In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Synaphea stenoloba|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ca) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009cb) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, a recovery plan will have limited benefit for the species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time (10/12/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (89) (10/12/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009b) [Legislative Instrument] as Synaphea stenoloba.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Synaphea stenoloba |
|Reference||George, A.S. in McCarthy, P.M. (Ed) (1995), Flora of Australia 16: 495, 291-292, Map 328 [tax. nov.}|
|Other names||Synaphea sp. 7 Pinjarra (A.S.George 17060) |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Synaphea stenoloba
Common name: Dwellingup Synaphea
The species is conventionally accepted as Synaphea stenoloba (George 1995).
The Dwellingup Synaphea is a compact shrub that can grow to 50 cm high. The leaves are 540 cm long and tripinnate. The inflorescences are yellow and borne above the leaves to a height of 15 cm. Flowers can be seen in August but occur mainly from September to October (George 1995; Western Australian Herbarium 2006).
The Dwellingup Synaphea is endemic to the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia. It is known from 11 subpopulations south of Perth, from Pinjarra to Boyanup (a range of approximately 40 km north to south) (WA DEC 2009).
The species occurs within the Swan Coastal Plain Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia Bioregion and the Swan Natural Resource Management region (TSSC 2009ca).
The Dwellingup Synaphea is considered to have a restricted geographic distribution (TSSC 2009ca). The extent of occurrence of the species is approximately 350 km². There are insufficient data to calculate the species' area of occupancy (WA DEC 2009a).
The geographic distribution of the Dwellingup Synaphea is fragmented and its remaining habitat is generally surrounded by cleared farmland. This lack of suitable habitat limits the geographic distribution of the species (TSSC 2009ca).
In 2007, a translocated subpopulation was established on private property, as a seed orchard for the species. This eleventh subpopulation consisted of 105 seedlings in the winter of 2007; however was subsequently heavily grazed by kangaroos. The site was replanted in June 2008 and seedlings were guarded against grazing. In September 2008, all seedlings were still alive but it is not certain whether these plants will survive to maturity and reproduce (WA DEC 2009a).
Two of the 11 subpopulations occur in a Nature Reserve. One subpopulation is being actively managed as it has been newly established through translocation. The remaining subpopulations occur on road verges, rail reserves, and private property (WA DEC 2009a) and are not protected under any conservation covenants with landholders (TSSC 2009ca).
The total population size of the species is approximately 1400 mature plants. This figure was calculated using actual counts from population surveys undertaken in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2008 (WA DEC 2009a).
The Dwellingup Synaphea occurs on loamy soils in low lying areas that are occasionally inundated. Associated vegetation is generally swampy heath to 1 m high with scattered emergent Christmas Tree (Nuytsia floribunda). Field evidence suggests that the condition of the plants deteriorates following inundation of the habitat (Evans & English 2000).
The Dwellingup Synaphea is thought to be a mild disturbance opportunist, as it resprouts from the long tap root rather than regenerating from seed. A cool fire in the species' habitat can result in established plants resprouting from rootstock, but not from seed (TSSC 2009ca).
There are a number of Synaphea species that look very similar to the Dwellingup Synaphea and occur very close to the known subpopulations of this species. These species are Synaphea gracillima, Synaphea petiolaris, Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm and a hybrid between Synaphea gracillima and Synaphea petiolaris (Evans & English 2000). The features that distinguish these species from the Dwellingup Synaphea are (Evans & English 2000):
- The stigma is half moon shaped on all the similar taxa
- There are no hairs at all on the flowers of the Dwellingup Synaphea, whereas the flowers of Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm have hairs on the outside of the tepal
- The leaf lobes on the Dwellingup Synaphea are variable but are generally straight, long and acute. The divisions are irregular, whereas those of Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm have symmetrical divisions.
The main identified threats to the Dwellingup Synaphea are competition from weeds, road, track and firebreak maintenance works, increased inundation and waterlogging, illegal waste disposal and impacts from dirt bike riding (Evans & English 2000; WA CALM 2006).
Competition from weeds is a current threat to this species, and African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), Perennial Veldt Grass (Ehrharta calycina) and Wild Watsonia (Watsonia bulbillifera) are present at all subpopulations, with heavy weed infestation at some sites. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many weed species (Evans & English 2000; WA CALM 2006).
Road, track and firebreak maintenance
Road, track and firebreak maintenance works are an ongoing threat to the Dwellingup Synaphea. The species is particularly vulnerable to activities such as grading road reserves, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels, and the mowing of roadside vegetation to improve visibility. Many of these actions also encourage weed invasion into adjacent habitat, as well as causing damage to actual plants. Railway maintenance at one subpopulation has impacted the species in the past by destroying plants and habitat (Evans & English 2000; WA CALM 2006).
Inundation and waterlogging
Increased inundation and waterlogging as a consequence of changes to drainage from road construction are likely to impact on one subpopulation and possibly other subpopulations. The species' health has been observed to deteriorate following flooding. Long-term changes in the flooding regime are likely to impact on the viability of subpopulations in the future (Evans & English 2000; WA CALM 2006).
Illegal waste disposal and impacts from dirt bike riding
One subpopulation is under threat from the illegal disposal of waste, including rubbish and several abandoned car bodies. Recreational riders of dirt bikes are also damaging individual plants and degrading the species' habitat at this site, from their riding and the creation of new tracks in the species' habitat (WA CALM 2006).
A potential threat to the species is grazing, and there is evidence that habitat at one subpopulation has been grazed in the past (WA CALM 2006). Grazing can directly damage individual Dwellingup Synaphea plants, and can also degrade the species' habitat. Increased nutrient levels in the soil, as a result of droppings, are also likely and may further degrade the species' habitat, introducing weed seeds and providing good germination conditions for weed growth (TSSC 2009ca).
A second potential threat to some subpopulations of the species may be future mining operations (Evans & English 2000; WA CALM 2006). Depending on the nature of the mining operation, this potential threat could have a direct impact on the species and its habitat (TSSC 2009ca).
Clearing of land for agriculture has reduced the amount of suitable habitat for the species and could impact in the future (TSSC 2009ca).
Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary for this species as a recovery plan will have limited benefit for this species. The actions covered by the conservation advice are considered to be sufficient at this time.
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (TSSC 2009cb) list the following research priorities:
- Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
- More precisely assess population size, geographic distribution, ecological requirements, and the relevant impacts of threatening processes, including:
- factors that trigger or influence level of flowering and fruit production, seed production, germination and recruitment
- the pollination biology of the species and the requirements of pollinators
- longevity of plants and time taken to reach maturity
- the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
- the species' response to disturbance (e.g. fire)
- other relevant mortality and morphological data for the species.
- Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat during the August to October flowering period to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.
- Undertake seed germination trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment.
- Investigate the precise taxonomic relationship between the Dwellingup Synaphea and its close relatives that occur in the same area, using appropriate methodologies including DNA marker analysis.
- Undertake genetic analyses to 1/ assess current gene flow (using markers and analyses capable of distinguishing population divergence on an evolutionary timescale, from that which might be due to more recent impacts), and 2/ identify populations with low genetic diversity that might benefit from artificial introduction of genetic material from other populations from which they have relatively recently diverged.
In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (TSSC 2009cb) list the following priority actions:
- Continue monitoring known populations to identify key threats.
- Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
- Identify subpopulations of high conservation priority.
- Ensure there is no disturbance in areas where the Dwellingup Synaphea occurs, excluding necessary actions to manage the conservation of the species.
- Control access routes to suitably constrain public access to known sites on public land.
- Suitably control and manage access on private land and other land tenure.
- Manage any changes to hydrology that may result in changes to water table levels and/or increased runoff and sedimentation.
- Manage any disruptions to water flows.
- Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
- Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
- Develop and implement a management plan for the control of African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), Perennial Veldt Grass (Ehrharta calycina) and Wild Watsonia (Watsonia bulbillifera) in the area.
- Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds do not have a significant adverse impact on the Dwellingup Synaphea.
- Manage sites to prevent the introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to the Dwellingup Synaphea, using appropriate methods.
- If livestock and native animal grazing occurs in the area, ensure land owners/managers use an appropriate management regime and density that does not detrimentally affect this species.
- Where appropriate, manage total grazing pressure at important/significant sites through exclusion fencing or other barriers.
- Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for the habitat of the Dwellingup Synaphea.
- Where appropriate, provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
- Raise awareness of the Dwellingup Synaphea within the local community through site visits, signage (e.g. declared rare flora markers to help prevent disturbance at sites), and posters/information brochures to be distributed to local naturalist groups, relevant authorities and volunteer organisations.
- Frequently engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.
- Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
- Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
- Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.
The Dwellingup Synaphea (Synaphea stenoloba) Interim Recovery Plan No. 62 (Evans & English 2000) outlines the following recovery actions:
- Coordinate recovery actions
- Collect seed and cutting material
- Install Declared Rare Fauna markers
- Liaise with relevant land managers
- Undertake weed control
- Confirm species status through genetic studies
- Monitor populations
- Conduct further surveys
- Develop and implement a fire management strategy
- Promote awareness
- Obtain biological and ecological information
- Develop Translocation Proposal
- Implement and monitor translocation
- Develop full Recovery Plan
The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (TSSC 2009cb) and the Dwellingup Synaphea (Synaphea stenoloba) Interim Recovery Plan No. 62 (Evans & English 2000) provide brief biological overviews and management recommendations.
In addition, the Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (DEWHA 2009w) is available.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ca) [Listing Advice].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ca) [Listing Advice].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009ca) [Listing Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Ehrharta calycina (Perennial Veldtgrass)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Road construction|
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.
Evans, R. & V. English (2000). Dwellingup Synaphea (Synaphea stenoloba) Interim Recovery Plan No. 62. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/syn_ste_irp62.pdf.
George, A.S. (1995). Synaphea. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:271-306. ABRS, Canberra/CSIRO, Melbourne.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009ca). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66311-listing-advice.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009cb). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Synaphea stenoloba (Dwellingup Synaphea). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/66311-conservation-advice.pdf.
Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.
Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.
Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009a). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: DEC.
Western Australian Herbarium (2006). Florabase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Synaphea stenoloba in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Jul 2014 18:42:57 +1000.