Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche bulleri platei
Listed marine as Thalassarche sp. nov.
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche sp. nov.
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Thalassarche bulleri [64460].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche bulleri nov..
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche sp. nov..
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche bulleri nov..
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche sp. nov..
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178, 181 and 183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) (163) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014j) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche bulleri platei.
 
Scientific name Thalassarche bulleri platei [82273]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Reichenow, 1898)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Brooke, M. (2004), Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World, Oxford University Press; http://nzbirdsonline.org.nz/sites/all/files/checklist/Checklist-of-Birds.pdf
Other names Thalassarche bulleri nov. [82407]
Thalassarche sp. [64461]
Thalassarche sp. nov. [66511]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.
Illustrations Google Images

South Australia: Listed as Vulnerable under the name Diomedea bulleri under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Victoria: Listed as Threatened under the name Thalassarche bulleri under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

International:Listed as Near Threatened under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species 2009.

Listed under Appendix I under the family Diomedeidae under the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. The taxonomic status of the Pacific Albatross includes tentatively accepted as a species (Thalassarche sp. nov. (Robertson & Nunn 1998)), tentatively accepted as a subspecies (T. bulleri 'platei' (Brooke 2004)) and accepted as a subspecies (T. b. platei (Cooper et al. 2006)). Christidis and Boles (2008) do not explicitly accept the Pacific Albatross in their treatment and note that the type specimen is a juvenile T. b. bulleri. Christidis and Boles (2008) suggest the Pacific Albatross requires further taxonomic work and formal publication. Gill and colleagues (2010) reject the claim by Robertson and Nunn (1998) (cited by Christidis and Boles (2008)) that there is a problem with the type for the subspecies platei and accept T. b. platei as the valid name. The Australian Faunal Directory (AFD 2007) does not list any T. bulleri subspecies.

This profile follows the taxonomy applied by Gill and colleagues (2010) and BirdLife Australia (2013), which recognises two subspecies of Thalassarche bulleri - T. b. bulleri (Southern Buller's Albatross) and T. b. platei (Northern Buller's Albatross [equivalent to our Pacific Albatross]).

The Pacific Albatross is a small, rather lightly built albatross, with a wingspan of 205–213 cm (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Males weigh slightly more than females (2.5–3.3 kg compared to 2.15–2.8 kg) (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species has a long slender striking black and yellow bill, a neat grey hood, prominent silvery-white forecap, black patch before the eye, and a thin white crescent to the rear of or below the eye (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The underwings are mostly white, with a moderately broad, fairly straight and sharply defined black leading edge (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Pacific Albatross differs from Buller's Albatross in having a significantly wider bill, a silvery-grey (rather than white) forehead and forecrown, and a generally darker head and neck (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species' also have varied timing of breeding and length of incubation stints, however, this may be explained by location of sites and associated foraging opportunities, rather than genetics (Brooke 2004).

The Pacific Albatross is a non-breeding visitor to Australian waters. Foraging birds are mostly limited to the Pacific Ocean and the Tasman Sea, although birds do reach the east coast of the Australian mainland (EA 2001f). Occurrence within the Australian Fishing Zone is likely (Garnett & Crowley 2000), however, the threat from longline injury is considered low (AGDEH 2006q).

The Pacific Albatross breeds only on Chatham and Three Kings Island, New Zealand, and during this period it is also recorded in the oceanic subtropical east of New Zealand (EA 2001f). Most birds seem to disperse outside Australasian seas during the non-breeding season. Away from the breeding grounds, they tend to range across the south Pacific Ocean north of the Antarctic Convergence, from south-east Australia to west South America. Some non-breeding birds have been sighted off the west coast of South America and it is possible that many also forage over the Louisville Ridge north-east of New Zealand (EA 2001f; Stahl et al. 1998).

The foraging distribution of this species is poorly known, predominantly due to taxonomic confusion and the difficulty of distinguishing the Pacific Albatross and Buller's Albatross at sea (EA 2001f).

The current global population of the Pacific Albatross is estimated at 80 000–90 000 individuals, with 18 000 pairs breeding annually (Croxall & Gales 1998; Gales 1998). However, the available population estimates are crude, being derived from estimations of the occupied area, which is poorly known (EA 2001f). Reliable population data only exists for Little Sister Island, which is estimated to contain less than < 4% of the total population (EA 2001f; Gales 1998).

It is not possible to evaluate the population trend for this species due the lack of reliable population information. The validity of available information is compounded by the taxonomic confusion and similar appearence of the Pacific Albatross and Buller's Albatross (EA 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Pacific Albatross is a marine, pelagic species. It occurs in subtropical and subantarctic waters of the South Pacific Ocean (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Habitat preferences are poorly known (Marchant & Higgins 1990). In New Zealand, the species has been observed in association with fishing boats close inshore and over waters of 180–360 m depth (Robertson & Jenkins 1981; Secker 1969) although it is not so strongly associated with fishing grounds as are other albatrosses (Bartle 1974).

In Australia, the species occurs over inshore, offshore and pelagic waters (Blaber 1986; Carter 1977; Rogers 1969) and off the coast of south-east Tasmania. The Pacific Albatross prefers waters of the East Australia Current where sea surface-temperatures are greater than 16.5 °C (Blaber 1986). The birds fly in low or medium airspace using updraft off sea swell for lift (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species takes food from the surface with shallow dives to depth of 1 m observed (Fenwick 1978).

The birds breed on subtropical and subantarctic islands and rock stacks in the New Zealand region, on sparsely vegetated slopes, cliff tops and ledges on rocky islands or stacks (Dawson 1973; Robertson 1974; Wright 1984).

The Pacific Albatross nests in colonies, but the breeding biology is not well known (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Pairs appear to bond for life and pair bonds are re-established upon arrival at the breeding colony (Richdale & Warham 1973). The nest is a conical mound of earth and grasses with a central depression. Individual nests are scattered about on steep grassy slopes or on flatter ground beneath trees and may occur as small groups (Serventy et al. 1971). A single egg is incubated by both sexes in alternate shifts, the female taking the first shift. The nestling period has not been determined, but the young probably fledge 4–5 months after hatching (Marchant & Higgins 1990), or in June (Robertson 1985, 1991). There is no information about parental care of the chicks, but the young are probably independent of the parents when fully fledged (EA 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

On Chatham Island, courting birds are at their nests in October and laying occurs October–November. The incubation period is mid-January. At the end of January and the start of February, 7–10 day old chicks have been observed (Bell 1955; Dawson 1955; Fleming 1939). On Three Kings Island, eggs and chicks have been reported in mid-January and incubating in early December (McCallum et al. 1985; Wright 1984).

The generation length of the Pacific Albatross is 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000). There are no published data regarding breeding success, juvenile survival, recruitment rates or age at first breeding for this species.

The Pacific Albatross is likely to eat cephalopods (squid) and fish (Marchant & Higgins 1990). This species has been observed attending fishing boats (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Pacific Albatross may only move locally but at least some, possibly only pre-breeders, move to the Humboldt Current (Warham 1982). The species is uncommon east of the Cook Strait, New Zealand until late April (Bartle 1974) and recoveries from New Zealand beaches peak in June (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Powlesland 1985).

The National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels (EA 2001f) identified incidental catch during longline fishing operations, competition with fisheries for marine resources and marine pollution as the biggest threats to the Pacific Albatross populations in Australian waters. When migrating through the East Marine Region, the Pacific Albatross may be at threat from a loss of food stock, ingestion or being caught in marine debris, oil spills, pollution and commercial fishing that occurs within the region (DEWHA 2009m).

Incidental catch during longline fishing operations
Longline fishing has been identified as the primary threat currently affecting albatross (Gales 1998). The two main forms of mortality that affect albatross are bycatch during line-setting, and ingestion of (discarded) fishing hooks.

Incidental bycatch during line-setting
Since the 1950s longline fishing fleets have expanded into every major oceanic sector to the point that most individual albatrosses are likely to interact with longline fishing vessels at some stage in their lives. During line-setting, baits attached to hooks are paid out from the stern of the ship. Albatross habitually follow fishing vessels and aggressively compete for baits. In doing so, birds risk getting hooked on the lines and being drawn underwater to drown (Alexander et al. 1997).

Ingestion of fishing hooks
Albatross captured on longline fishing hooks may survive the hauling process, but retain the long-line hooks, causing death or disability (Brothers 1991; Nel & Nel 1999). Presumably, most instances of hook ingestion occur as a result of the processing procedures (notably the discarding of hooked fish heads by factory crew) undertaken on non-Australian and/or illegal demersal longlining vessels. Occasionally, fishing gear is regurgitated to chicks, resulting in chick-death (EA 2001f). The frequency of longline hooks being regurgitated at South Georgia nest sites of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) and Black-browed Albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris) had reportedly increased six-fold in the 1990s (Cooper 1995; Huin & Croxall 1996). Since almost all albatross species have been recorded on longline hooks, it is very likely that most, or all, albatross species suffer from swallowing fishing equipment (EA 2001f).

Competition with fisheries for marine resources
The progressive degradation of the marine habitat, particularly the global over-extraction of marine resources, may have serious long-term effects on the status of albatross (Croxall & Gales 1998). Seabird populations have declined through direct competition with fisheries for prey (Croxall & Gales 1998; EA 2001f). The ecological sustainability of fisheries is crucial to albatross (EA 2001f).

Marine pollution
Organochlorines and heavy metals degrade very slowly in the environment. These chemical contaminants are retained by organisms and become concentrated in the tissues of higher-order feeders. Consequently, top order predators, such as albatross, may build-up hazardous levels of synthetic chemicals in their tissue. Furthermore, because albatross are a long-lived and typically highly dispersive species, they have even greater opportunity to accumulate high levels of chemical contaminants (EA 2001f). Elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants can have deleterious population level effects through diminished reproductive success caused by eggshell thinning, embryo non-viability and offspring deformities (Croxall et al. 1984; Ludwig et al. 1998).

In addition, sea-jettisoned marine debris can impact upon albatross in two ways: through ingestion or via entanglement (Huin & Croxall 1996). Many albatross species ingest plastic and other marine debris that have a wide range of lethal or sub-lethal effects. The debris can cause physical damage, perforation, mechanical blockage or impairment of the digestive system, resulting in starvation. Some plastics are also a source of toxic pollutants, which are released into the blood stream (Ryan 1988a; Ryan et al. 1988). The subsequent reduction in fitness can lower the bird's ability to reproduce, catch prey and/or avoid predation (Fry et al. 1987; Sileo et al. 1990).

A substantial number of mitigation measures for reducing the impacts of threatening processes on the Pacific Albatross are outlined in the National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001–05 (EA 2001f). Specific objectives include:

  • Quantify and reduce the threats to the survival of albatross within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Quantify and reduce the threats to the foraging habitat of albatross within areas under Australian jurisdiction.
  • Educate fishers and promote public awareness of the threats to albatross.
  • Achieve substantial progress towards global conservation of albatross in international conservation and fishing fora.
  • Assess and revise the albatross recovery plan as necessary (EA 2001f).

The following management plans may have recovery actions relevant to the Pacific Albatross:

  • The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000)
  • National recovery plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels (EA 2001f)
  • Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or By-Catch) of Seabirds during Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q)
  • Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (DEWHA 2009t)
  • Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares (DEWHA 2009u)
  • The East Marine Bioregional Plan, Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region (DEWHA 2009m).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Thalassarche bulleri nov. in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vq) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Habitat modification and negative impacts on species numbers due to recreational fishing National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Industrial and Military Effluents:Habitat degradation due to industrial discharge National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche bulleri platei in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 02:22:14 +1000.