Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Geophaps smithii blaauwi
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Geophaps smithii blaauwi.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Petrophassa smithii blaauwi.
 
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument] as Petrophassa smithii blaauwi.
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Geophaps smithii blaauwi
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Geophaps smithii blaauwi [66501]
Family Columbidae:Columbiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Mathews, 1912
Reference  
Other names Petrophassa smithii blaauwi [26189]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Geophaps smithii blaauwi.

Common name: Partridge Pigeon (western).

Other names: At the species level, the Partridge Pigeon has also been known as the Partridge Bronzewing, Smith's Partridge Bronzewing, Bare-eyed Partridge Bronzewing, Bare-eyed Pigeon, Naked-eye Partridge Pigeon and Red-eyed Partridge Pigeon (Higgins & Davies 1996).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) is a conventionally accepted subspecies of the Partridge Pigeon (Johnstone 1981; Schodde & Mason 1997). The Partridge Pigeon, and its two subspecies, were previously classified in the genus Petrophassa, but are now placed in the genus Geophaps (Christidis & Boles 1994).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) is 24 to 29 cm long and weighs 160 to 245 g (Hill 1911; Johnstone 1981; Johnstone & Storr 1998). It is mostly olive-brown or grey-brown, with distinctive facial markings, a black bill, white, yellow, grey or brown irides, a patch of metallic green (male) or purple (female) on the upper side of each wing, white flanks (which appear as a white crescent around the head of each folded wing), a white to buff belly, and pink, brown or grey legs and feet. The facial markings consist of a large area of bright yellow skin around each eye, bordered above and below with narrow black lines, and with broader white lines that, below the eye, extend from the base of the bill to the ear coverts and down the neck; and a white chin and throat, extending to the ear coverts and bordered below with a narrow band of grey, brown or black (Higgins & Davies 1996; Johnstone 1981; Johnstone & Storr 1998). Juvenile and immature birds can be separated from the adults on the basis of their plumage, which is extensively marked. The upperparts of juvenile and immature birds have greyish-brown and buff speckles, flecks, bars and fringes. Furthermore, the patch of metallic green or purple on each wing is absent or reduced in size (Johnstone & Storr 2004).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) occurs in pairs and in small flocks of up to 20 birds (Hill 1911; Johnstone 1981; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Storr 1980).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) is confined to the Kimberley Division in northeastern Western Australia (Johnstone 1981; Schodde & Mason 1997). It occurs at remote locations within around 100 km of the coast from Kimbolton Spring, on the Yampi Peninsula, north to Napier Broome Bay and Kalumburu, and inland to the lower Isdell River, middle Charnley River, Wulumara Creek, Mitchell Plateau and lower Drysdale River (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Butler 1977; Fraser 2000; Graham 2007, pers. comm.; Johnstone 1981; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Mees 1968; Storr 1980).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with high reliability, to be 30 000 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). A comparison between historical records and records obtained since 1977 indicate that the extent of occurrence has remained more or less stable for the past 30 years (Barrett et al. 2003; Franklin 1999a; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy is estimated, with low reliability, to be 1 000 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy appears to have declined in recent decades; since 1977, the Partridge Pigeon (western) has only been recorded in five of the six one degree grid-squares from which historical records are available (Barrett et al. 2003; Franklin 1999a). It is likely that this decline in the area of occupancy is ongoing (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Atlas of Australian Birds has records of the Partridge Pigeon (western) from five locations since 1998 (Barrett et al. 2003), plus some recent records from the Yampi Peninsula in recent years. However, the terrain occupied by the Partridge Pigeon (western) is remote and largely inaccessible (Graham 2007, pers. comm.), and it is therefore possible that the subspecies could be more widely distributed than the available records indicate.

The Partridge Pigeon is held in captivity by private aviculturists and a small number of zoos (Australian Species Management Plan 1991; Garnett 1993). However, it is not known what proportion of these birds, if any, are of the western subspecies (Garnett 1993).

The extent to which the distribution is fragmented is effectively unknown. However, it is generally considered that, due to the impacts of threatening processes, the population is becoming increasingly fragmented (Graham 2007, pers. comm.).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) has been poorly surveyed. There have not been any systematic, targeted surveys for the subspecies, and the population estimates that are available are purely speculative.

The population size of the Partridge Pigeon (western) is estimated to consist of 5 000 breeding birds. This estimate is based on the small number of records of this subspecies and so is considered to be of low reliability (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The Partridge Pigeon (western) is common in some localities (such as the Mitchell Plateau), but less so over most of its range (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone & Storr 1998).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) is believed to occur in a single, intra-breeding population (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The population size of the Partridge Pigeon (western) evidently declined during the 20th century. This is based on reported distributional declines (eg. area of occupancy) since 1977 (Franklin 1999a), and on anecdotal evidence of declines in numbers. The Partridge Pigeon (western) was said to have been "common" at sites west of the Durack River (House 1902) and at Kalumburu (Hill 1911) in the early 20th century. Today however, it is generally considered to be "uncommon or moderately common" (although it remains "common" at some locations) (Johnstone & Storr 1998) and only a single pair was recorded during searches at Kalumburu in 1999. Furthermore, one well-established tour guide believes that the abundance of the Partridge Pigeon (western) in the Mitchell Plateau region has declined dramatically since he began making regular visits to the region (Graham 2007, pers. comm.). It is likely that this decline in numbers is ongoing (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) is not known to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population size, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy.

The generation length is estimated, with low reliability, to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Partridge Pigeon (western) and the eastern subspecies of the Partridge Pigeon, G. s. smithii, or between the Partridge Pigeon and any other species. It is unlikely that the two subspecies of the Partridge Pigeon cross-breed in the wild because their distributions do not overlap (Higgins & Davies 1996).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) occurs in Mitchell River National Park and Prince Regent Nature Reserve (Barrett et al. 2003; Garnett 1993).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) occurs primarily in low, open, grassy woodland, particularly on the ecotone between the rugged King Leopold Sandstones and alluvial flats of the Kimberley region (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone 1981). Its preferred habitat is dominated by low woodland, tall shrubland and tall open shrubland, and has vegetation comprised of various species of Eucalyptus (including E. apodophylla, E. bigalerita, E. latifolia, E. miniata, and E. polycarpa), and species of Acacia (including A. holosericea and A. kelleri), with Terminalia fitzgeraldii, Adansonia gregorii, and a suite of grasses including Sorghum, Eriachne, Themeda australis, Chrysopogon latifolius and Plectrachne pungens (Johnstone 1981; Johnstone & Storr 1998). The Partridge Pigeon (western) has also been recorded foraging alongside roads, and in areas that have recently been burnt (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone 1981).The variety of habitats inhabited by the Partridge Pigeon (western) suggests that a patchy mosaic of habitats may be important to the subspecies (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone 1981).

They nest on the ground, at the base of a clump of dry grass, often with broken stems of grass hanging over and sheltering the nest. Nests may also be placed on a grass tussock or at the base of a tree.

This species usually roosts on the ground among thick ground-cover, but occasionally roosts on the lower branches of trees (Higgins & Davies 1996). This habit makes the Partridge Pigeon (western) vulnerable to predation by feral cats, foxes and dingos.

The Partridge Pigeon (western) does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities that are listed under the EPBC Act 1999. It is not known to associate with any other species or subspecies that is listed as threatened under the EPBC Act 1999.

No specific information is available on the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality. However, Garnett & Crowley (2000) estimate the generation length to be five years. The generation length is the average age of parents of the current cohort, and therefore reflects the turnover rate of breeding individuals in a population. In species that breed more than once the generation length is greater than the age at first breeding and less than the age of the oldest breeding individual. It is suspected that the Partridge Pigeon (western) might be capable of breeding at one year of age, as recorded for captive females of the closely related Squatter Pigeon (Geophaps scripta) (Stewart 1982), and of surviving up to about 14 years of age, as recorded for other members of the family Columbidae in Australia (ABBBS 1980, 1993; Pratt 1973).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) has been recorded breeding from March to July (Hill 1911; Johnstone 1981; Johnstone & Storr 1998). It lays its eggs on the ground in a shallow depression that is lined with grass (Hill 1911; Johnstone & Storr 1998). Clutches consist of two white or cream eggs (Hill 1991; Johnstone & Storr 1998; Storr 1980). The breeding biology is otherwise unrecorded. However, at the full-species level, the eggs of captive Partridge Pigeons are incubated for 19 days (Dowling 1993) and, in the wild, the young are capable of leaving nest about 10 days after hatching (Frith 1982b). In captivity, Partridge Pigeons have been recorded to lay second and third clutches if the eggs are removed or predated, although they also regularly abandon the eggs without apparent reason (Dowling 1993). It is likely that the western subspecies of the Partridge Pigeon exhibits similar breeding behaviour.

The Partridge Pigeon (western) feeds on the seeds of grasses, legumes and herbs, particularly species of Acacia and Euphorbia, and on invertebrates including grasshoppers, beetles, caterpillars and small snails (Frith et al. 1976; Hill 1911; Johnstone & Storr 1998).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) forages on the ground and has been observed foraging singly, in pairs or in flocks of five to twenty birds (Higgins & Davies 1996). It is often seen foraging beside roads and creeks, on short grass, or in areas that have recently been burnt (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone 1981). It is said to drink in the morning and late afternoon (Hill 1911), although it may drink at any time of the day (Frith 1982b).

The movements of the Partridge Pigeon (western) are essentially unknown. There is no evidence of any large-scale seasonal movement (Blakers et al. 1984), but it probably disperses locally in response to seasonal changes in the availability of food and water (Frith 1982b; Higgins & Davies 1996).

No specific information is available on the home ranges or territories of the Partridge Pigeon (western). However, at the species level, the Partridge Pigeon drinks daily and may travel more than two kilometres to drink at small waterholes (Brouwer & Garnett 1990; Frith 1982b). In captivity, male Partridge Pigeons are highly aggressive towards one another (Shephard 1989), and it is likely that the Partridge Pigeon (western) exhibits similar behaviour in the wild.

Distinctiveness:
The Partridge Pigeon (western) (G. s. blaauwi) can be distinguished from other subspecies of the Partridge Pigeon (G. s. smithii) by the colour of the bare facial skin around the eye, which is yellow in G. s. blaauwi and red in G. s. smithii. However, the distribution of the two subspecies does not overlap, so confusion in the wild should not be problematic (Higgins & Davies 1996).

The only threats to the Partridge Pigeon (western) that have been identified are the degradation and loss of its habitat. The habitat of the Partridge Pigeon could potentially be degraded by changes to the fire regime, or overgrazing, and lost through clearance of native vegetation (Fraser 2002, pers. comm.; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Johnstone 1981; Lewis 2002, pers. comm.). It is presumed that the Partridge Pigeon (western), like the eastern subspecies (G. s. smithii), requires a temporal and spatial mosaic of burning, traditionally employed by Aboriginal people, to maintain its habitat. However, there has been a shift in the fire regime of the Kimberley Division, whereby fires are now concentrated in the late dry season, and promote the invasion of Partridge Pigeon (western) habitat by annual sorghum, a trend that is likely to continue (Garnett & Crowley 2000). This change could also reduce the amount of vegetative cover that is available and in such a situation the Partridge Pigeon (western), which nests on the ground, could be more susceptible to terrestrial predators such as the Dingo (Canis lupis dingo) and feral cat (Felis catus) (Graham 2007, pers. comm.; Woinarski 2005).

The impact of grazing is not entirely clear. Feral cattle (Bos) and pigs (Sus scrofa) have been present in the Kimberley Division for some time, and there is no evidence to indicate that they have had any adverse effect on the Partridge Pigeon (western) or its habitat (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, it has more recently been suggested that grazing by introduced herbivores can reduce the availability and abundance of seeds of perennial grasses, which are a key component of the diet of the Partridge Pigeon (western) in the early wet season (Fraser 2002, pers. comm.; Lewis 2002, pers. comm.).

The Partridge Pigeon (western) is also dependent on permanent sources of water (such as springs and soaks) during the late dry season, and any threatening process that reduces the availability or quality of these water sources could potentially have an adverse impact on the Partridge Pigeon (western) (Fraser 2002, pers. comm.).

Garnett and Crowley (2000) recommended the following actions for the conservation of the Partridge Pigeon (western):

  • Establish a tighter mosaic of burning throughout the range of the subspecies.
  • Monitor the abundance of the subspecies in accessible areas of the distribution.

The latter recommended action will be difficult to implement because the Partridge Pigeon (western) occurs in extremely remote and rugged terrain and therefore the instigation of an effective survey and monitoring program presents a logistical challenge to conservation personnel. It is considered that management programs for this subspecies should operate at a landscape scale, with a focus on the management of fire, and that the status of the Partridge Pigeon (western) could also be a biological indicator of general trends in the health of those landscapes (Graham 2007, pers. comm.).

Johnstone (1981) provides a review of the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of the Partridge Pigeon (western). Higgins and Davies (1996) provide a comprehensive review of the species.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000) provides a guide to threat abatement and management strategies for the western subspecies of the Partridge Pigeon (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Petrophassa smithii blaauwiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sy) [Internet].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Petrophassa smithii blaauwiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Equus asinus (Donkey, Ass) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus dingo (Dingo, Warrigal, New Guinea Singing Dog) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Geophaps smithii blaauwi (Partridge Pigeon (western) ) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fq) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Petrophassa smithii blaauwiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sy) [Internet].
Geophaps smithii blaauwi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kd) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Petrophassa smithii blaauwiin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006sy) [Internet].
Geophaps smithii blaauwi in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006kd) [Internet].

Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme (1980). Recovery round-up. Corella. 4:133-135.

Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme (ABBBS) (1993). Recovery round-up. Corella. 17:31-32.

Australian Species Management Plan (1991). Regional Census and Plan as at 31st December 1990. Species Management Coordinating Council, Sydney.

Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Brouwer, J., & S. Garnett (Eds) (1990). Threatened Birds of Australia: An Annotated List. Brouwer, J. & S. Garnett, eds. RAOU Report 68. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne, and Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

Butler, W.H. (1977). Notes on Kimberley birds. Western Australian Naturalist. 13:194-195.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Dowling, D. (1993). Partridge Pigeon. Australian Aviculture. 47:229-30.

Franklin, D.C. (1999a). Evidence of disarray amongst granivorous bird assemblages in the savannas of northern Australia, a region of sparse human settlement. Biological Conservation. 90:53-68.

Fraser, F. (2000). Species profile: Partridge Pigeon. Northern Territory Naturalist. 16:38-39.

Fraser, F.J. (2002). Personal communication.

Frith, H.J. (1982b). Pigeons and Doves of Australia. Melbourne: Rigby.

Frith, H.J., T.O. Wolfe & R.D. Barker (1976). Food of eight species of Columbidae, in the Genera Geopelia, Phaps, Geophaps and Petrophassa. Australian Wildlife Research. 3:159-71.

Garnett, S., ed. (1993). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report 82. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, and Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Graham, G. (2007). Personal communication.

Higgins, P.J. & S.J.J.F. Davies, eds (1996). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume Three - Snipe to Pigeons. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Hill, G.F. (1911). Field notes on birds of Kimberley, north-west Australia. Emu. 10:258-290.

House, F.M. (1902). Kimberley Exploring Expedition. Report on Exploration of North-west Kimberley, 1901. In: Brockman. Page(s) 18-19. Western Australian Government, Perth.

Johnstone, R.E. (1981). Notes on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of the Partridge Pigeon (Geophaps smithii) and Spinifex Pigeon (Geophaps plumifera) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 9:49-63.

Johnstone, R.E. & G.M. Storr (1998). Handbook of Western Australian Birds. Vol. 1: Non-passerines (Emu to Dollarbird). Perth, Western Australia: West Australian Museum.

Lewis, M. (2002). Personal communication.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Mees, G.F. (1968). Colour of orbital ring in Partridge-Pigeon. Emu. 67:294.

Pratt, E. (1973). Progress notes on the banding of Bar-shouldered Doves and Crested Pigeons. Australian Bird Bander. 11:8-10.

Schodde, R. & I.J. Mason (1997). Aves (Columbidae to Coracidae). In: Houston, W.W.K. & A. Wells, eds. Zoological Catologue of Australia. 37.2. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Shephard, M. (1989). Aviculture in Australia: Keeping and Breeding Aviary Birds. Melbourne: Black Cockatoo Press.

Stewart, D.J. (1982). The Squatter Pigeon. Australian Aviculture. 36:165--169.

Storr, G.M. (1980). Birds of the Kimberley Division, Western Australia. Special Publications of the Western Australian Museum, No. 11. 11:1-117. Perth, Western Australia: Western Australian Museum.

Woinarski, J. (2005). Living with fire - birds in northern Australia. Fire and Birds: Fire Management for Biodiversity. Weston, M., & P. Olsen, eds. Wingspan. 15:7-9.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Geophaps smithii blaauwi in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 3 Oct 2014 04:24:32 +1000.