Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Diomedea exulans exulans
Listed marine as Diomedea dabbenena
Listed migratory - Bonn as Diomedea dabbenena
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) [1073].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Diomedea exulans exulans.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2014 for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea dabbenena.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea dabbenena.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea dabbenena.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea exulans exulans.
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Diomedea dabbenena
Scientific name Diomedea exulans exulans [82337]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Linnaeus, 1758
Reference  
Other names Diomedea dabbenema [64455]
Diomedea dabbenena [66471]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Tristan Albatross, Diomedea exulans exulans, under Australian Government legislation and under international conventions, is as follows:

National: Listed as an Endangered, Marine and Migratory species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Protection Act 1999.

Scientific name: Diomedea exulans exulans

Common name: Tristan Albatross

There is significant taxonomic confusion within the albatross group. The Tristan Albatross was previously known as Diomedea dabbenema. Prior to this, the Tristan Albatross was thought to be a subspecies of the Wandering Albatross (D. exulans (sensu lato)), and as such, was known as D. exulans dabbenena.

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. This working group has agreed to follow Robertson and Nunn (1997) in splitting the D. exulans complex into four species: with D. exulans representing the Wandering Albatross, and raising D. exulans exulans, D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni from subspecies of D. exulans to full species. This distinction is generally, but not universally, accepted (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

For further taxonomic comments please refer to the Australian Faunal Directory (AFD 2007), Christidis and Boles (2008) and Dickinson (2003).

The Tristan Albatross is a large albatross, with a length of 110 cm and a wingspan of approximately 3.5 m. They are very similar in plumage to the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans (sensu lato)). The two species are often indistinguishable in the field, although the plumage of the Tristan Albatross is generally darker (BirdLife International 2006a). The Tristan Albatross may be distinguished by its slightly smaller size, and slower acquisition of white adult plumage; never attaining the very white plumage of the Wandering Albatross (BirdLife International 2006a).

The 'at sea' distribution of this newly described species is yet to be defined. There is currently only one definitive record of the Tristan Albatross from Australian waters. A bird banded as a chick on Gough Island was recaptured four years later off Wollongong (NSW) (Environment Australia 2001f).

The Tristan Albatross occurs in a single population which breeds on Inaccessible Island and Gough Island in the Atlantic Ocean, having been eliminated from the main island of Tristan da Cunha by 1907 (Environment Australia 2001f). Tristan Albatrosses appear to wander widely from their subantarctic breeding islands within the Atlantic Ocean to about 35° S. They forage almost as far north as the equator (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The current global population of the Tristan Albatross is estimated between 6000–7000 birds (Gales 1998). This figure however, was derived from a crude estimate made in the 1980s, and the current population status remains unknown. The only substantial breeding population occurs on Gough Island, where it is estimated that fewer than 2000 breeding pairs remain. Several hundred breeding pairs previously bred on Inaccessible Island, however, predation by introduced pigs devastated the colony, and by the 1940s only two or three pairs remained. This tiny population has not increased since (Environment Australia 2001f).

The Tristan Albatross is a marine, pelagic seabird. It forages in open water in the Atlantic Ocean near the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. It sleeps and rests on ocean waters when not breeding (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Tristan Albatross breeds on Inaccessible Island and Gough Island in the Atlantic Ocean. It breeds among grass tussocks on coastal plains, swampy valley floors, and crests of broad ridges or gentle slopes, usually in areas that are 0–300 m asl (Marchant & Higgins 1990). It prefers to nest on open patchy vegetation (tussock, fern or shrubs), near exposed ridges or hillocks (Warham & Bell 1979).

The Tristan Albatross breeds biennially (every two years), when successful, in colonies (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Clutch size is one, and the incubation and rearing of nestlings is carried out by both sexes in alternate shifts (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Fledglings depart Gough Island in January and early February (Swales 1965).

The Tristan Albatross feeds on squid, fish and crustaceans (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Tristan Albatross feeds pelagically (in the open ocean) close to the waters surface (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Their foraging behaviours, such as flying long distances to search for food, following boats, feeding aggressively on offal and diving for baits make them susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (AGDEH 2006q).

Banding returns suggest that adults and young Tristan Albatrosses disperse or migrate east (Tickell 1968). Birds from Gough Island are confined to the Atlantic Ocean and to South African waters. One chick was recovered off the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, and another at Tripp Seamount, off the coast of South Africa. One adult was recovered at Port Elizabeth, South Africa (Cooper 1988).

In the Atlantic Ocean, records of the Tristan Albatross consist mainly of subadults (Tickell & Woods 1972). Between nesting cycles, adults that fail to breed before June are usually absent from their colonies for around five to twelve months. Adults which fail to breed after June are absent from their breeding colonies for around twelve to seventeen months (Tickell 1968). Most birds return to Inaccessible Island in early December (Bailey & Sorensen 1962; Elliott 1957).

The Tristan Albatross was almost certainly eliminated from the island of Tristan da Cunha by man (Fraser et al. 1988; Hagen 1952). On Inaccessible Island, the population decreased nearly to extinction prior to 1938, as pigs ate the eggs and chicks (Fraser et al. 1988).

The Tristan Albatross is threatened by drowning in longline fishing gear (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (AGDEH 2006q). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial bycatch mitigation measures. Therefore, birds breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ) are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside this zone (Environment Australia 2001f).

Hook and plastic ingestion may potentially threaten the Tristan Albatross. Hook ingestion by albatrosses and giant-petrels (Macronectes spp.) appears to have increased in recent years. Between 50–100 million hooks are set each year in the Atlantic Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (Environment Australia 2001f).

The Tristan Albatross may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the AFZ, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent, may cause substantial mortality in albatrosses. Trawling for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) is a potential threat (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1997; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). The species may be shot by fishermen to protect bait or for sport (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998). The chick is unlikely to survive if a parent is killed while it is foraging at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

When migrating through the East Marine Region the Tristan Albatross may also be at threat from a loss of food stock, being caught in or ingesting marine debris, oil spills, pollution and commercial fishing that may occur within this region (DEW 2007a).

The Department of the Environment and Heritage has developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or bycatch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q). The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird bycatch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird by-catch within the AFZ) within five years by:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures)
  • developing new mitigation measures
  • educating fishers and the public
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions.

The long-term aim of this Threat Abatement Plan is to achieve a zero bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species.

Pigs have now been eliminated from Inaccessible Island, which has enabled the Tristan Albatross to nest there successfully (Fraser et al. 1988).

The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and the National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels (Environment Australia 2001f) provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Tristan Albatross. In addition, the Threat Abatement Plan 2006 for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) also provides management documentation relevant to this species.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2007). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/index.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Bailey, A.M. & J.H. Sorensen (1962). Subantarctic Campbell Island. In: Proceedings of the Denver Museum of Natural History. 10.

BirdLife International (2006a). Species Factsheet: Diomedea exulans exulans. [Online]. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=30013&m=0 [Accessed: 4 May 2007].

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Cooper, J. (1988). South African Journal of Antarctic Research. 18:21-22.

Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) (2007a). Draft East Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region.

Dickinson, E.C., ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Page(s) 1039. London: Christopher Helm.

Elliott, H.F.I. (1957). A contribution to the ornithology of the Tristan da Cunha group. Ibis. 99:545-586.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001f). National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/albatross/index.html.

Fraser, M.W., P.G. Ryan & B.P Watkins (1988). The seabirds of Inaccessible Island, South Atlantic Ocean. Cormorant. 16:Jul-33.

Gales, R. (1998). Albatross populations: status and threats. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 20-45. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Gales, R. & N. Brothers (1995). Characteristics of seabirds killed in the Japanese tuna longline fishery in the Australian region. Document prepared for the first meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Ecologically Related Species Working Group, 18-20 December 1995, Wellington, New Zealand. CCSBT-ERS/95.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Hagen, Y (1952). Birds of Tristan da Cunha. Res. Norwegian. Scient. Exped. to Tristan da Cunha 1937-38. 20:248 pp.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Robertson, C.J.R. & G.B. Nunn (1997). Toward a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) pp. 413-19. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Swales, M.K (1965). The sea-birds of Gough Island. Ibis. 107:17-42.

Tickell, W.L.N. (1968). The biology of the Great Albatrosses, Diomedea exulans and Diomedea epomophora. Antarctic Research Series. 12:1-55.

Tickell, W.L.N. & R.W. Woods (1972). British Antarctic Surveys Bulletin. 31:63-84.

Warham, J. & B.D. Bell (1979). The Birds of Antipodes Island, New Zealand. Notornis. 26:121-169.

Weimerskirch, H. & J. Jouventin (1998). Changes in population size and demographic parameters of six albatross species in French sub-Antarctic islands. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 84-91. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Weimerskirch, H., N. Brothers & J. Jouventin (1997). Population dynamics of wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, and Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis in the Indian Ocean and their relationships with long-line fisheries: conservation implications. Biological Conservation. 79:257-270.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea exulans exulans in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 19 Sep 2014 22:46:10 +1000.