Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia tetraphylla (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adi) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, a recovery plan is likely to provide for the research and management actions necessary to stop the decline of, and support the recovery of, this species (17/10/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Rough-shelled Bush Nut Profile (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS), 2005) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Scientific name Macadamia tetraphylla [6581]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author L.Johnson
Infraspecies author  
Reference Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 79: 15 (10 Jun. 1954).
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/images/photo_cd/630930713442/026.html

Scientific name: Macadamia tetraphylla

Common name: Rough-shelled Bush Nut

Other common names: Macadamia Nut, Rough-shelled Macadamia and Rough-leaved Queensland Nut

In the Beechmont area and north to the Tamborine Mountain area (near Wongawallan Creek), intermediates of the co-occurring Macadamia Nut (Macadamia integrifolia) and Rough-shelled Bush Nut have been collected (Quinn et al. 1995).

Rough-shelled Bush Nut is a small to medium sized tree, often branched near the base, densely bushy and growing to 20 m tall. New growth is pink to red. The trunk is cylindrical, not buttressed. Outer bark is brown to greyish-brown, smooth or finely wrinkled, marked with numerous cream horizontally-elongated lenticels. Leaves are in whorls of 4, rarely 3 or 5; petioles are 2–4 mm long; blades narrowly oblong-obvoate, apex usually acute or acuminate, spine-tipped, or occassionally rounded, margin coarsely serrate, tipped with antrorse sipines, 6–20 cm long and 2–4 cm wide, glabrous and with longer juvenile leaves (Barry & Thomas 1994). The flowers are pinkish, cream or white (Barry & Thomas 1994; Gross 1995; Quinn et al. 1995), to purple (Floyd 1989) or pale lilac (Johnson 1954). The flowers hang in long strings among the leaves (NSW NPWS 2005). The fruit is woody brown and globular, 2–3 cm in diameter, with seeds in a hard wrinkled, brown shell inside a green husk (NSW NPWS 2005).

Rough-shelled Bush Nut occurs from northern NSW (mainly the Richmond and Tweed River areas) to south-east Queensland (from the Gold Coast hinterland north to Mt Wongawallan) (Floyd 1989; Forster et al. 1991; Gross 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995; Stanley & Ross 1986).

NSW Rough-shelled Bush Nut distribution
Records from 1980–2000 include Lennox Head, near Ballina; Crystal Creek, north-west of Murwillumbah; Mt Nullum; Glendower and Willowbank, both south of Minyon Falls; Cedar Creek, Mount Warning National Park; Numinbah Nature Reserve; Coolgardie Road, Wardell; Rocky Creek, Whian Whian State Forest; Mooball, Tweed Valley; Inner Pocket Nature Reserve; Moore Park Nature Reserve; Limpinwood Road; 4 km north-west of Tyalgum; Maclean Recreation Reserve; and east of Nimbin (Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995). However, some of the populations at these collection locations may have originated from cultivated material (Quinn et al. 1995). There is an unconfirmed report from Washpool, NSW (J.T. Hunter 2000, pers. comm.).

Queensland Rough-shelled Bush Nut distribution
Records include Wyangan Creek, Mudgeeraba; Upper Tallebudgera-Mount Cougal, partly within Springbrook National Park; Natural Bridge, Springbrook National Park; Montville-Maleny, north of Brisbane (possibly cultivated populations); Nicoll Scrub National Park; Lower Bellbird, Lamington National Park; and from freehold properties at Numinbah Valley/Cave Creek, Camp Bornhoffen, Numinbah Valley, Beechmont and Mudgeerabah (Barry & Thomas 1994; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

Commercial industry
Along with the Macadamia Nut, the Rough-shelled Bush Nut forms the basis of the commercial macadamia nut industry in Australia and Hawaii, usually as a hybrid selection. The species is rarely grown as an ornamental tree (Johnson 1954; Wrigley & Fagg 1989).

Specimens
Some plants are cultivated in botanic gardens (Barry & Thomas 1994). The Rough-shelled Bush Nut is currently in cultivation at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra; Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney; the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide; Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne and the Rockhampton Botanic Gardens (Meredith & Richardson 1990).

Macadamia Nut (Macadamia integrifolia) and Rough-shelled Bush Nut are hybridised to form the basis of the commercial Macadamia Nut industry in Australia and Hawaii (Sheringham & Westaway 1995). Rough-shelled Bush Nut is rarely grown as an ornamental tree (Johnson 1954; Wrigley & Fagg 1989). The species occurs in cultivation at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra; Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney; the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide; Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne; and Rockhampton Botanic Gardens (Meredith & Richardson 1990).

Populations of Rough-shelled Bush Nut at any given location tend to be small, generally with fewer than 20 individuals (P. Pisanu, pers. comm. cited in Fanning et al. 1998). Populations in the Queensland Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) region (an area of 8000 km²) are estimated at approximately 350 mature individuals in approximately 12 populations (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997). There are no available estimates for NSW populations.

Rough-shelled Bush Nut occurs in Lamington National Park, Mt Warning National Park, Nicoll Scrub National Park, Springbrook National Park (Natural Bridge and Mt Cougal sections), Inner Pocket Nature Reserve, Limpinwood Nature Reserve, Moore Park Nature Reserve, Numinbah Nature Reserve and Minyon Falls and Andrew Johnston Big Scrub Nature Reserves (Briggs & Leigh 1996; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995).

Rough-shelled Bush Nut is a rare species that generally occurs in subtropical rainforest and complex notophyll vineforest, at the margins of these forests and in mixed sclerophyll forest (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989; Gross 1995; Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995). It occurs in restricted habitat, growing on moderate to steep hillslopes on alluvial soils at well-drained sites (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997). Barry and Thomas (1994) reported the species growing at altitudes from 10 to 460 m asl.

Vegetation associated with Rough-shelled Bush Nut include (Barry & Thomas 1994):

  • very tall mixed sclerophyll-simple notophyll vineforest along riparian zones involving Tallow-wood (Eucalyptus microcorys), Queensland Brush Box (Lophostemon confertus) and Turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera)
  • very tall open forest with regenerating complex notophyll vineforest understorey involving Tallow-wood and Queensland Brush Box

  • complex notopyhll vineforest

  • simple-complex notophyl rainforest involving Lilly Pilly (Acmena smithii), Hairy Acronychia (Acronychia pubescens), Jackwood (Cryptocarya glaucescens), Sandpaper Fig (Ficus coronata) and Rose Apple (Syzgium moorei).


    Rough-shelled Bush Nut occurs in similar habitat to other species listed under the EPBC Act including the endangered Spiny Gardenia (Randia moorei) and the vulnerable Rose Apple (Syzygium moorei).

  • Rough-shelled Bush Nut is estimated to have a lifespan of over 100 years, with a juvenile period greater than six years (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

    Rough-shelled Bush Nut flowers from August to October, and is recorded fruiting between January and April. The species reproduces from seed and seed dispersal is via streams. Clean nuts germinate within a period of two weeks and the seed remains viable for a period of a few weeks to six months. Seeds of this species are subject to Black Rat (Rattus rattus) predation. Vegetative resprouting and new seedlings have been recorded following habitat damage (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Quinn et al. 1995).

    Rough-shelled Bush Nut flowers from August to October, with ripe fruit in January. Inflorescences are 15–45 cm long and hang on 2.5–3 mm pedicels amongst leaves. The perianth is pinkish or white. The fruit are greyish-green, eventually brownish, 2–3.5 cm in diameter, with seeds that are spherical to ellipsoid and 2–3.5 cm long (Barry & Thomas 1994).

    Threatening processes affecting Rough-shelled Bush Nut include clearing and fragmentation of habitat for coastal development, agriculture and roadworks; localised extinction associated with low numbers; degradation associated with edge effects; grazing and trampling by domestic stock; inappropriate fire regimes (this species is vulnerable to fire); invasion of habitat by weeds; and loss of genetic diversity through hybridisation with commercial varieties (NSW NPWS 2005).

    Habitat Loss
    Rough-shelled Bush Nut has suffered substantial loss of available habitat through clearing of lowland rainforest for agriculture and urban development. Although isolated remnant trees may have been retained, it is almost certain that clearing has caused a reduction in population numbers of this species (Barry & Thomas 1994; Quinn et al. 1995). Sun damage threatens this species following upper stratum canopy disturbance. Trampling may also be a threat in National Parks. Clearing of habitat is a continuing threat (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Sheringham & Westaway 1995).

    Weeds
    A number of populations are subject to weed encroachment, principally by Mickey Mouse Plant (Ochna serrulata), Privet (Ligustrum spp.), Mistflower (Ageratina riparia), Groundsel (Baccharis halimifolia), Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphor), Lantana (Lantana camara), Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis), Pinus spp., Blue Billygoat-weed (Ageratum houstonianum), Crofton-weed (Eupatorium adenophorum), Mist-flower (Eupatorium riparium), Silver-leaved Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) and Wild Tobacco Tree (Solanum mauritianum) (Barry & Thomas 1994).

    A number of actions have been identifed as priority actions for the recovery of this species including (NSW NPWS 2005):

  • support of Landcare groups and bush regeneration teams
  • exclusion of fire from rainforest
  • fencing-off or exclusion of stock from known habitat
  • control of weeds
  • protection of rainforest from clearing or development
  • expansion and connection of remnant patches of habitat
  • exclusion of commercial hybrids from wild populations.

  • The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ageratina riparia (Mistflower, Mist Flower, Creeping Croftonweed, River Eupatorium, Spreading Mistflower) Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ligustrum lucidum (Broad-leaved Privet, Tree Privet, Large Leaf Privet, Glossy Privet, Ligustrum, Wax Leaf Privet) Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ochna serrulata (Ochna, Mickey Mouse Bush, Mickey Mouse Plant, Birds Eye Bush) Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cinnamomum camphora (Camphor Laurel, Camphor Tree, Gum Camphor, True Camphor, Japanese Camphor, Formosa Camphor, Shiu Leaf) Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass, Green Panic, Hamil Grass) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Dolichandra unguis-cati (Cat's Claw Vine, Yellow Trumpet Vine, Cat's Claw Creeper, Funnel Creeper) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macadamia tetraphylla (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adi) [Conservation Advice].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan (Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu, 2009) [Recovery Plan].
    Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nu) [Internet].

    Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

    Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

    Costello, G., M. Gregory & P. Donatiu (2009). Southern Macadamia Species Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Sydney, NSW: Horticulture Australia Limited. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/southern-macadamia-species.html.

    Fanning, D., Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW, Sinclair Knight Merz Pty. Ltd & Gunninah Consultants (1998). Proposed duplication of the Brunswick Heads Bypass and upgrade of the Pacific Highway, Brunswick River to Yelgun: species impact statement. Crows Nest NSW: Gunninah Environmental Consultants.

    Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

    Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.

    Gross, C.L. (1995). Macadamia. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:419-425. Canberra: ABRS and Melbourne: CSIRO.

    Hunter, J.T. (2000). Personal Communication.

    Johnson, L.A.S. (1954). Macadamia ternifolia F.Muell. and a related new species. The Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 79:15-18. Sydney.

    Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

    NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) (2005). Rough-shelled Bush Nut Profile. [Online]. Sydney: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10499. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2008].

    Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1997). Forest taxa at risk, threats, conservation needs and recovery planning in south-east Queensland. Queensland Government & Commonwealth of Australia.

    Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.

    Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

    Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.

    Wrigley, J.W. & M. Fagg (1989). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas and all other plants in the Australian Proteaceae family. Sydney, NSW: William Collins Publishers.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macadamia tetraphylla in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 24 Aug 2014 06:55:18 +1000.