In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Milyeringa veritas (Blind Gudgeon) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008w) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4
(Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Milyeringa veritas |
|Species author||Whitley, 1945|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The Blind Gudgeon is a small fish growing to 4.5 cm, generally white, but sometimes slightly pink in colour (Allen 1989).
This species is known to occur on the Cape Range Peninsula in the arid NW of WA (Humphreys & Feinberg 1995) and at Barrow I., to the NE of the Cape Range Peninsula, off the WA coastline (Humphreys 1999). It possibly also occurs in the lower Robe River and Fortescue River aquifers on the mainland opposite Barrow Island (G R. Allen 2000, pers. comm.).
Humphreys (1999) noted that this species has been recorded from 25 sites (an extension to the number of sites and habitats), but the known range of the species on the Cape Range peninsula has not increased since 1991. On the western coast of the Cape Range Peninsula, populations occur at Kudumurra Well, Milyering Well (Mees 1962), Five Mile Well, Homestead Well, New Yardie Well, Pilgramuna Well, Tantabiddi Well and two small sink holes south of Tantabiddi Ck (Allen 1982). In 1989 this species was also found at Javis Well (the most southerly location on the W side of the Cape Range peninsula) (Humphreys & Adams 1991) . On the eastern side of the Cape Range Peninsula the species was first found in 1963 at Kubura Well (Cawthorn 1963). In 1989 this species was also found on the eastern side of the Cape Range peninsula at Mowbowra Well. However, no specimens were found at Tantabiddi Well (Humphreys & Adams 1991). Numbers of this species found in caves vary from a few to around 100 (Humphreys 1999).
This species is known only from the underground waters which lie beneath the narrow coastal plain of the Cape Range Peninsula in WA (Allen 1982; Humphreys & Blyth 1994) in water temperatures which ranged from 27°C to 30°C in May and Aug. (Mees 1962). This species has been found in waters ranging from fresh to seawater and has been sampled from caves at water depths up to 33 m, from wells and from bores in which the water table was up to 50 m below the ground surface (Humphreys 1999). This species is one of only two vertebrate animals known from Australasia that are restricted to either caves or groundwater (the other is the blind cave eel Ophisternon candidum) (Humphreys & Blyth 1994).
In terms of small-scale movements it is known that the blind gudgeon moves widely through the water column, often hovering in mid- to surface waters (Humphreys & Blyth 1994).
This species primarily feeds opportunistically on invertebrates (terrestrial isopod crustaceans, cockroaches and ants) accidentally introduced into the aquatic system, but also feed on Stygiocaris shrimps and the aquatic larvae of terrestrial species (caddis larvae). Food items depend in part on their availability. Most of the individuals of this species inhabit areas where there are no surface wells or rockholes to access terrestrial insects as a food source. In these places, the main food items would be aquatic shrimps (Humphreys & Feinberg 1995). The gut contents of specimens collected in 1989 contained detrital matter and the remains of flies (Humphreys & Adams 1991).
The subterranean habit of this species restricts observation in life and hence very little is known about the biology (Humphreys & Feinberg 1995).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Milyeringa veritas (Blind Gudgeon) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008w) [Conservation Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities||Subterranean Secrets. Landscope - W.A's Conservation, Forests and Wildlife Magazine. 9, No. 3:22-27. (Humphreys, B. & J. Blyth, 1994) [Journal].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Habitat modification due to oil/gas/petroleum activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Milyeringa veritas (Blind Gudgeon) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008w) [Conservation Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Recreational use of marine environment||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Milyeringa veritas (Blind Gudgeon) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008w) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to habitat hydrology|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Pollution (chemicals, sewage) due to urban and agricultural run-off|
|Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
Allen, G.R. (1982). A Field Guide to Inland Fishes of Western Australia. Perth, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.
Allen, G.R. (1989a). Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, NSW: T.F.H. Publications.
Allen, G.R. (2000). Personal communication.
Australian Fish Collection Records (undated). Collation of records from Australian Fish Collections.
Cawthorn, P. (1963). Discovery of subterranean freshwater fauna on the eastern side of North West Cape. The Western Australian Naturalist. 8(6):129-132.
Humphreys, B. & J. Blyth (1994). Subterranean Secrets. Landscope - W.A's Conservation, Forests and Wildlife Magazine. 9, No. 3:22-27.
Humphreys, W.F. (1994). The subterranean fauna of the Cape Range coastal plain, northwestern Australia. Page(s) 202.
Humphreys, W.F. (1999). The distribution of Australian cave fishes. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 19:469-472.
Humphreys, W.F. (2003). Letter from Dr W.F. Humphreys to the Minister for the Environment and Heritage. Annual Progress Report for EPBC Act Permit E20010004.
Humphreys, W.F. & M. Adams (1991). The subterranean aquatic fauna of the North West Cape peninsula, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 15, Part 2:383-411.
Humphreys, W.F. & M.N. Feinberg (1995). Food of the blind cave fishes of northwestern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 17:29-33.
Knott, B. (1993). Stygofauna from Cape Range Peninsula, Western Australia: Tethyan relicts. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Supp. 45:109-127.
Mees, G.F. (1962). The subterranean freshwater fauna of Yardie Creek Station, North West Cape, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia. 45, Part 1:24-32.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Milyeringa veritas in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 12 Mar 2014 07:16:55 +1100.