Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Thalassarche melanophris
Listed marine as Thalassarche melanophris
Listed migratory - Bonn as Thalassarche melanophris
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanopris) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005k) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Thalassarche melanophris.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Plan for the Eradication of Rabbits and Rodents on Subantarctic Macquarie Island (Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service (Tas. PWS), 2007a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche melanophris.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea melanophris.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche melanophris.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (19/05/2005) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005f) [Legislative Instrument] as Thalassarche melanophris.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Black-browed Albatross - vulnerable species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1997h) [Internet].
NSW:Black-browed Albatross - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005mi) [Internet].
NSW:Black-browed Albatross Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999ca) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Thalassarche melanophrys (Black-browed Albatross): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014th) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Thalassarche melanophris
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Thalassarche melanophrys
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Thalassarche melanophris
Scientific name Thalassarche melanophris [66472]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Temminck, 1828)
Infraspecies author  
Reference http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=1960
Other names Diomedea melanophris melanophris [25997]
Diomedea melanophris [1074]
Thalassarche melanophrys [84903]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Black-browed Albatross, Thalassarche melanophris, under Australian Government legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable and as a Marine and Migratory species under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

New South Wales: Listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Victoria: The Black-browed Albatross is not listed under any government legislation in Victoria, but it is listed as Endangered under Advisory List of Threatened Species in Victoria 2003.

Tasmania: Listed as Endangered under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

South Australia: The Black-browed Albatross is not listed under any government legislation in South Australia, but the Campbell Albatross T. impavida, which was formerly treated as a subspecies of the Black-browed Albatross and continues to be treated as such by some authors, is listed as Vulnerable under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Western Australia: Listed as 'fauna that is rare or is likely to become extinct' under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Thalassarche melanophris

Common name: Black-browed Albatross

Other names: Black-browed Mollymawk.


The Black-browed Albatross is a conventionally accepted species of the genus Thalassarche (Brooke 2004; Robertson & Nunn 1998), but some controversy exists over the species name and the taxonomic relationships between the Black-browed Albatross and the Campbell Albatross.

The species name melanophris was assigned when the first specimen was described in 1828. The species name was amended to melanophrys in 1839, but the justification for this amendment is not universally accepted, and as a consequence the name melanophris continues to be applied in the literature by some authors (Brooke 2004; del Hoyo et al. 1992; Holdaway et al. 2001).

The Black-browed Albatross was formerly treated as a member of the genus Diomedea and considered to consist of two subspecies: nominate melanophris, breeding on a number of islands in the Southern Ocean, and subspecies impavida, breeding only on Campbell Island south of New Zealand (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Mayr & Cottrell 1979). The subspecies impavida was recently separated from the subspecies melanophris and promoted to full species status as the Campbell Albatross (Robertson & Nunn 1998), a revision supported by a genetic study (comparison of control region mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite loci) (Burg & Croxall 2001).

However, a subsequent genetic analysis (of cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequence data) suggested that the degree of genetic divergence observed between melanophris and impavida was not sufficient to warrant the elevation of impavida to species level (Penhallurick & Wink 2004). Disagreement continues, with the taxonomic recommendations of Penhallurick and Wink (2004) questioned by Rheindt and Austin (2005) on the basis of purported flaws in methodology.

The Black-browed Albatross is 80–95 cm in length, has a mass of 3–5 kg and a wingspan of 210–250 cm (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Adults of either gender are white with dark-brown irides; an orange-yellow bill; a black brow, back, upperwing and tail; broad black edges to the underwing; and bluish-grey legs and feet (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Juvenile and immature birds can be distinguished from the adults by the colour and pattern of the plumage and by the darker bill which has a black tip (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Black-browed Albatross is gregarious at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990), where it regularly occurs with other seabirds in flocks of up to 10 000 birds (Enticott 1986; Jehl 1974), and highly gregarious at breeding grounds (Marchant & Higgins 1990), where it occurs in colonies that can consist of tens of thousands of breeding pairs (Gales 1998; Tickell 2000).

The Black-browed Albatross breeds within Australian jurisdiction on Heard Island (Kirkwood & Mitchell 1992; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002), McDonald Islands (Gales 1998; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002), Macquarie Island (Copson 1988; Gales 1998; Scott 1994c) and Bishop and Clerk Islets (Scott 1994c; Gales 1998). Individuals are mostly confined to subantarctic and Antarctic waters surrounding these islands in the breeding season (Brooke 2004; Lawton 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Terauds et al. 2006). During this time, the species is an uncommon visitor to the continental shelf-break of southern Australia - reaching South Australia, Tasmania and western and eastern Bass Strait in the south-east and Antarctica (Reid et al. 2002; Terauds et al. 2006; Woehler et al. 1991).

The population migrates northward towards the end of the breeding season (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002; Tickell 2000; Woehler et al. 1991) and the species is common in the non-breeding period at the continental shelf and shelf-break of South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, western and eastern Bass Strait and NSW (Barrett et al. 2003; Barton 1979; Blakers et al. 1984; Cox 1973, 1976; Marchant 1977; Milledge 1977; Reid et al. 2002; Swanson 1973; Tickell 2000; Woehler et al. 1991; Wood 1992). Individuals are also observed at these times in lesser numbers at the continental shelf break of southern and south-western Western Australia and south-eastern Queensland (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984), and over open waters south and east of Tasmania, including over the South Tasman Rise (Reid et al. 2002). Individuals have also been recorded on two occasions in the non-breeding period at Lord Howe Island (Barrett et al. 2003; Atlas of Australian Birds 2007, unpublished data). The birds that reach the waters of southern mainland Australia and Tasmania have been shown, by the recovery of banded individuals, to originate from breeding colonies on South Georgia, Iles Kerguelen, Heard Island and Macquarie Island (Gales 1998; Howard 1954; Lashmar 1990; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Prince et al. 1998; Tickell 1967; Weimerskirch et al. 1985).

The extent of occurrence is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 5 000 000 km2. This estimate is derived from terrestrial records of the Black-browed Albatross at its breeding colonies within Australian jurisdiction (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and consequently greatly underestimates the total extent of occurrence because it excludes records obtained at sea. As recently as 2000, the extent of occurrence was considered to be contracting (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the extent of occurrence has possibly at least partially recovered in recent years following the introduction of protocols to reduce seabird bycatch by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. For example, the Black-browed Albatross was observed around Prydz Bay, on the coast of Antarctica, in the early 1980s. No individuals were sighted in this area from 1985 to 1992 (Woehler 1996), but in recent years the species has reappeared, albeit in low numbers (E.J. Woehler 2007, pers. comm.).

The area of occupancy is estimated, with high reliability, to be 6 km2. This estimate is derived from terrestrial records of the Black-browed Albatross at its breeding colonies within the Australian jurisdiction (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and consequently greatly underestimates the total area of occupancy because it excludes records obtained at sea. The area of occupancy of the population that breeds on Macquarie Island declined in the latter stages of the 20th century when a site occupied by a small breeding colony at North Head was abandoned sometime between the mid 1980s and early 1990s (Copson 1988; Terauds et al. 2005). Conversely, the area of occupancy of the population that breeds on Heard Island increased during the latter stages of the 20th century when glacial melt exposed some formerly unsuitable (ice-covered) areas that were subsequently occupied by breeding pairs (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002).

The Black-browed Albatross breeds on Diego de Almagro Island, Evangelistas Islets, Ildefonso Islets, Diego Ramirez Island, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, Heard Island, McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island, Bishop and Clerk Islets, Snares Island, Campbell Island and Antipodes Islands (Arata et al. 2003; Gales 1998; Huin 2001; Jouventin et al. 1984; Jouventin 1990; Lawton et al. 2003; Moore et al. 1997; Poncet et al. 2006; Tennyson et al. 1998; Valencia et al. 2004; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002). The species is mostly confined to subantarctic and Antarctic waters around these islands in the breeding season (Brooke 2004; Cherel et al. 2000; Lawton 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Prince et al. 1998; Terauds et al. 2006; Woehler 2006; Woehler 1991), although at this time some individuals may travel south as far as 70º S (Darby 1970; Dell 1960; Hicks 1973; Terauds et al. 2006; Tickell 2000; Woehler 1991) or north to more temperate waters (Reid et al. 2002). The species migrates northward in the non-breeding period (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Tickell 2000), with individuals reaching about 35º S in the open waters in the centre of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Tickell 2000; Woehler 1991), but travelling much farther north near the continents, where they may follow cold water currents to about 15º S to 10º S (Brooke 2004; Tickell 2000). Individuals occasionally reach the northern hemisphere, particularly in the northern Atlantic Ocean, where the Black-browed Albatross is the most common species of vagrant albatross and has been recorded off the coasts of several countries north to 80º N (Bourne 1967; King 1970; Lubbock 1937).
The global population size of the Black-browed Albatross is currently estimated at between 1 000 000 and 2 500 000 birds (BirdLife International 2007a), with a breeding population in the order of 584 000 pairs (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Huin 2001; Jouventin et al. 1984; Jouventin 1990; Moore et al. 1997; Poncet et al. 2006; Tennyson et al. 1998; Valencia et al. 2004; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002).

The Black-browed Albatross is classified as Endangered at the global level (BirdLife International 2005c) because of rapid and substantial declines in the breeding populations on the Falkland Islands (BirdLife International 2007a; Huin 2001), South Georgia (Croxall et al. 1998; Poncet et al. 2006) and Campbell Island (Waugh et al. 1999b). The breeding population on the Falkland Islands is estimated to have declined from between 468 000 and 506 000 pairs in 1995 and 1980 to 382 000 pairs in 2000 (BirdLife International 2007a; Huin 2001). A survey on one island in the Falkland Islands group in 2003 suggests the population is continuing to decline at a similar rate (BirdLife International 2007a). The breeding population on South Georgia has declined by approximately 30% since the late 1970s (Croxall et al. 1998; Poncet et al. 2006). The breeding population on Campbell Island has declined dramatically since the 1960s, although numbers have partially and gradually recovered since the mid 1980s (Waugh et al. 1999b). While the small breeding population on Heard Island has increased in size over the last 50 years (Woehler 2006), the declines in the much larger breeding populations on the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, which combined account for almost 80% of the global breeding population, and on Campbell Island, have negated this increase and as such the global population is considered to be decreasing in size (BirdLife International 2007a).

The main threat to the global population, and potential cause of the population declines on the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, is incidental mortality caused by interactions with longline fishing operations (Baker et al. 2002; BirdLife International 2007a; Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Prince et al. 1998). Secondary threats to the global population include incidental mortality caused by interactions with trawl fishing operations or marine debris, competition with fisheries for food resources and reduced breeding success caused by exposure to marine pollutants (Baker et al. 2002; Environment Australia 2001f; Sullivan & Reid 2002; Petry et al. 2007).
Estimates indicate that less than 1% of the global breeding population of the Black-browed Albatross breeds within Australian jurisdiction (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The distribution and movements of the species suggest that individuals move in and out of Australian jurisdiction throughout the course of the year. Thus, threats operating outside Australian jurisdiction have the potential to affect the populations that breed in Australia. The main threats to individuals that occur within Australian jurisdiction are the same as those encountered elsewhere in the southern hemisphere (Baker et al. 2002; Environment Australia 2001f).

The Black-browed Albatross has been moderately well surveyed at its breeding locations within the Australian jurisdiction.

  • The population on Heard Island has been monitored irregularly since its discovery in 1947 (Downes et al. 1959; Kirkwood & Mitchell 1992; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002).
  • Three censuses have been conducted on the Black-browed Albatross population of the McDonald Islands, with two surveys conducted in March 1980 (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002) and one in 1981 (Gales 1998).
  • The population on Macquarie Island has been monitored irregularly since 1949 (Copson 1988; Gales 1998; Scott 1994c).
  • Four censues of the population on Bishop and Clerk Islets have been conducted, with one survey conducted in each of 1965 (MacKenzie 1968) and 1976 (Lugg et al. 1978) and two surveys conducted in 1993 (Gales 1998; Scott 1994c).

From the number of surveys that have been conducted the distribution and size of the populations at each of these four locations are presumed to be moderately well known. However, these estimates are not an accurate reflection of the total number of birds that occur within Australian jurisdiction, because a proportion of the birds that reach the coastal shelf of southern mainland Australia and Tasmania originate from breeding colonies on South Georgia and Iles Kerguelen (Gales 1998; Prince et al. 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1985).

A minimum of 875 pairs of the Black-browed Albatross are estimated to breed within Australian jurisdiction (Environment Australia 2001; Gales 1998; Woehler 2006).

In the Australian territory, the Black-browed Albatross breeds at four geographically-isolated locations:

  • Heard Island (minimum 600 pairs)
  • McDonald Islands (90 pairs)
  • Macquarie Island (45 pairs)
  • The Bishop and Clerk Islets (140 pairs) (Environment Australia 2001; Gales 1998; Terauds et al. 2005; Woehler et al. 2002, Woehler 2006).

The breeding population on Heard Island has increased from an estimated 200 pairs in 1947–1948 to a minimum 600 pairs in 2000–2001 (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002). The breeding population on Macquarie Island has probably remained stable since 1978, despite the loss of one small colony sometime between the mid 1980s and early 1990s (Copson 1988; Terauds et al. 2005). The population trends at the other two breeding locations are uncertain. From limited evidence obtained during studies of the breeding population on Macquarie Island (Terauds et al. 2005), it appears likely that there is little exchange of individuals between the four breeding populations, and that each of the four breeding populations can consequently be considered a true subpopulation.

The information that is available suggests that there has been an increase in the number of Black-browed Albatrosses that breed within Australian jurisdiction over the last 60 years. The breeding population on Heard Island, the largest within Australian jurisdiction, has tripled in size since census data were first collected for the population in 1947-1948 (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002). The breeding population on Macquarie Island has probably remained stable since 1978 (Terauds et al. 2005). The trends in the breeding populations on the McDonald Islands and Bishop and Clerk Islets are uncertain, but population estimates indicate that a decline in numbers at one or both of these locations within the period for which census data are available would not have been sufficient to counteract the increase in numbers on Heard Island (MacKenzie 1968; Lugg et al. 1978; Scott 1994; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002).

The most important population in Australia, based purely on size, is the population that breeds on Heard Island. This population is estimated to comprise a minimum of 600 pairs (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002) or approximately 70% of the total number of pairs that breed within Australian jurisdiction. Although this population is considered to be the most important for the long-term persistence of the species within Australian jurisdiction, the smaller breeding populations on the McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island and Bishop and Clerk Islets are also considered to be important because they represent approximately 30% of a small total breeding population.

A study of the Black-browed Albatross population on Iles Kerguelen found evidence for quasi-cyclic fluctuations in population size, a trend that may have reflect the abundance of an important item of prey (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998; Woehler et al. 2001). However, such fluctuations are not apparent in census data collected from populations that breed within Australian jurisdiction (Terauds et al. 2005; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002).

The generation length of the Black-browed Albatross is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

All four breeding populations of the Black-browed Albatross within Australian jurisdiction are protected by conservation reserves. Heard Island and the McDonald Islands are inscribed on the World Heritage List and the islands and selected areas of the surrounding waters are managed as Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve. Macquarie Island and the Bishop and Clerk Islets are inscribed on the World Heritage List; the islands and inshore waters are managed as Macquarie Island Nature Reserve; and a selected area of the surrounding waters beyond the boundary of the nature reserve, used by the Black-browed Albatross for foraging (Terauds et al. 2006), is managed as Macquarie Island Marine Park.


The Black-browed Albatross is a marine species that inhabits Antarctic, subantarctic and temperate waters and occasionally enters the tropics (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Tickell 2000; Woehler et al. 1991). It can tolerate a broad range of sea-surface temperatures from 0–24º C (Ainley et al. 1984; Bierman & Voous 1950; Brown et al. 1975; Grindley 1981; Reid et al. 2002) or probably more based on occasional records from the tropics. It forages around the breaks of continental and island shelves and across nearby underwater banks (Prince et al. 1998; Reid et al. 2002; Terauds et al. 2006; Weimerskirch et al. 1988, 1997), but also frequents other marine habitats, such as oceanic waters (Reid et al. 2002; Terauds et al. 2006; Woehler et al. 1991) and the iceberg belt at the limit of the Antarctic pack ice (Falla 1937; Hicks 1973; Murphy 1936; Raymond & Woehler 2003; Woehler et al. 2003). In the non-breeding season it follows cold water currents north to the continental shelves of Australia, South America and Africa where it can occur in coastal and inshore waters and sometimes enter fjords and channels (Cox 1973, 1976; Jehl 1973; Marchant 1977; Murphy 1936; Swanson 1973; Tickell 2000).

The Black-browed Albatross breeds on subantarctic and peri-antarctic islands (Marchant & Higgins 1990) in colonies located on terraces of coastal cliffs, slopes of nearby hills, summits of rocky islets or on flat or gently-sloping ground. The terrain in such areas is rocky, but usually supports a moderately-dense cover of tussock grasses (Downes et al. 1959; MacKenzie 1968; Tickell 2000; Tickell & Pinder 1975). The species is rarely sighted over land away from its breeding islands (Marchant & Higgins 1990), although individuals have been observed travelling over land to utilize a large freshwater lake in Argentina (Stiles 1974).
The Black-browed Albatross does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act. The Black-browed Albatross sometimes breeds in close proximity to colonies of Grey-headed Albatross (Thalassarche chrysostoma) (Marchant & Higgins 1990) and Light-mantled Sooty Albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata) (E.J. Woehler 2007a, pers. comm.), which are listed under the EPBC Act.

The Black-browed Albatross begins to breed at six to 13 years of age (Copson 1988; Prince et al. 1994a; Waugh et al. 1999b) and is capable of surviving to more than 30 years of age (Copson 1988; Lashmar 1990; Lawton 2004). Of the four breeding populations within Australian jurisdiction, mortality rates have only been determined for the population on Macquarie Island, in which the mean annual survival of adults was 91.5% from 1975 to 2000, and the mean annual survival of juveniles to first resight was 58.5% from 1976 to 2000 (Terauds et al. 2005). The mortality rates observed on Macquarie Island compare favourably to the mortality rates recorded on South Georgia, where mean annual survival of adults was 91.5% and annual survival of juveniles ranged from 15.0 to 23.4% (Croxall et al. 1998), and Iles Kerguelen, where mean annual survival of adults was 90.6% and mean annual survival of juveniles was 13.7% (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998).
The Black-browed Albatross is a monogamous species (Marchant & Higgins 1990) that breeds in colonies that contain up to 250 pairs within Australian jurisdiction (Woehler et al. 2002, Woehler 2006) but can be considerably larger elsewhere. For example, the largest known colony of the Black-browed Albatross, on Steeple Jason Island in the Falkland Islands, was estimated to support nearly 210 000 pairs in 2000 (Huin 2001).

Individuals return in September to the breeding colonies on Heard Island (Downes et al. 1959) and Macquarie Island (Copson 1988; Environment Australia 2001f). On Heard Island, the first birds arrive by 17 September, laying begins by late October and young fledge in mid April or later (Downes et al. 1959). On Macquarie Island, where the breeding season commences approximately two to three weeks earlier, the first birds arrive from 1 September, laying begins in late September and young fledge from the second week of April (Copson 1988; Environment Australia 2001f). The majority of the breeding population exhibits an annual breeding cycle, but a proportion of individuals, and more frequently those that have bred unsuccessfully, may not return to colonies for two years or more (Croxall et al. 1998; Prince et al. 1994a).

The Black-browed Albatross nests on the ground on terraces of coastal cliffs, slopes of nearby hills and summits of rocky islets. The terrain in such areas is rocky but usually supports a moderately dense cover of tussock grasses (Downes et al. 1959; MacKenzie 1968; Tickell 2000; Tickell & Pinder 1975). The nest is a short column with a depression in the top. It is constructed from peat or mud and reinforced with grass stems and roots (Downes et al. 1959; Tickell & Pinder 1975; Tickell 2000).

A single egg, white or pinkish with reddish-brown markings, is laid per breeding season (Downes et al. 1959; Tickell & Pinder 1975). The egg is incubated by both members of a breeding pair in five to 10 alternating shifts of one to 24 days duration (Tickell & Pinder 1975; Weimerskirch et al. 1988) for a total period of 65 to 72, or rarely up to 80, days (Huin 1997; Tickell & Pinder 1975). The chick is brooded by both parents in alternating shifts of one to seven days duration for a total period of 16 to 26 days (Tickell & Pinder 1975; Weimerskirch et al. 1988). The chick is fed by both parents, and mostly receives meals at intervals of three days or less (Huin et al. 2000; Tickell & Pinder 1975). The fledging period is approximately 116 to 117 days (Croxall et al. 1988; Tickell & Pinder 1975).

Breeding success has been determined for the populations on Heard Island and Macquarie Island. On Heard Island, the breeding success of one colony, determined from the proportion of eggs that produced chicks which survived to at least five weeks of age , was 51%, and ranged from 17–68%, over the five seasons for which data were available (Downes et al. 1959; Kirkwood & Mitchell 1992). On Macquarie Island, breeding success, determined from the proportion of eggs that produced fledged young, was 61%, and ranged from 39 to 86%, from 1977 to 1999 (Copson 1988; Environment Australia 2001f), but was 48% from 1994 to 2003 (Terauds et al. 2005). Only 3.3% of chicks banded by Copson (1988) on Macquarie Island were resighted as breeding adults, but more recent studies on Macquarie Island have shown that approximately 40% of juveniles are recruited into the breeding population (Terauds 2000).

The diet of the Black-browed Albatross primarily consists of a combination of fish, molluscs (mostly cephalopods) and crustaceans (mostly krill). The diet also includes other items such as carrion, jellyfish and salps that are taken less frequently (Cherel et al. 2000; Croxall et al. 1988; Downes et al. 1959; Harper 1987; Petry et al. 2007; Prince 1980; Reid et al. 1996; Ridoux 1994; Rodhouse & Prince 1993; Thompson 1992; Tickell 1964; Weimerskirch et al. 1986). More detailed information on the diet is available in a review by Cherel and Klages (1998).

The Black-browed Albatross is believed to forage during both day and night (Bevan et al. 1995; Croxall & Prince 1994; Harper 1987; Prince & Morgan 1987). It obtains most of its food while settled on the surface of the water by reaching down to seize a food item in the bill or, less frequently, by submerging momentarily to capture prey just below the surface (Gibson & Sefton 1955; Harper 1987; Harrison et al. 1991). It occasionally plunges into the water from a height of 2ץ9 m to take a food item from below the surface. In employing the latter two techniques, the Black-browed Albatross usually remains visible above or immediately below the surface and employs little or no additional propulsion to reach its target (Gibson & Sefton 1955; Harper 1987; Harrison et al. 1991; Prince 1980). However, on rare occasions it will use its wings to 'swim' down beneath the surface in pursuit of a food item (Nicholls 1979; Oatley 1979; Voisin 1982). Data from depth recorders and observations from boats indicate that the Black-browed Albatross is capable of diving to depths of about 4.5 m (Nicholls 1979; Oatley 1979; Prince et al. 1994a). Timed observations show that it can remain submerged for up to 5.8 seconds at a time (Harrison et al. 1991; Voisin 1982), although an observation of a Campbell Albatross making a single dive of about 20 seconds duration (Harper 1987) suggests that longer dives might be possible.

The Black-browed Albatross commonly forages with other seabirds, and often forages in association with whales, dolphins, seals and penguins (Ainley & Boekelheide 1983; Enticott 1986; Harrison et al. 1991; Jehl 1974; Raymond & Woehler 2003; Woehler et al. 2003), which may drive prey to the surface, discard prey remains that can be scavenged and, when attacked by other predators, provide a source of carrion (Tickell 2000). It has been observed to steal fish from shags (Phalacrocorax) (Bullock 1929).

The Black-browed Albatross is a well-known scavenger that regularly trails fishing vessels to collect discarded items (Barton 1979; Brooke 2004; Harper 1987; Hicks 1973; Thompson 1992; Thompson & Riddy 1995). By foraging around fishing vessels, the Black-browed Albatross is exposed to accidental mortality through interactions with longline and trawl fishing operations, which are the two main threats to the species in Australia and elsewhere (Baker et al. 2002; BirdLife International 2007a; Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998), and increases the potential for ingestion of discarded plastics and other potentially harmful inorganic materials (Petry et al. 2007).

Breeding season
In the breeding season, adults are mostly confined to subantarctic waters surrounding their breeding islands (Cherel et al. 2000; Lawton 2004; Prince et al. 1998; Reid et al. 2002; Terauds et al. 2006; Weimerskirch et al. 1997), but sub-adults tend to roam more widely into more temperate waters to the north (Reid et al. 2002) and Antarctic waters to the south (Hicks 1973). Breeding adults make regular foraging trips throughout the breeding season, with the mean duration of trips throughout the incubation and fledging periods varying from about two to four days (Huin et al. 2000; Weimerskirch et al. 1988, 1997). Adults that breed successfully depart from breeding colonies when their young fledge and go to sea (Tickell & Pinder 1975). The latter event occurs in April at colonies within Australian jurisdiction (Copson 1988; Downes et al. 1959; Environment Australia 2001f). Adults that fail to breed successfully may continue to frequent the breeding colonies for up to eight weeks after losing eggs or young chicks (Tickell & Pinder 1975).

Post-breeding season
The population migrates northward at the completion of the breeding season (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Reid et al. 2002; Tickell 2000), with individuals reaching about 35º S in the open waters in the middle of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Tickell 2000), but travelling much farther north near the continents, where they may follow cold water currents to about 15º S to 10º S (Brooke 2004; Tickell 2000). Individuals occasionally enter the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in the northern Atlantic Ocean, where the Black-browed Albatross is the most common vagrant albatross and has been recorded off the coasts of several countries north to 80º N (Bourne 1967; King 1970; Lubbock 1937).

Adults return to the Australian breeding islands in September (Copson 1988; Downes et al. 1959; Environment Australia 2001f), although sub-adults remain at sea continuously for at least two or three years, and more usually five years, before returning to land. Most sub-adults return to the island and colony of their birth but some, such as one individual banded on the Iles Kerguelen and recaptured as a breeding adult on Heard Island, emigrate (Copson 1988; Tickell 2000; Waugh et al. 1999b; Woehler 1989). There is evidently little exchange of adults amongst breeding colonies (Prince et al. 1994a; Terauds et al. 2005; Tickell & Pinder 1975).

Home range size
The foraging activity of adult Black-browed Albatrosses in the breeding season is mainly restricted to shelf and shelf-break areas within about 500 km of their breeding islands (Lawton et al. 2004; Prince et al. 1998; Terauds et al. 2005, 2006; Weimerskirch et al. 1988; Weimerskirch et al. 1997). Adults may occasionally forage beyond this range at sites more than 1000 km from their breeding islands (Reid et al. 2002; Terauds et al. 2005, 2006).

Distinctiveness
The Black-browed Albatross can be separated from the Campbell Albatross, however, by its smaller eyebrow, more extensively white underwing and dark brown, rather than pale yellow, iris (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Immature Black-browed Albatrosses are difficult to distinguish from immature Grey-headed Albatrosses but can be identified by the mainly white head and paler base of the bill (Brooke 2004; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Recommended methods
The Black-browed Albatross can be detected from land, sea or air (Arata et al. 2003; Poncet et al. 2006; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002; Wood 1992). Breeding populations can be censused by traversing around the periphery of colonies on foot or by observing colonies at a distance from vantage points on shore or from boats or light aircraft. Estimates of breeding numbers are often derived from examining photographs of colonies (Arata et al. 2003; Poncet et al. 2006; Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002).

Longline fishing
The primary threat to the Black-browed Albatross in Australian waters is incidental mortality resulting from interactions with longline fishing operations (Baker et al. 2002; Gales 1998). The most common cause of mortality is drowning when birds swallow baited hooks during the setting (and, less frequently, hauling) of a line and are then dragged underwater by the weight of the line (Baker et al. 2002; Gales et al. 1998). A lesser number of birds probably die from critical injuries sustained after being released from lines with hooks embedded in their bodies (Gales et al. 1998; Huin & Croxall 1996; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1987) or after ingesting discarded items that contain hooks (AAD 2005a; Brothers 1995; Environment Australia 2001f; Nel & Nel 1999). Others may be killed or critically injured when they come into contact with adjacent lines or hooks while attempting to remove their target bait (AAD 2005a; Brothers 1995; Environment Australia 2001f). The death of a breeding adult would likely also result in the loss of the respective egg or chick, and given the long-term pair-bonds established between breeding pairs of albatrosses, the loss of a partner would likely reduce the productivity of the surviving parent for some years to come (AAD 2005a).

The Black-browed Albatross was one of the most common species of seabird recorded in the bycatch of the Japanese longline fishery for Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) (Brothers 1991; Gales 1998; Gales et al. 1998) that operated in the Australian Fishing Zone from 1986 to 1997 (Caton 2003). In the latter stages of its operation, when observers were stationed on vessels to record seabird bycatch, this fishery is estimated to have killed up to 1528 Black-browed Albatrosses per year (Gales et al. 1998). The incidence of mortality has evidently declined since the late 1990s following the listing of 'incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations' as a key threatening process under Australian Federal Government legislation in 1995 and the subsequent development and implementation of a Threat Abatement Plan in 1998 to alleviate the effects of this process (AGDEH 2006q; Environment Australia 2001f). No published data are available on the numbers of Black-browed Albatrosses present in longline bycatch in recent years, but a reduction in incidental mortality can be inferred from:

  • a decline in the proportion of albatrosses in the bycatch of longline fishing operations in the Australian Fishing Zone due to changes in the distribution of fishing effort (albatrosses comprised about 75% of seabird bycatch in the Japanese longline fishery from 1989 to 1995 [Gales et al. 1998] but only about 10% of seabird bycatch in assorted pelagic longline fisheries in recent years [AAD 2005a; Baker & Wise 2005])
  • an overall decline in the incidence of seabird bycatch in longline fisheries in the Australian Fishing Zone from an estimated minimum rate of 0.15 birds/1000 hooks in the Japanese longline fishery in the latter stages of its operation (Gales et al. 1998) and an observed rate of 0.58 birds/1000 hooks in the Australian longline fishery for Southern Bluefin Tuna in 1994–1995 (Brothers & Foster 1997) to rates of less than 0.05 birds/1000 hooks for a number of longline fisheries in recent years (AGDEH 2006q).

It is important to note that, although measures have been taken to reduce the impact of longline fishing operations on the Black-browed Albatross and other seabirds in the Australian Fishing Zone, the ability to disperse over long distances suggests that some proportion of the Black-browed Albatrosses that breed in Australian waters probably come into contact with longline fishing operations outside of Australian jurisdiction, many of which continue to operate with less stringent bycatch mitigation (Environment Australia 2001f). Furthermore, illegal, unregulated and unreported longline fisheries continue to operate in oceanic waters throughout the range of the Black-browed Albatross. The bycatch of seabirds by these fisheries, which operate without observers or bycatch mitigation measures, is considered to be substantial (E.J. Woehler 2007, pers. comm.).

Trawl fishing
A secondary threat to the Black-browed Albatross within Australian waters is incidental mortality or injury through interactions with trawl fishing operations (Baker et al. 2002; Environment Australia 2001f). Seabirds may be killed or injured by becoming entangled in trawl nets or lines, colliding with trawl apparatus or adhering to lubricated cables and being crushed in trawl winches (Bartle 1991; Duhamel et al. 1997; Environment Australia 2001f; Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation 2000). Interactions with trawl fishing operations are known to cause considerable mortality of seabirds in waters outside of Australian jurisdiction (Adams 1992; Bartle 1991; Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation 2000; Schlatter 1984; Williams & Capdeville 1996), but their effect on seabird populations in the Australian Fishing Zone is less well documented.

There is potential for interactions with trawl fishing operations to have a significant impact on the Black-browed Albatross within the Australian Fishing Zone. A considerable trawl fishing operation is conducted in the Australian Fishing Zone, and much of the trawl fishing effort is concentrated in waters around Heard Island, McDonald Islands and Macquarie Island (Environment Australia 2001f). One vessel that operates around Macquarie Island has reportedly been attended by as many as 106 Black-browed Albatrosses at a time. Most of the Black-browed Albatrosses that attend this vessel are adults and potentially represent up to 50% of the breeding population on Maquarie Island (Environment Australia 2001f). Despite the potential for interactions, recent monitoring of the subantarctic and south-eastern Australian trawl fisheries has recorded only low incidences of interaction between vessels and attending seabirds (Baker et al. 2002; Knuckey & Liggins 1999). However, additional reliable data on rates of interaction are required before the impact of trawl fisheries on the Black-browed Albatross and other seabirds in the Australian Fishing Zone can be determined conclusively (Baker et al. 2002; Environment Australia 2001f).

Dependence on fishery discards
There is evidence to suggest that the tendency of the Black-browed Albatross to scavenge food around fishing vessels, as well as directly exposing the birds to incidental mortality, could have an indirect adverse effect on breeding success. Preliminary studies at Macquarie Island have found that breeding individuals can become habitually attracted to items discarded from fishing vessels. Consequently, some individuals may return to their nests less frequently during critical stages of the nesting period, resulting in the failure of the nesting attempt (Baker et al. 2002; Terauds & Hamill 1999; Thompson 1992; Thompson & Riddy 1995).

Parasites and associated disease
Ticks recovered from adult and nestling Black-browed Albatrosses on the Falkland Islands are known to transmit a potentially fatal avian pox virus. These ticks are also present on Macquarie Island (Selkirk et al. 1990; Gales 1993) and may have the same effect on the birds that nest there (Environment Australia 2001f).

Other threats
Other potential threats to the Black-browed Albatross in Australian waters are incidental mortality through interactions with coastal gillnet fisheries, reduced food stocks due to competition from fisheries, reduced breeding success due to exposure to chemical pollutants in the marine environment or (on Macquarie Island) predation of eggs or chicks by Black Rats (Rattus rattus), incidental mortality caused by ingestion of or entanglement in items of marine debris, and (on Macquarie Island) erosion of colony sites through grazing by European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (Baker et al. 2002; DEW 2007a; Environment Australia 2001f; Tas PWS 2007a). The impacts of these threats on the Australian populations of the Black-browed Albatross have not been determined.

The following recovery actions have been implemented to the benefit of the Black-browed Albatross:

National Plans

  • A National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Petrels has been implemented to protect and guide the management of the Black-browed Albatross and 22 other species of albatross and giant petrel that are known to frequent Australian territorial waters (DSEWPaC 2011l).
  • A threat abatement plan to alleviate the impact of longline fishing operations on the Black-browed Albatross and other seabirds was implemented in 2006 (AGDEH 2006q). The implementation of mitigation measures recommended in these plans has resulted in a reduction in the frequency of seabird bycatch in a number of Australian longline fisheries (AGDEH 2006q).

Population monitoring and research

  • The population on Macquarie Island has been monitored annually since 1994 (Terauds et al. 2005). The population on Heard Island has been surveyed opportunistically since 1947–1948 (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002). The populations on the McDonald Islands and Bishop and Clerk Islets have been surveyed opportunistically on a few occasions each (Gales 1998; Lugg et al. 1978; MacKenzie 1968; Scott 1994c; Woehler et al. 2002, Woehler 2006). In future, it is intended that the populations on Heard Island and the McDonald Island will be surveyed at intervals not exceeding 10 years (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • Satellite tracking of breeding birds has been conducted at Macquarie Island to determine their foraging range at sea (Terauds et al. 2006).
  • Seabird bycatch data have been collected for longline and trawl fisheries operating in Australian waters to determine incidental mortality rates (Baker et al. 2002; Brothers 1991; Environment Australia 2001f; Gales et al. 1998; Reid et al. 2001).
  • The presence of avian parasites, avian disease and marine pollution is monitored on Macquarie Island (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • Research is being undertaken to develop techniques to survey populations of albatrosses and giant petrels remotely and rapidly (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • A genetic profile of the population on Macquarie Island has been developed (Alderman et al. 2005).

Management efforts

  • The introduction of exotic vertebrates to Heard Island, McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island and Bishop and Clerk Islets is prohibited (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • Pest management is carried out on Macquarie Island (Environment Australia 2001f). Management programs have successfully eradicated two introduced potential predators, the feral cat and Weka Gallirallus australis. One important introduced potential predator, the Black Rat, remains, and with the removal of feral cats, rabbit numbers increased substantially, however, a program to eradicate the Black Rat, European Rabbit and House Mouse (Mus musculus) has been developed and implemented (Tas PWS 2007a).
  • Access to breeding islands is restricted to reduce the potential for human disturbance (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • All four islands on which the Black-browed Albatross breeds are inscribed on the World Heritage List and are managed to conserve their natural history values, which includes the maintenance of breeding populations of seabirds. In addition, selected areas of the waters surrounding Heard Island and the McDonald Islands are managed as Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve, Macquarie Island and the Bishop and Clerk Islets and the waters surrounding them are managed as Macquarie Island Nature Reserve, and a selected region of the waters surrounding Macquarie Island but beyond the boundary of the nature reserve is managed as Macquarie Island Marine Park.
  • The habit of feeding on items discarded from fishing vessels and the effect of this habit on breeding success has been investigated at Macquarie Island (Baker et al. 2002; Environment Australia 2001f).
  • The dietary requirements of seabirds breeding on Heard Island, McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island and Bishop and Clerk Islets are taken into account in the management of fisheries operating near these islands (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • Efforts have been made to educated fishermen, tourists and the general public about threats to albatrosses and giant petrels in Australia (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • The need for mitigation measures to be adopted in foreign fisheries is promoted through international bodies such as the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Environment Australia 2001f).
  • The multilateral Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels has been ratified (ACAP 2007).

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Black-browed Albatross has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for black-browed albatross in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

Published studies on the Australian populations of the Black-browed Albatross include analyses of population trends, breeding success, survival rates, foraging zones and genetic structure at Macquarie Island (Alderman et al. 2005; Copson 1988; Terauds et al. 2005, 2006), and an analysis of population trends (Woehler 2006; Woehler et al. 2002) and observations on the breeding behaviour (Downes et al. 1959) at Heard Island.

The National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Petrels was implemented in 2001 to protect the Black-browed Albatross and 22 other species of albatrosses and giant petrels that frequent Australian waters (Environment Australia 2001f).

The Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations was also developed to alleviate the impact of longline fishing operations on seabirds in Australian waters (AGDEH 2006q).

The Black-browed Albatross is also included in the Draft East Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region (DEW 2007a), the Macquarie Island Nature Reserve and World Heritage Area Management Plan (Tas PWS 2006) and the Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan (AAD 2005).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Fishing gear, oil and marine debris associated with seabirds at Bird Island South Georgia, during 1993/94. Marine Ornithology. 24:190-194. (Huin, N. & J.P. Croxall, 1996) [Journal].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanopris) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005k) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanopris) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005k) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus exulans (Pacific Rat, Polynesian Rat) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Infection by parasites National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Catharacta lonnbergi lonnbergi (Subantarctic Skua (southern), Brown Skua) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanopris) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2005k) [Listing Advice].

Adams, N.J. (1992). The Distribution, Population Status and Conservation of Southern African Seabirds. Amsterdam: Stichting Greenpeace Council.

Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) (2007). Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels. [Online]. Available from: http://www.acap.aq. [Accessed: 26-Sep-2007].

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Thalassarche melanophris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 15:07:19 +1000.