Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia dorrienii
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia dorrienii.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District (Graham, M. & M. Mitchell, 2000) [State Species Management Plan].
WA:Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Warren Region, Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No 40 (Hearn, R.W., R. Meissner, A.P. Brown, T.D. Macfarlane & T.R. Annels, 2006) [Management Plan].
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Caladenia dorrienii
Scientific name Caladenia dorrienii [6596]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Domin
Infraspecies author  
Reference Domin, K., (1912) Additions to the Flora of Western and North-Western Australia. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 41.: 251, pl. 12, fig. 23 [tax. nov.]
Other names Caladenia filamentosa var. dorrienii [22673]
Calonema dorrienii [78672]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia dorrienii

Common name: Cossack Spider-orchid

This species is conventionally accepted as Caladenia dorrienii (CHAH 2010). However, the Cossack Spider-orchid has also been known as Caladenia filamentosa var. dorrienii, Calonema dorrienii, Calonemorchis dorrienii and Jonesiopsis dorrienii (CHAH 2010).

The Cossack Spider-orchid is a small orchid producing 1—3 distinctive flowers with narrow linear greenish-white sepals (modified leaves), and petals with longitudinal red veins and dark glandular hairy tips. The erect dorsal sepal (top 'petal') is 25—30 mm in length (TSSC 2008jq). The labellum (lower 'lip' petal) has a few irregular marginal teeth and two rows of closely set glands (7—8 in each row) along the middle. The flowers are produced on a slender, erect, hairy stem, up to 20 cm high (TSSC 2008jq). A narrow, linear leaf clasps this stem near its base and there is a short bract midway along its length. Flowering occurs from mid-September to early-November (Brown et al. 1998; Williams et al. 2001b). The plant is dormant between December and late April.

The Cossack Spider Orchid is endemic to Western Australia, occurring in isolated localities in the Frankland, Kojonup and Boyup Brook areas, with an outlier population located between Perth and Brookton (WA DEC 2008).

The extent of occurrence of this species is approximately 4000 km2, however, the area of occupancy is likely to be less than 1 km2 (WA DEC 2008). Trends cannot be assessed as several populations have not have areas of occupancy recorded.

The species is considered to be significantly fragmented as the known populations are scattered with considerable distances between them (WA DEC 2008).

There are 12 populations of the Cossack Spider Orchid known, with the number of mature, flowering plants estimated at 3000 (TSSC 2008jq). For some populations, plant numbers are estimates rather than exact counts, and the numbers of plants also seem to vary greatly each year depending on the time the survey was undertaken. Two populations are known to occur on private property, seven in State forest, one in a nature reserve, one in a Shire reserve and one on unallocated Crown land (WA DEC 2008).

Survey data by Atkins (1998), is as follows:

Population number Land tenure / purpose Year of survey Number of Plants 
1 Private property 1990 0
2A Private property 1993 0
2B Non-vested / vacant Crown Land 1993 0
3 Lands & Forest Commission / State Forest 1991 0
4 Conservation estate / conservation of flora & fauna 1990 0
5 Shire / water, recreation 1997 Unknown
6 Lands & Forest Commission / State Forest 1996 0
7A Lands & Forest Commission / State Forest 1996 60
7B Lands & Forest Commission / State Forest 1996 30
7C Lands & Forest Commission / State Forest 1996 12
8 Private property 1995 40
9 Lands & Forest Commission / State Forest 1996 0

There is insufficient information to determine if the species is in decline. Counts of plant numbers indicate that six of the 12 populations have declined in number since initial surveys were undertaken, though five have increased in number. 


The Cossack Spider-orchid is known to hybridise with the Common Spider-orchid (Caladenia vulgata) (Jones 2006).

The Cossack Spider-orchid grows in clumps on sandy clays or black loamy soil, usually in moist valley sites in open Wandoo (Eucalyptus wandoo) or Jarrah (E. marginata) woodland (TSSC 2008jq). The species grows amongst low, scattered shrubs, annuals and dense low herbs, often on slopes and near streams (Atkins 1998; Brown et al. 1998; Hoffman & Brown 1992, 1998; Jones 2006; Kelly et al. 1990; Williams et al. 2001).

The Cossack Spider Orchid occurs as a dormant tuber underground between (approximately) December to June, with above ground parts of the plants present between July and November. Flowering occurs September to November (Atkins 1998; Brown et al. 1998; Graham & Mitchell 2000; Williams et al. 2001).

Like most spider-orchids, the Cossack Spider-orchid is likely pollinated by male thynnid wasps, attracted to flowers by scents that mimic female thynnid wasp pheromones. Once it reaches the flower, the male attempts to copulate with the labellum of the flower, mistaking it for the female wasp, and effect pollination. This "sexual deception" process is known as pseudocopulation (Jones 1988, 2006).

Usually growing in clusters or clumps, the Cossack Spider Orchid can be distinguished from other 'wispy' spider orchids (known as the Caladenia filamentosa group) by its shorter perianth segments, prominently down-curved petals and crossed lateral sepals, the widely spaced marginal teeth and the prominently irregular pale red spots and blotches rather than distinct radiating lines on the labellum (Williams et al 2001).

Threats to the Cossack Spider-orchid include (Brown et al. 1998; Graham & Mitchell 2000; Kelly et al. 1990; WA DEC 2008; Williams et al. 2001):

Wildfire
The species is known to be sensitive to fire and will die if burnt when the above-ground parts are present between July and November. However, hot fires during the dormancy period of December to April appear to stimulate flowering.

Insect damage
One population has recorded insect damage, however the species of insect was unknown. Any level of insect damage may suppress growth, preventing flowers from maturing.

Weeds
Weeds are a threat to the species as they compete for resources and reduce population health and reproductive output. Annual weed species also increase fuel loads and may result in fires earlier in the year and increase fire intensity and frequency.

Grazing
Although plant grazing has not been observed directly grazing, kangaroos (Macropus spp.) have caused damage in the past by grazing the associated habitat at one population. Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) have also caused significant disturbance in the past through diggings and trampling to the habitat at one population site, but not directly grazing the orchids.

Recreational activities
Recreational activities from motorbike and horse riding, and illegal firewood collection could potentially impact two nearby populations.

Altered hydrology
As the species occurs on wet sites, significant changes to water tables over time may affect population density. Increasing salinity may be a threatening factor for populations outside the main forest belt.

Documents relevant to the management of the Cossack Spider-orchid can be found at the start of the profile.

The following documents may also assist in protecting the Cossack Spider-orchid, or its habitat:

  • Threat Abatement Plant for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (EA 2005).
  • Declared Rare Flora and Other Plants in need of Special Protection in the Northern Forest Region (Kelly et al. 1990).
  • South Coast Threatened Species and Ecological Communities Strategic Management Plan (Gilfillan et al. 2009).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Caladenia dorrienii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006dz) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008jq) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Changes in hydrology leading to rising water tables and dryland salinity Caladenia dorrienii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006dz) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].

Atkins, K.J. (1998). Conservation Statements for threatened flora within the regional forest agreement region for Western Australia. Page(s) 1-95. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Environment Australia (EA) (2005). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig/index.html.

Gilfillan, S., P. Mitchell, J. Newell, A. Danks & S. Comer (2009). South Coast Threatened Species and Ecological Communities Strategic Management Plan. [Online]. Albany: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.conservation.wa.gov.au/media/14355/ref%207%20gilfillian_etal_2009_scregionaltsplan.pdf.

Graham, M. & M. Mitchell (2000). Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District. [Online]. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1992). Orchids of South-west Australia 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1998). Orchids of South-west Australia Rev. 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Jones, D.L. (1988). Native Orchids of Australia. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed.

Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

Kelly, A.E., D.J. Coates, I. Hereford, S.D. Hopper, M. O'Donoghue & L. Robson (1990). Declared Rare Flora and Other Plants in need of Special Protection in the Northern Forest Region. Perth: Department of Conservation & Land Management.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008jq). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Calonema dorrienii. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/78672-conservation-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia dorrienii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 19:05:33 +1000.