Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Spyridium coactilifolium
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009) [Recovery Plan] as Spyridium coactilifolium.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Spyridium coactilifolium.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Spyridium coactilifolium
Scientific name Spyridium coactilifolium [6572]
Family Rhamnaceae:Rhamnales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Reisseck
Infraspecies author  
Reference Reisseck, S. (1858) Linnaea 29: 291
Other names Spyridium coactilifolium var. coactilifolium [32389]
Cryptandra coactilifolia [41703]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

A perennial shrub (Davies 1986; Jessup & Toelken 1986).

The species is known only from the Encounter Bay area of the Fleurieu Peninsula, SA. The populations occur in an area bounded by Port Elliot in the E, Parsons Beach Scrub and Back Valley in the W and Mt Compass in the N (Davies 1986).

The species has been reported on Kangaroo I. (e.g. Kenny 1990), though this is considered erroneous by Davies (1986), as the species has been occasionally confused with Spyridium halmaturina, which occurs on Kangaroo I. An 19th century collection labelled "Mt Lofty" is probably mislabelled according to Davies (1986). Jessop (1989 in Davies 1992) recorded the species as having been collected from the SE of SA [probably referring to the SE botanical region of SA, which does not include Fleurieu Peninsula]. Davies (1992) did not examine this collection.

In 1986 there were 11 populations containing over 100,000 individuals (Davies 1986). A further population was discovered in a Woods & Forest Dept. reserve prior to 1990, also on the Fleurieu (Taplin, R. 1990 pers. comm. in Davies 1992).

The two largest populations totalling an estimated 100 000 individuals, occur in Waitpinga Scrub and Parsons Beach Scrub. A third population of approximately 1000 individuals occurs NW of Ridgeway Hill (Davies 1986). At the time of survey, the three populations were healthy and in relatively unmodified native vegetation, barring localised tracks and the periphery invasion of weeds, especially Asparagus asparagoides (Davies 1986).

A further seven populations are known, containing c. 1700 individuals. Six of these populations occur in small blocks of native vegetation (0.5-2.5 ha), in or near Victor Harbor on Fleurieu Peninsula. These areas are under threat from potential subdivision, building development, competition from exotic plants (especially Asparagus asparagoides) and trampling. The other population is in 20 ha of native vegetation grazed by stock (Davies 1986).

Spyridium coactilifolium has occasionally been confused with S. halmaturina (Davies 1986).

The species is most frequently found on the tops of rocky sea cliffs, but may also be found further inland on gentle to moderately steep, SE-SW facing slopes on ridges. The sandy soils are of pH 6-7; and are white, pink, grey or red when dry. One population was found on brown sandy loam of pH 8.5 (Davies 1986).

Associated vegetation communities (Davies 1986):
Coastal: (a) in low shrubland with Beyeria lechenaultii, Acrotriche cordata, Lomandra effusa and Lepidosperma sp., (b) low shrubland and low open-shrubland dominated by Eucalyptus diversifolia with or without E. cosmophylla as a co-dominant, and (c) open heath and low shrubland with Melaleuca lanceolata.
Inland: (a) low woodland and low open woodland dominated by Eucalyptus fasciculata with or without E. cosmophylla as a co-dominant, (b) low open forest, low woodland and low open woodland dominated by Eucalyptus baxteri with or without E. cosmophylla and/or E. fasciculosa, and (c) tall shrubland and tall open shrubland dominated by Eucalyptus diversifolia with or without E. baxteri and/or E. cosmophylla.

In all vegetation communities, understoreys ranged from very sparse to mid-dense and were most frequently dominated by Xanthorrhoea semiplana, Leptospermum myrsinoides, Calytrix tetragona, Hibbertia riparia, Lepidosperma viscidum, Hypolaena fastigiata, Astroloma conostephioides, Brachyloma ericoides, Adenanthos terminalis, Platylobium obtusangulum and Lepidosperma carphoides (Davies 1986).

Flowers are mainly borne Dec. to Feb. (Jessup & Toelken 1986) although flowering has been recorded all months of the year (Davies 1986).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Spyridium coactilifolium in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006uu) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Spyridium coactilifolium (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008vc) [Conservation Advice].

Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Davies, R.J.P. (1986). Threatened Plant Species of the Mt Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Regions of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.

Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

Kenny, M (1970). Rhamnacae (sic). South Australian Society for Growing Australian Plants. 5(1).

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Spyridium coactilifolium in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:59:34 +1000.