In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Tetratheca paynterae|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Tetratheca paynterae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adl) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Tetratheca paynterae.
Documents and Websites
|Scientific name||Tetratheca paynterae |
|Reference||Alford, J.J. (1995) Two new species of Tetratheca (Tremandraceae), from the Coolgardie and Austin Botanical Districts, Western Australia. Nuytsia 10(2): 146, figs 1B,F,H, 2 [tax. nov.]|
Tetratheca paynteri 
Tetratheca paynterae Alfard ms. 
Tetratheca paynteri Alford ms. 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Western Australia: Listed as Critically Endangered under the name Tetratheca paynterae subsp. paynterae and Vulnerable under the name Tetratheca paynterae subsp. cremnobata under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.
Paynter's Tetratheca is a small, erect or decumbent shrub, growing between 0.1-0.5 m high (Alford 1995; Brown et al. 1998; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000). The leaves are sparse, 0.8-2.5 mm long, less than 1 mm wide, early deciduous or sometimes absent (TSSC 2008adl; WA DEC 2006i). The species’ flowers are deep pink with a yellow spot at the base (Brown et al. 1998; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000). Fruits are approximately 5-8 mm long and 4-6 mm wide (TSSC 2008adl).
Paynter's Tetratheca is endemic to Western Australia, where it is restricted to two locations in the Windarling Range, 160 km north of Southern Cross, in the Yilgarn region (Butcher 2007). The total area of occurrence has not been published (TSSC 2008adl).
There are two known sub-populations of Paynter’s Tetratheca. The range of one sub-population occurs over 2 km with approximately 1000 individuals (Alford 1995; Brown et al. 1998). Around 8000 plants have been recorded at the second location (see Butcher 2007). Neither sub-population occurs in a conservation reserve (Alford 1995; Brown et al. 1998; Butcher 2007).
Paynter’s Tetratheca grows in rock crevices, in shallow pockets of soil of rich red loam (Alford 1995; Brown et al. 1998; Mollemans et al. 1993; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000). The species grows in highly exposed, windswept areas (Brown et al. 1998; Mollemans et al. 1993) amongst rock, on banded ironstone hills (Alford 1995; Brown et al. 1998).
The associated vegetation community is open shrubland, which includes Wiry Honey Myrtle (Melaleuca filifolia), Leafless Ballart (Exocarpos aphyllus), Sea Box (Alyxia buxifolia), Calycopeplus spp., Dead Finish (Acacia tetragonophylla) and Sticky Hop Bush (Dodonea viscosa), over a sparse understorey of Chenopodium spp., Ptilotus spp., Olearia stuartii and Isotoma petraea (Alford 1995).
Flowers are borne from April to November, with a peak in spring (Alford 1995; Brown et al. 1998; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000), or opportunistically after rain (Alford 1995). Pollination of flowers are thought to be solitary native bees of the genus Lasioglossum (WA DEC 2006i). Despite high rates of pollination, Paynter’s Tetratheca displays lower levels of fruit production and viable seed. Fruits dehisce in late spring and the seeds are released. Seeds have a prominent eliasome and are thought to be dispersed by ants (WA DEC 2006i). Rates of germination and seedling establishment seem to be heavily dependent on rainfall (WA DEC 2006i).
Initial investigation of roots indicates that there is intricate root development within the supporting rock crevices. Research has identified that endomycorrhizal fungi occurring in association with the roots may be essential for nutrient uptake (WA DEC 2006i). Plants are well adapted for dry conditions, entering dormancy over hot, dry months and initiating new shoots in autumn (WA DEC 2006i). The development of these shoots slows or stops over winter, but re-commences in spring.
Paynter’s Tetratheca appears relatively secure, although impacts have occurred due to mining and grazing in some areas (Brown et al. 1998; Mollemans et al. 1993; WA DEC 2006i). Impacts to the remaining sub-populations are considered unlikely, however, further change to grazing regimes may adversely affect the species (TSSC 2008adl).
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Paynter’s Tetratheca identifies a number of on-ground and research-based recovery actions for the species. Some of these actions include:
- Monitor known populations to identify emerging threats.
- Ensure development activities do not adversely impact on known (sub)populations.
- Investigate formal conservation agreements or covenants on private land.
- Raise awareness of Paynter’s Tetratheca in the local community.
- Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
Documents relevant to the management of Paynter’s Tetratheca can be found at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Intensification of farming practices such as increased grazing pressure, cropping expansion, vegetation clearance and/or pasture improvement||Tetratheca paynterae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vp) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Tetratheca paynterae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vp) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Tetratheca paynterae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adl) [Conservation Advice].|
|Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure||Tetratheca paynterae in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006vp) [Internet].|
Alford, J.J. (1995). Two new species of Tetratheca (Tremandraceae), from the Coolgardie and Austin Botanical Districts, Western Australia. Nuytsia. 10(2):143-149.
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Butcher, R (2007). New taxa of 'leafless' Tetratheca (Elaeocarpaceae, formerly Tremandraceae) from Western Australia. Australian Systematic Botany. 20:154-9.
Commonwealth of Australia (2000). Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes. [Online]. F2005B02653. Canberra: Federal Register of Legislative Instruments. Available from: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2005B02653.
Mollemans, F.H., P.H. Brown & D.J. Coates (1993). Declared rare flora and other plants in need of special protection in the Merredin District (excluding the Wongan-Ballidu Shire). Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Paczkowska, G. & A.R. Chapman (2000). The Western Australian Flora, A Descriptive Catalogue. The Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.), the Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008adl). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Tetratheca paynterae. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66451-conservation-advice.pdf.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2006i). Interim Recovery Plan. No. 237. Paynter's Tetratheca (Tetratheca paynterae subsp.paynterae MS) Interim Recovery Plan 2006-2016. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/flora/tet_pay_irp237.pdf.
Anonymous (2009). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Australian Biological Resources Study. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/search/names.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Tetratheca paynterae in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 02:06:37 +1000.