Mitchell 1948). The species occurs near Cooma and Queanbeyan (Biosis Research 1995; Doody 2000; Osborne et al. 1993a).

Within the ACT, Grassland Earless Dragon populations persist in the Jerrabomberra Valley near Woden, and in the Majura Valley near the Canberra Airport (Osborne et al. 1993a). The species is also known to occur on Commonwealth land controlled by HMAS Harman (Defence Land) (Lowe 1996). Past records suggest that the species was locally common prior to 1970 (R. Jenkins & D. Rowell, pers. comm. in Robertson & Cooper 2000; Pryor 1938). It was known adjacent to Northbourne Avenue, Canberra, in the 1950s (Young 1992).

In Victoria, the species was reported typically from the basalt plains, being known from several locations to the north of Melbourne and as far west as the Geelong area (Brereton & Backhouse 2003; Lucas & Frost 1894; McCoy 1889; Mitchell 1948), where it was described as "not very uncommon" (McCoy 1889 in Robertson & Cooper 2000). Five sightings believed to be Grassland Earless Dragons were reported between 1988 and 1990 in the upper reaches of Merri Creek, Holden Flora Reserve and Little River (Brereton & Backhouse 2003; Robertson & Cooper 2000). Subsequent surveys at those locations have failed to confirm the identity of the sightings as Grassland Earless Dragons (Robertson & Cooper 2000). A sighting reported near Craigieburn in 1990 (Beardsell 1997) requires further investigation (Robertson & Cooper 2000).

In Queensland, one Grassland Earless Dragon was collected from grassy-grassy/woodland habitat near Toowoomba, Queensland in 1978 (Smith et al. 1999). In January 2001 an individual was captured on private property at Bongeen in south-east Queensland. Since then over thirty individuals have been found in the Bongeen and Brookstead areas and future survey work is planned to investigate the extent of its distribution on the south-eastern Darling Downs (Hobson 2003). Although recent work on the populations from the Darling Downs area show them to be more closely related to Tympanocryptis tetraporophora (Melville et al. 2007). In 2009, two live and one dead, Grassland Earless Dragons were collected in the Pittsworth region (two near Mt Tyson and one near Felton) (Pittsworth Sentinel 2009).

As a result of translocation activities, individuals of the species are now in captivity at Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, ACT and at the Melbourne Zoo (CAG 2002).

Surveys for the species have been conducted by NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service in areas between the ACT/Queanbeyan sites and the sites near Cooma (J. Dawson 2001, pers. comm).

Trapping and monitoring surveys for the Grassland Earless Dragon at Canberra Airport were carried out by Environment ACT in 1996, 1997 and 1999 (Rowell 2001).

The Draft National Recovery Plan (Robertson and Evans 2006) contains current lists of surveys undertaken in the ACT, NSW and Victoria.

The apparent extent of decline of the Grassland Earless Dragon and its grassland habitat indicates that all extant populations are extremely important for the survival of the taxon. The relevant state and territory conservation agencies, which generally assess the status of threatened species by considering populations only within their boundaries, have reflected this by placing the species in categories of very high conservation concern. All currently known and subsequently discovered populations should be considered in conservation strategies for this species (Roberetson & Evans 2006).

Sites supporting Grassland Earless Dragons in the ACT. From workshop report of July & August 1998 (Anon 1998, cited in Roberetson & Evans 2006).

Site Name Area (ha) Land Jurisdiction Land use policy
East Majura 332.7 Commonwealth Broadacre (military training)
West Majura 160.0 Territory and Commonwealth Broadacre
West Jerrabomberra 217.0 Territory Broadacre / Reserve
East Jerrabomberra 394.4 Territory and Commonwealth Broadacre
AMTECH 24.2 Territory Industrial / Broadacre
Callum Brae North 53.4 Territory Broadacre (future industrial)
Cookanalla 99.4 Territory Broadacre (future industrial)

Sites supporting Grassland Earless Dragons in NSW (Roberetson & Evans 2006).

Site Name Area
(ha)
Land Jurisdiction Land use policy
North Poplars 50 Private Broadacre
South Poplars 50 Private Broadacre
Queanbeyan Nature Reserve 56 DECC Conservation
Kuma Nature Reserve 181 DECC Conservation
Cooma Landfill "extension" 50 Cooma-Monaro Shire Council Broadacre
"Quartz Hill"   Private Broadacre
Myalla TSR   TSR, Cooma RLPB Broadacre
Eight Mile Bobundara TSR (southern section)   TSR, Cooma RLPB Broadacre
Four Mile TSR   TSR, Cooma RLPB Broadacre
Fifteen Mile Bobundara Rd (Ravensworth) TSR   TSR, Bombala RLPB Broadacre
Nine Mile TSR (large section)   TSR, Cooma RLPB Broadacre

There are no known existing populations in Victoria, although there have been unconfirmed sightings within the last 25 years (Robertson & Evans 2006).

The Grassland Earless Dragon is known to occur in the gazetted Kuma Nature Reserve near Cooma on the Monaro plains (J. Dawson 2001, pers. comm.), and in the Queanbeyan Nature Reserve on the outskirts of southern Queanbeyan. Both Reserves are managed by the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (Robertson & Evans 2006).

In Jerrabomberra Valley two grazing properties, "Woden" and "Callum Brae", were withdrawn from leasehold in 2005. These properties are pending gazettal as nature reserves and are currently managed by the ACT government to protect the species and the natural temperate grassland habitat (Robertson and Evans 2006).

North of Melbourne is the Craigieburn Grasslands Reserve which has been obtained by the Victorian Government for conservation (Robertson & Evans 2006). There is a unconfirmed sighting of the Grassland Earless Dragon from this area (Beardsell 1997).

The Grassland Earless Dragon is found in naturally treeless native tussock grassland on black clay, brown clay loams and podzolic soils (Cogger et al. 1993). It prefers ungrazed or lightly grazed temperate grasslands on gentle slopes dominated by wallaby grasses (Danthonia), spear grasses (Stipa), tussock grasses (Poa), and Kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra) (Brereton & Backhouse 2003; Langston 1996; Osborne et al. 1993a, 1993b; Robertson & Evans 2006). Within grasslands it uses a mix of predominantly shorter grasses and taller tussocks (Osborne et al. 1993a; Smith 1994).

In Cooma, NSW, specimens were found under basalt boulders on the lower slopes of escarpments and hills (Doody 2000; Osborne et al. 1993b).

In Victoria the species has been recorded occurring in native tussock grassland on stony crests or rocky stream escarpment (Brereton & Backhouse 2003) where lizards have been found sheltering under surface rocks or in rocky outcrops (Cogger et al. 1993).

Rocks are uncommon in grasslands in the ACT, individuals instead sheltering in burrows of the wolf spider (Lycosa) and wood cricket (Cooraboorama canberrae) (Langston 1996), or in Stipa tussocks (Robertson & Evans 2006). Grassland Earless Dragons were seen sharing wolf spider holes, with wolf spiders, on several occasions. The hole was webbed over each time, suggesting that the lizard was not leaving it very often (Rowell 2001).

The Grassland Earless Dragon may use different shelter sites depending on local environmental conditions or season (Robertson & Evans 2006). It has been demonstrated that Grassland Earless Dragons will take up residence in new areas with artificial burrows, although the ultimate reason for this expansion is not known (prey availability was not tested) (Benson 1999a).

Capture data indicates that the Grassland Earless Dragon is an annual species, with few recaptures of adults from previous years (Langston 1996; Nelson et al. 1996; Smith 1994).

This species is oviparous (eggs are laid by the female and develop outside the body), as with other members of the family Agamidae (Cogger 2000). Gravid (carrying eggs) females have been found from September to January. Most females are believed to reproduce only once in their lifetime (Langston 1996; Nelson et al. 1996; Smith 1994), however, a few females may survive a second year and produce a second clutch (Langston 1996). Only two clutches have been found in the field (in late November/early December), each of five eggs. One was found under soil and stones in a small scrape to disguise its existence. The other was unintentionally disturbed and the eggs were successfully incubated in a laboratory. Field incubation time for the first clutch was 79 days (Langston 1996). Hatching is known to occur from January to March in the ACT (Smith 1994).

Hatchling growth is rapid, with Grassland Earless Dragons reaching adult size by the end of March (Smith 1994). Adult growth rates are much slower (averaging 0.08 mm/day) (Langston 1996).

In captivity Grassland Earless Dragons display aggressive behaviour, with larger individuals dominating (Smith 1994).

The Grassland Earless Dragon utilises tufts of grass as perches when foraging (Smith 1994).

This species appears to exhibit territory overlap (Smith 1994). Mark-recapture indicated no difference in movement patterns by different age classes. Individual adults move in a range of 40 m to 110 m per day (Langston 1996; Robertson & Evans 2006).

Trapping and monitoring surveys for the Grassland Earless Dragon have been carried out at the Canberra Airport by Environment ACT. The methods used were successful in locating and recovering the species. A torch was sufficient to detect half of the animals found, due to their use of old raspy cricket (Cooraboorama canberrae) holes on this site (Rowell 2001).

Spider tubes were used for the surveys conducted by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service in areas between the ACT/Queanbeyan sites and the sites near Cooma (J. Dawson 2001, pers. comm.)

The use of fibrerscope doubled the detection rate, and excavation of holes showed that the fibrescope gave reliable results. The fibrescope is non-destructive and effective, and also worth using more widely in presence/absence surveys. Used systematically, the fibrescope may give more accurate data than spider tubes on numbers of the Grassland Earless Dragon at sites where burrows are the main potential for shelter sites, as spider tubes rely on animals choosing to leave natural holes for artificial ones (Rowell 2001).

The main reasons for the decline in Grassland Earless Dragon populations are considered to be habitat loss and fragmentation, caused by agricultural and urban development, which still threaten existing populations. Processes that modify and degrade remaining habitat include: rock removal, irrigation, changed fire regimes, changed grazing regimes, invasion of weeds and introduced animals (Brereton & Backhouse 2003; Cogger et al. 1993; Osborne et al. 1993a; Osborne & Kukolic 1992; Robertson & Evans 2006). Only 0.5% of temperate lowland grasslands in south-eastern Australia remain in a semi-natural condition (Kirkpatrick et al. 1995).

Introduced rabbits and weeds may threaten habitat quality by changing the matrix of short and tall tussocks (Robertson & Cooper 2000).

The Grassland Earless Dragon generally does not occur in grasslands that have been significantly modified by cultivation. Cultivation changes the composition and structure of plant species and possibly the availability of food, which is likely to severely degrade or completely remove suitable habitat for the Grassland Earless Dragon. Ploughing is likely to result in the destruction of arthropod burrows which the Grassland Earless Dragon uses as shelter (Robertson & Evans 2006).

Translocation of individual species is being carried out in order to protect the species from habitat destruction (i.e. individuals have been translocated to reserves) (CAG 2002). An experimental field release of individuals to the Canberra Airport site has also been proposed. The objective of this experiment is to determine where the Grassland Earless Dragon is able to re-establish in the field. The information gained is expected to assist in determining whether re-establishment is a viable option for future salvaged individuals or captive-bred individuals (Environment ACT 2001).

Management documents that are relevant to the management of the Grassland Earless Dragon include:

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Brereton, R & G. Backhouse, 2003) [State Action Plan].
The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Reptile diversity at risk in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 42(2):475-486. (Covacevich, J.A., P.J. Couper & K.R. McDonald, 1998) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Brereton, R & G. Backhouse, 2003) [State Action Plan].
The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Brereton, R & G. Backhouse, 2003) [State Action Plan].
The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Mixed farms:Habitat modification and destruction due to cropping National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering natural materials:Removal of bush rocks National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Brereton, R & G. Backhouse, 2003) [State Action Plan].
The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla 2000 - 2004 (Robertson, P. & P. Cooper, 2000) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Herbicide application National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pesticide application National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Brereton, R & G. Backhouse, 2003) [State Action Plan].
The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles (Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
National Recovery Plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Robertson, P. & M. Evans, 2009) [Recovery Plan].

Beardsell, C. (1997). Sites of faunal and habitat significance in North East Melbourne. Six volume study prepared for the North East Regional Organisation of Councils (NEROC). Victoria: Nillumbic Shire Council.

Benson, K.A. (1999a). Habitat Selection by Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla over winter using artificial spider burrows at Hume, ACT. ACT Parks and Conservation Service. Canberra: ACT Parks and Conservation Service.

Biosis Research Pty Ltd (1995). Eastern gas pipeline project: Flora, fauna & ecology studies. Consultant report for BHP Petroleum and Westcoast Energy. Bkgr pap 5. Biosis Research Pty Ltd. Sydney: Biosis Research Pty Ltd.

Brereton, R & G. Backhouse (2003). Action Statement No. 35 Southern Earless Dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla. [Online]. Melbourne: Dept. Natural Resources & Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/103192/035_Grassland_Earless_Dragon_1993.pdf.

Canberra Airport Group (CAG) (2002). Canberra International Airport Permit to take: E2001-0006 Report on Activities July 2002.

Cogger, H.G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 6th edition. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Cogger, H.G., E.E. Cameron, R.A. Sadlier & P. Eggler (1993). The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/reptiles/index.html.

Dawson, J. (2001). Personal Communication.

Department of Environment and Conservation NSW, Threatened Species (DEC NSW Threatened Species) (2005). Grassland Earless Dragon - Priority actions. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/pas_profile.aspx?id=10817.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011m). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened reptiles. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.6 . [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPaC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-reptiles.html.

Doody, J.S. (2000). Summary of Key Findings from Fauna Monitoring During the Construction Phase of the Eastern Gas Pipeline. Duke Energy Int'l & Ecos Consulting Pty Ltd.

Environment ACT (2001). Grassland Earless Dragon: Proposal for Experimental Release at Canberra Airport.

Hobson, R. (2003). Wildlife Australia Magazine. Summer '03:32-34.

Jenkins, R. & R. Bartell (1980). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of the Australian High Country. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Kirkpatrick, J., K. McDougall & M. Hyde (1995). Australia's Most Threatened Ecosystem: the southeastern lowland native grasslands. Chipping Norton, Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Langston, A. (1996). The ecology and distribution of Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Southern Lined Earless Dragon) in the Australian Capital Territory and adjacent sub-region. Hons. Thesis. Canberra: University of Canberra.

Lowe, C.R. (1996). Conservation management plan for HMAS Harman/Bonshaw and the Belconnen naval Transmitting Station.

Lucas, A.H.S. & Frost, C. (1894). The lizards indigenous to Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 6:24-92.

McCoy, F. (1889). Tympanocryptis lineata (Peters). The White-streaked Earless Lizard. Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria. Decade XIX:297-8. Melbourne: Government Printer.

Melville, J. Goebel, S. Starr, C. Keogh, S. J. Austin, J. J. (2007). Conservation genetics and species status of an endangered Australian dragon, Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Reptilia: Agamidae). Conservation Genetics. 8(1):p185-195.

Mitchell, F.J. (1948). A revision of the lacertilian genus Tympanocryptis. Records of the South Australian Museum. 9:57-86.

Nelson, L.S., W.J.S. Smith, & R. Goldie (1996). 1996 Survey program for the Eastern Lined Earless Dragon, (Tympanocrytpis lineata pinguicolla). Canberra: ACT Parks and Conservation Service.

Osborne, W.S. & K Kukolic (1992). Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla (Southern Lined Earless Dragon). Recovery Plan: Lowland Native Grassland Ecosystems in the Australian Capital Territory. Page(s) 32-35. Wildl. Res. Unit, ACT Parks and Cons Service. ACT Parks and Conservation Service, Canberra.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Tympanocryptis pinguicolla in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 19 Apr 2014 05:38:42 +1000.