Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Noisy Scrub-bird (Atrichornis clamosus) Recovery Plan (Danks, A., A. Burbidge, A.H. Burbidge & G.T. Smith, 1996) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Plan 2009-2018 (Department of Environment and Conservation, 2009v) [State Recovery Plan].
WA:Noisy Scrub-bird Recovery Plan-Wildlife Management Program No 12 (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Atrichornis clamosus [654]
Family Atrichornithidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Gould, 1844)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Atrichornis clamosus

Common name: Noisy Scrub-bird

Other names: Western Scrub-bird, Tjimiluk

The Noisy Scrub-bird is a conventionally accepted species of the genus Atrichornis (Christidis & Boles 1994; Schodde & Mason 1999).

The Noisy Scrub-bird is a medium-sized bird in which the sexes differ markedly in size. Males are about 23 cm in length and weigh 46–58 g, while females are about 19.5 cm in length and weigh 25–37 g (Clench & Smith 1985; Danks 1993; Higgins et al. 2001). The adults are mostly dark brown above with faint dark barring and rufous wings. They are off-white or buff below, merging to rufous brown on the vent, with dark brown irides, a grey-brown and pink bill and pink-brown or silver-grey legs and feet. The adult male has a diagnostic blackish triangle on the throat and foreneck that is highlighted by bold white stripes on the side of the chin and throat. In contrast, the adult female lacks or has only a trace of the dark marking on the throat and foreneck, and lacks the white stripes along the sides of the throat. Juvenile birds can be distinguished from the adults on the basis of the rich and mainly uniform rufous-brown plumage (with contrasting dark grey rump, tail, vent and flanks) and yellow gape. Immature birds appear like a duller version of the adult female, but the difference is sufficient for them to be distinguished from the adults (Higgins et al. 2006).

The Noisy Scrub-bird is usually observed singly. Most encounters are with single territorial males, although it is assumed that each territorial male is associated with a female or females that are generally unseen (Higgins et al. 2001).

The Noisy Scrub-bird occurs at two locations in south-western Western Australia; on the mainland in coastal areas from Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve to Cheyne Beach; and on Bald Island, which lies close to the coast off Cheyne Beach (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The extent of occurrence of the Noisy Scrub-bird is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 160 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The extent of occurrence has declined since settlement. In the 1800s, the Noisy Scrub-bird was recorded in the Drakes Brook-Mount William, William Margaret River-Augusta and Torbay-Albany-Mount Barker regions (Smith 1977; Whittell 1943, 1951) and almost certainly occurred east to the Waychinicup River (Danks et al. 1996; Smith 1977). It has been speculated that the historical distribution may have been even more widespread, perhaps extending north to near Perth (Abbott 1999; Smith & Robinson 1976) and east to Cape Riche (Whittell 1943), although on current knowledge the latter appears unlikely (Danks et al. 1996). No confirmed records of the Noisy Scrub-bird were made between 1889, when a specimen was collected at Torbay (Whittell 1943), and 1961, when a population was discovered at Mount Gardner (Danks et al. 1996; Webster 1962a, 1962b).

Since 1961, however, the extent of occurrence has expanded due to natural dispersal and translocation (Danks 1991; Danks et al. 1996). The extent of occurrence is expected to have changed little since 2000 (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.), despite the loss of approximately 8500 ha of optimal habitat and two thirds of the Noisy Scrub-bird population in a series of wildfires that began in 2001 (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The area of occupancy of the Noisy Scrub-bird was estimated at 100 km² in 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, a series of wildfires since 2001 has substantially reduced the area of the occupancy, and its present size is estimated to be about 45 km² (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.). The area of occupancy of the Noisy Scrub-bird declined from the late 1800s (Smith 1977; Whittell 1943, 1951). Although the estimated area of occupancy increased when the species was rediscovered at Mount Gardner in 1961 (Danks 1991; Danks et al. 1996), it was still likely to be smaller than it was in the pre-settlement area.

At present, the Noisy Scrub-bird is not held in captivity. In 1973 a study began to determine the potential for the Noisy Scrub-bird to be bred in captivity. In 1975–76 one male and three female nestlings were removed from the wild and hand-reared to establish a study population. The male mated with one of the females in 1976 and with all three females in each year from 1977–80, but the breeding success of the population was low because a high proportion of eggs laid by the three females were infertile. Only one of the nestlings reached independence. The population was maintained until 1981, when the study was terminated and the birds distributed to private aviculturists (Danks et al. 1996; Smith 1977).

The distribution of the Noisy Scrub-bird is fragmented, due in part to the clearing of native vegetation and impact of fire regimes employed by European settlers (Abbott 1999, 2000; Burbidge et al. 1986; Danks et al. 1996; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Smith 1977, 1985c).

The Noisy Scrub-bird has been well surveyed. The Albany region and, to a lesser extent, the Margaret River-Augusta region, were visited by a number of naturalists between the mid 1800s and mid 1900s, including several who searched specifically and extensively for the Noisy Scrub-bird (Whittell 1943). Despite the magnitude of the search effort, there were no confirmed records of the species between 1889, when a specimen was obtained at Torbay (Whittell 1943), and 1961, when the species was rediscovered at Mount Gardner (Danks et al. 1996; Webster 1962a, 1962b) (which lies within the Albany Management Zone). The population in the Albany Management Zone has been monitored since 1970, with counts of the population conducted in each year from 1970 to 1994 (with the exception of 1978 and 1981) and in 1997, 1999, 2001 and 2005 (Comer & Danks 2000; Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007). Further searches have been conducted at historical sites since the species was rediscovered in 1961, but these have failed to locate any additional extant populations (Danks et al. 1996; Smith 1985d). The distribution and population size of the Noisy Scrub-bird are well known from the monitoring program, although the monitoring program is based on counts of territorial males, and thus provides an index, and not an absolute estimate, of the actual population size (Danks et al. 1996; Smith & Forrester 1981).

In 2000, the Noisy Scrub-bird population was estimated, with medium reliability, to consist of 1500 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Noisy Scrub-bird currently occurs in two subpopulations. These are considered to represent true subpopulations because of the very low probability of genetic exchange between the locations occupied by each subpopulation. One subpopulation is located on the mainland in coastal areas from Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve to Cheyne Beach and the other is located offshore on Bald Island (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The mainland subpopulation is comprised of local populations at Moates Lake-Gardner Lake, Mount Gardner, Angove River-Normans Inlet, Mount Manypeaks, Waychinicup and Mermaid Point, but is considered to represent a single subpopulation because the local populations are connected to each other by corridors of suitable habitat that have been observed to facilitate the movement of birds (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.; Danks 1991; Danks et al. 1996).

A census of the mainland subpopulation in 2005 recorded a total of 278 territorial males including four territorial males at Moates Lake-Gardner Lake; 126 territorial males at Mount Gardner; 37 territorial males at Angove River-Normans Inlet; 32 territorial males at Mount Manypeaks; 53 territorial males at Waychinicup and 26 territorial males at Mermaid (Gilfillan et al. 2007). Based on a suggested ratio of 2.5 individuals for each territorial male (Danks et al. 1996), the total number of birds in the mainland subpopulation in 2005 is estimated to have been 695. This figure represents a substantial decline when compared to the preceding census in 2001.

Census Counts of Territorial Males in the Mainland Subpopulation (from Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).


Year Moates Lake-Gardner Lake Mount Gardner Angove River-Normans Inlet Mount Manypeaks Waychinicup Mermaid Point Total
1970 1 45         46
1971   44         44
1972   50         50
1973 1 57         58
1974   66         66
1975 1 69         70
1976 2 73         75
1977 2 74         76
1979 9 99         108
1980 8 108         116
1982 14 115         129
1983 17 121   4     142
1984 25 112   4     141
1985 35 122   12     169
1986 52 122   11     185
1987 63 129 2 15     209
1988 46 132 4 26     209
1989 52 144 7 32     236
1990 56 151 9 60     282
1991 37 164 12 79 1   299
1992 26 163 21 99   1 315
1993 25 172 28 156     390
1994 9 179 37 223   1 461
1997 8 167 57 135 22 4 393
1999 2 129 83 321 26 8 569
2001 3 163 79 427 37 22 733
2005 4 126 37 32 53 26 278
The Bald Island subpopulation is also considered to be a true subpopulation because the expanse of water that separates the Bald Island and mainland subpopulations prevents any movement between the two subpopulations (Danks 1991). A census of the Bald Island subpopulation in 2005 recorded a total of 65 territorial males (Gilfillan et al. 2007). Thus, the total number of birds in the Bald Island subpopulation in 2005 is estimated to have been 162. This figure represents a substantial and ongoing increase when compared to previous counts of two territorial males in 1993, no territorial males in 1994, 10 territorial males in 1997, 21 territorial males in 1999 and 37 territorial males in 2001 (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The population size of the Noisy Scrub-bird evidently declined in the latter years of the 19th century. The species was recorded in the Drakes Brook-Mount William, Margaret River-Augusta and Torbay-Albany-Mount Barker areas from the mid to late 1800s (Smith 1977; Whittell 1943, 1951), but no confirmed records were made between 1889 (Whittell 1943) and 1961 (Danks et al. 1996; Webster 1962a, 1962b), during which period the population size probably declined to about 50 individuals (Danks et al. 1996).

The rediscovered population at Mount Gardner was initially thought to contain more than 30 birds (Webster 1962b) and subsequent fieldwork confirmed this, with observations made from 1962–66 indicating a population of about 40–45 territorial males, and observations in 1968 indicating a population of about 50 territorial males (Smith & Forrester 1981). Annual monitoring began in 1970 when the population was observed to contain 45 territorial males. The population varied little in size in 1971 (44 territorial males) and 1972 (50 territorial males) but began to expand in 1973, when a total of 58 territorial males were recorded (including one territorial male, the first, at Gardner Lake). The population size increased steadily over the ensuing three decades, and in 2001 a total of 765 territorial males were recorded in a census of the entire population within the Albany Management Zone (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The population size has, however, declined since 2001. A series of wildfires in the Albany Management Zone since 2001, including one wildfire at Mount Manypeaks (the site of the largest local population) in December 2004, eliminated about two-thirds of the Noisy Scrub-bird population, and in 2005 a census of the population within the Albany Management Zone recorded a total of only 343 territorial males (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The generation length of the Noisy Scrub-bird is estimated to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The most important population at the present time, based purely on size, is the population at Mount Gardner which, based on census counts in 2005, supports approximately 37% of the total population (Gilfillan et al. 2007). However, because the total population of the Noisy Scrub-bird is presently estimated to consist of only 858 birds, all existing populations are likely to be important for the long-term survival and recovery of the species. The Bald Island subpopulation is considered to be of special importance because it is geographically isolated from the mainland subpopulation and as such is less likely to be affected in the event of a population crash on the mainland.

The Noisy Scrub-bird is not known to cross-breed with any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs because the Noisy Scrub-bird and the Rufous Scrub-bird (Atrichornis rufescens), which is the only other recognised member of the family Atrichornithidae, do not come into contact with one another in the wild (Higgins et al. 2001).

The Noisy Scrub-bird occurs almost entirely within Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Waychinicup National Park, Mount Manypeaks Nature Reserve, Arpenteur Nature Reserve, Bald Island Nature Reserve and some additional non-conservation focused reserves (Comer 2007, pers. comm.; Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007). The primary goal of management strategies employed at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve is to conserve the Noisy Scrub-bird and three other species that are threatened and listed under the EPBC Act 1999 (Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995).

The Noisy Scrub-bird inhabits ecological communities that support a dense understorey or lower stratum of sedges and shrubs, a dense accumulation of leaf litter and an abundant population of litter-dwelling invertebrates (Smith 1996; Welbon 1993). It mainly occurs in low closed forests 5–15 m in height that are dominated by Eucalyptus or Agonis and Banksia littoralis and occur in the steep and wetter gullies, and drainage lines of hills and granite mountains (Eucalyptus), and on the margins of freshwater lakes (Agonis and B. littoralis). It is also common in low closed forests up to 5 m in height that are dominated by Hakea elliptica, Eucalyptus or Agonis and B. littoralis and occur around granite outcrops (H. elliptica), in shallower and drier gullies (Eucalyptus) and on the margins of freshwater lakes (Agonis and B. littoralis). It is less common in shrublands > 3 m in height that support a diverse range of plant species and occur in the swales of sand dunes in lowland areas and around granite outcrops, on stony ridges and in drier areas of the drainage lines of hills and granite mountains. It is least common (and has not been recorded to breed) in heathlands up to 1 m in height that support a diverse range of plant species and occur in lowland areas, between gullies and on the walls of shallower gullies (Danks et al. 1996; Smith 1985b, 1996; Smith & Robinson 1976).

Historical records, and more recent observations, at historical sites indicate that this species formerly occurred in forests dominated by Eucalyptus calophylla and E. marginata, within which it appears to have been confined to wetter areas at the ecotone between swamp and forest where dense stands of E. megacarpa, Leptospermum and Lepidosperma are common (Smith 1996; Smith & Robinson 1976).

There are some differences in the habitats used for breeding and foraging. Breeding habitat occurs in wetter areas and is characterised by a dense ground cover of sedges (mostly Lepidosperma) and/or small shrubs which provide a source of nest material, nest sites and cover (Smith 1996). Foraging habitat occurs in drier and more elevated areas and is characterised by a less dense ground cover, a dense layer of leaf litter and an abundant population of litter-dwelling invertebrates (Smith 1996; Welbon 1993).

Post-fire age appears to be an important determinant of habitat suitability. The Noisy Scrub-bird mostly occurs at sites that have not been burnt for 10 or more years (Danks et al. 1996) and it is most abundant at sites that have not been burnt for 20 or more years (Gilfillan et al. 2007). It has been recorded at sites burnt as little as three or four years earlier (Danks 1997; Smith 1977), but it is not known if such sites are used for breeding (Danks 1997). In drier areas it can take up to 10 years for habitat to become suitable after fire (Smith 1985b, 1985d). It is not known if there is a maximum post-fire age after which the suitability of habitat declines (Danks 1997), but the Noisy Scrub-bird has been recorded breeding in habitat not burnt for 50 or more years at Mount Gardner (Danks et al. 1996) and in habitat probably not burnt for 100 or more years at Bald Island (Danks 1997).

The Noisy Scrub-bird does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities that are listed under the EPBC Act. It is not known to associate with any other threatened species or subspecies that is listed under the EPBC Act, but at some locations it does occur in the same areas and/or habitat as the following nationally listed threatened species: Gilbert's Potoroo (Potorous gilberti), Western Whipbird (western heath) (Psophodes nigrogularis nigrogularis), and Western Bristlebird (Dasyornis longirostris) (Danks et al. 1996; Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995).

The age of sexual maturity in the Noisy Scrub-bird varies between the sexes. Females are capable of breeding in their first year, while males do not reach sexual maturity until three years of age (Smith 1978, 1996).

No information is available on the life expectancy or rates of mortality. However, Garnett and Crowley (2000) estimate the generation length to be five years.

The Noisy Scrub-bird breeds from April to October or November (Danks et al. 1996; Smith & Robinson 1976). Its nest is globular in shape with a side entrance and is constructed from a combination of sedges, leaves, rootlets, twigs, bark and decaying plant matter. It is usually built close to the ground in a clump of rushes or sedges, although nests are also placed less commonly in a dense low shrub or pile of plant debris (Danks et al. 1996; Higgins et al. 2001; Smith & Robinson 1976; Webster 1963).

The clutch consists of a single egg that is a very pale buff colour with orange-brown blotches (Smith & Robinson 1976). The egg is incubated by the female parent for a period of 36–38 days (Smith 1985d; Smith & Robinson 1976). The nestling is fed and brooded by the female parent during the nestling period of three to four weeks (Smith & Robinson 1976). The fledged chick can remain with the female parent for up to six months after leaving the nest (Danks et al. 1996).

No quantitative information is available on breeding success. It appears that most pairs rear only one brood per breeding season, although females will lay a second clutch if the first breeding attempt fails (Smith & Robinson 1976). The rapid rate of expansion of the translocated population at Mount Manypeaks suggests that at least some pairs could have reared two broods per season at this location (Higgins et al. 2001). The causes of breeding failure are largely undescribed, but the Yellow-footed Antechinus (Antechinus flavipes) is known to prey upon eggs and nestlings, and it is possible that nests are also raided by the European Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), feral cat (Felis catus), Black Rat (Rattus rattus), House Mouse (Mus musculus), Bush Rat (Rattus fuscipes), Rosenberg's Goanna (Varanus rosenbergi) and some species of snake (Danks et al. 1996; Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995; Gilfillan et al. 2007; Smith & Robinson 1976).

The diet of the Noisy Scrub-bird is dominated by a variety of invertebrates including beetles, ants, spiders, crickets, cockroaches, bugs, centipedes, millipedes, earthworms, flies, moths, butterflies, woodlice, scorpions, termites, ticks, mites, amphipod crustaceans, mantids, and unidentified pupae and larvae. Other food items, such as seeds and small frogs and lizards, are occasionally consumed (Danks & Calver 1993; Smith & Calver 1984; Whittell 1943, 1951).

The Noisy Scrub-bird forages on or near the ground. It collects its food from leaf litter, clumps of rushes, leaves and stems of low dense shrubs, and decaying wood including dead Xanthorrhoea trees and fallen logs (Danks 1991; Smith 1985c; Smith & Robinson 1976). It mainly forages by flushing invertebrates from leaf litter. It occasionally turns over leaves with a flick of the head, or inserts its head into and rummages through piles of leaves (Smith & Robinson 1976).

The Noisy Scrub-bird is sedentary (Higgins et al. 2001). Its seasonal movements are restricted to some limited dispersal by young birds (Blakers et al. 1984; Danks 1991). It has been presumed that this dispersal, which occurs in summer and autumn, is undertaken by second year males once they have moulted into their adult plumage (although some males remain on or near their natal territories as non-breeding adults) (Danks 1991). However, the establishment of breeding populations at previously unoccupied sites (such as Moates Lake-Gardner Lake and Angrove River-Normans Inlet) via natural dispersal (Danks 1991) indicates that some females must also disperse (Higgins et al. 2001). The Noisy Scrub-bird is incapable of sustaining flight for more than a few metres (Danks 1991; Smith 1976) and consequently is unable to cross expanses of water and unlikely to cross expanses of open ground. It is thus reliant on corridors of continuous suitable vegetation to facilitate natural dispersal. The natural dispersal of singing males to previously unoccupied sites and the movement of translocated birds after their relaease indicate that the Noisy Scrub-bird is capable of dispersing up to 10 km (Danks 1991).

The daily movements of the Noisy Scrub-bird have been described only for the breeding season. Males traverse their territories each day in a series of slow movements. With the exception of travel to and from roosting sites at dawn and dusk, these movements are unpredictable and subject to change from day to day (Smith 1976, 1985b). The movements of females are largely unknown. However, a limited number of observations suggest that females mostly remain in a small area around their nest sites (Smith 1985c).

The Noisy Scrub-bird is territorial. There are two classes of territory: long-term and short-term. Long-term territories are occupied by territorial males and defended throughout the year with loud, directional song (Smith 1985c; Smith & Robinson 1976). They contain adequate habitat for feeding and breeding (Smith 1985c) and once established may be maintained for the life of the territory holder (Smith 1976). Long-term territories range in size from 4–9 ha, but most singing occurs within a core area that varies in size from 0.75–2.25 ha and the boundaries of which remain constant throughout the year and between years. Nesting activity usually occurs within long-term territories, with the nest site located at the periphery of the territory or outside the core area used by the resident male, although some breeding females have been located in areas away from long-term territories (Smith 1985c).

Short-term territories are established in the breeding season on the boundaries of long-term territories or in suboptimal habitats that lack adequate resources for feeding or breeding or both. Short-term territories are occupied by males without long-term territories (presumed to be immature males) for a period of time that can vary from a few days to three months (Smith 1985c; Smith & Robinson 1976). Short-term territories are defended, but the males on such territories sing infrequently. Breeding does not appear to occur on short-term territories (Smith 1985c).

The expansion of the population in recent decades has made the distinction between long-term territories and short-term territories less apparent. The increased competition for sites has caused some territories to be occupied by a dominant male and one or two subdominant males (Smith 1996). This has led to an increase in the number of males that establish territories in suboptimal habitats, where singing may now occur throughout the year, and where breeding might also now occur (Smith 1985c).

Distinctiveness
There is some potential for the Noisy Scrub-bird to be confused with the Western Bristlebird, which also occurs around Two Peoples Bay in Western Australia, has a similar colouration and exhibits similar behaviour to the Noisy Scrub-bird. However, the Noisy Scrub-bird can be distinguished from the Western Bristlebird on the basis of differences in the colour and pattern of the markings, colour of the irides, and character and volume of the calls (Higgins & Peter 2002).

Detectability
The Noisy Scrub-bird is easy to detect but difficult to observe. It is a shy and elusive bird that inhabits dense vegetation, where it is well camouflaged by its plumage, rarely emerges from cover and runs rapidly across the ground (Danks 1993; Smith 1985c; Webster 1962b; Whittell 1943, 1951). The male is inquisitive and less shy than the female, and will approach an observer or disturbance within his territory, but even then he will remain out of sight and eventually move away (Danks 1993; Smith 1985c; Webster 1962b). The presence of the male is, however, readily detected by the territorial song, which is loud, clear and piercing, capable of causing a ringing sensation in the ears of an observer at close range, and audible at a distance of 1.5 km in calm conditions (Danks 1993; Smith & Robinson 1976; Whittell 1943, 1951). The position of the male is generally easy to locate, although the ability of the male to vary the intensity of song in a manner that causes stationary individuals to seem like they are advancing or retreating, and to move rapidly while singing, can confuse some observers (Smith & Robinson 1976). In contrast to the male, the female is virtually silent (Danks 1993).

The Noisy Scrub-bird is capable of mimicking the calls of several other species (Chisholm 1965; Robinson 1975b; Serventy & Whittell 1976; Smith & Robinson 1976). Mimicry is uncommon however, and very rare in the breeding season (Smith & Robinson 1976), and thus is unlikely to be source of significant confusion.

The primary cause of the historical decline of the Noisy Scrub-bird is thought to have been a reduction in the area of suitable habitat due to fire and clearance of native vegetation for agricultural purposes by European settlers (Abbott 1999, 2000; Burbidge et al. 1986; Danks et al. 1996; Smith 1977; Smith 1985c).

Extensive and/or frequent fire
Extensive and/or frequent fire is the main threat to the Noisy Scrub-bird. The Noisy Scrub-bird is vulnerable to fire because it has a restricted distribution (Comer & Danks 2000; Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007), occurs in fire-prone habitats (Gilfillan et al. 2007) and has a limited ability to disperse (Danks 1991; Smith 1976). The latter characteristic reduces the capacity for individuals to find refuge in unburnt habitat when confronted with fire, and for isolated populations to be replenished or recolonised in the aftermath of fire (Gilfillan et al. 2007). Extensive fires, and especially those of high intensity, thus have the potential to eliminate substantial numbers of birds and to render large areas of habitat temporarily unsuitable (Burbidge 2003; Gilfillan et al. 2007). For example, a series of wildfires in the Albany Management Zone since 2001 have reduced the area of optimal habitat for the Noisy Scrub-bird in the zone from about 13 000 ha to about 4500 ha, and one of these fires, at Mount Manypeaks in December 2004, eliminated two-thirds of the total population of the Noisy Scrub-bird (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The preference of the Noisy Scrub-bird for habitat that has not burnt for at least three or four years and more usually ten or more years (Danks 1997; Danks et al. 1996; Smith 1977) suggests that frequent fires could also eliminate the species from otherwise suitable locations (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007). The absence of the Noisy Scrub-bird from sites that have recently been burnt suggests that it takes a minimum of three or four years for the habitat in such sites to attain a structure and invertebrate fauna capable of sustaining a population of the Noisy Scrub-bird (Danks et al. 1996).

Predation by introduced predators
The habit of the Noisy Scrub-bird to nest near the ground and forage on and near the ground (Higgins et al. 2001; Smith 1985c; Smith & Robinson 1976) may render it vulnerable to predation by introduced terrestrial predators. The European Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes), feral cat (Felis catus), Black Rat (Rattus rattus) and House Mouse (Mus musculus) occur in areas inhabited by the Noisy Scrub-bird and are considered potential predators (Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995; Gilfillan et al. 2007). Feathers of the Noisy Scrub-bird were recovered from the stomach of one feral cat from Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve. Two incidences of predation in a translocated population in the Darling Range have been attributed by the Black Rat (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The impact of predation by introduced predators is essentially unknown, but there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that it has had a limited effect on population trends. The European Red Fox and feral cat are not considered to be major threats because, in contrast to habitat preferences of the Noisy Scrub-bird, they tend to utilise tracks and avoid areas with dense understorey vegetation (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007). The opinion that the European Red Fox and other introduced predators are minor threats to the Noisy Scrub-bird is supported by evidence from Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, where a steady increase in numbers of the Noisy Scrub-bird was observed throughout the 1970s and 1980s despite the presence of the European Red Fox (Danks et al. 1996) and the likely presence of the Feral Cat, Black Rat and House Mouse (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.). The potential for introduced predators to impact on the Noisy Scrub-bird has been reduced by the implementation of a control program for the European Red Fox in 1988 and the opportunistic control of other feral species at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve (Danks et al. 1996; Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995).

Dieback caused by the soil fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi
Dieback is an epidemic plant disease caused by the introduced pathogenic soil fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. It causes the roots of a host plant to rot and infection often results in the death of the host plant. It is capable of substantially altering the structure and composition of ecological communities that contain plants that are susceptible to infection and through this mechanism may render infected communities less suitable or unsuitable for inhabitation by resident species of fauna (EA 2001l; Nichols 1998; Whelan 2003; Wills 1993). It might also increase the incidence of predation in some ecological communities by making the local habitat more open and therefore more accessible to predators (Nichols 1998). Dieback infection is extensive in Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve (Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995) and Waychinicup National Park (Gilfillan et al. 2007), both of which support populations of the Noisy Scrub-bird. However, the increase in numbers of the scrub-bird in Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve from 1961–94 (Comer & Danks 2000; Danks et al. 1996) in the presence of dieback disease suggests that, in this location at least, dieback disease thus far has had a negligible impact on population growth (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

Clearing of native vegetation
The Noisy Scrub-bird currently occurs almost entirely within a number of conservation and other reserves (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.; Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007). Clearing is therefore not considered to be a major threat at present, although it is possible that the future removal of native vegetation from private land that separates occupied reserves could eliminate corridors of suitable habitat that facilitate natural dispersal between otherwise isolated local populations (Danks 1991; Garnett 1993).

Degradation of habitat by introduced mammals, weed invasion and changes in hydrology or climate
There is potential for the habitat of the Noisy Scrub-bird to be degraded by the following processes:

  • Grazing and trampling by domestic and feral mammals with hard hooves can disturb and alter the structure and/or composition of ecological communities occupied by the Noisy Scrub-bird and consequently can render such communities unsuitable or less suitable (Gilfillan et al. 2007; Smith 1985c). The impact of grazing and trampling was observed by Smith (1985b) at one formerly occupied site near Margaret River where grazing and trampling by cattle had destroyed and degraded habitat that would otherwise have been suitable for breeding.
  • Extensive infestation by weeds could potentially alter the structure and composition of ecological communities occupied by the Noisy Scrub-bird and consequently render such communities unsuitable or less suitable. However, to date, there is no evidence to indicate that invasive weeds have had, or are having, a deleterious impact on the Noisy Scrub-bird (Gilfillan et al. 2007).
  • Changes in hydrology in south-western Western Australia, and especially changes that result in an increase in the salinity of soils in this region, could potentially alter the composition and structural diversity of ecological communities occupied by the Noisy Scrub-bird (Cramer & Hobbs 2002; George et al. 1995). Such changes could potentially render such communities unsuitable or less suitable for inhabitation. There is, thus far, no evidence to indicate that changes in hydrology have had or are having a deleterious impact on the Noisy Scrub-bird. However, Western Australia is considered more likely to experience an increase in the salinity of soils, in coming decades, compared to any other location in Australia, and the extent of saline soils in southern coastal regions of Western Australia is projected to expand by 2050 (National Land and Water Resources Audit 2001).
  • Climate change is a potential threat to the Noisy Scrub-bird. The Noisy Scrub-bird is considered to be vulnerable to the effects of climate change for two main reasons; it inhabits dense vegetation; and it has a restricted and fragmented distribution (Comer & Danks 2000; Danks et al. 1996) and limited ability to disperse (Danks 1991; Smith 1976). An increase in aridity could potentially reduce the density and consequently the suitability of habitat for the species. The limited dispersal ability means the species may be unable to avoid or escape from areas affected by climate change. The area around Two Peoples Bay, where the majority of the population of the Noisy Scrub-bird occurs, has thus far not experienced the same declines in rainfall and increases in temperature that have been recorded in other regions of south-western Western Australia in recent decades (IOCI 2002). However, trends suggest that overall increases in temperature and decreases in rainfall are likely to occur in future, and it is possible that these changes could result in direct and indirect impacts that combined might reduce the extent and quality of habitat used by the Noisy Scrub-bird (IOCI 2002; Gilfillan et al. 2007). One example of a direct impact is a potential decline in the density and therefore quality of the habitat due to reduced rainfall. One example of an indirect impact is a potential increase in the incidence of dry lightning storms and a consequent increase in the incidence of associated wildfires (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

Interactions with the Red Imported Fire Ant
The Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) is an introduced species of invasive tramp ant that has the potential to prey upon or compete for resources with endemic animals or to alter the structure and/or natural processes of ecological communities. It has been identified as a potential threat to the Noisy Scrub-bird (DEH 2006p), but to date there is no evidence to indicate that it has had, or is having, a deleterious impact on the Noisy Scrub-bird.

Loss of genetic variation
The Noisy Scrub-bird occurs in small and geographically separated subpopulations (Comer & Danks 2000; Danks et al. 1996) and has a limited ability to disperse (Danks 1991; Smith 1976). These characteristics enhance the potential for the small local populations of the Noisy Scrub-bird to suffer a loss of genetic variation due to inbreeding depression, genetic drift and founder effects (Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The Noisy Scrub-bird has a limited potential to reproduce, with females usually rearing only one fledgeling per breeding season (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.; Higgins et al. 2001; Smith & Robinson 1976). This low rate of reproduction limits the potential for numbers to be sustained in the presence of a threatening process and for numbers to recover in the aftermath of a threatening process.

The following actions have been implemented to aid the recovery of the Noisy Scrub-bird:

  • Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve was established in 1967 (Danks et al. 1996) and a management plan for the reserve, which contains specific recommendations for the conservation of the Noisy Scrub-bird, has been developed and implemented (Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995).
  • A monitoring program was introduced in 1970 (Danks et al. 1996) and is ongoing (Gilfillan et al. 2007).
  • A trial to assess the viability of a captive breeding program commenced in 1973 and terminated in 1981 after minimal success (Smith et al. 1983).
  • A translocation program commenced in 1983 (Garnett 1993). From 1983 to 2006 the program translocated a total of 214 birds to sites at the Darling Range, Walpole-Nornalup National Park, Quarram Nature Reserve, Torndirrup National Park, Porongurup National Park, Mount Taylor, Mount Manypeaks, Mermaid Point and Bald Island. The translocated populations at Walpole-Nornalup National Park, Quarram Nature Reserve and Torndirrup National Park have failed to persist, but breeding populations have been established and continue to persist at Mount Manypeaks, Mermaid Point and Bald Island (Danks 1995; Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007). Translocated individuals also persist at the Darling Range and near Porongurup National Park, but breeding has not yet been recorded in either of these populations and therefore neither population is regarded as established (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.; Gilfillan et al. 2007). The fate of the individuals translocated to Mount Taylor is unknown. Territorial males were heard occasionally in the Mount Taylor area from 2000 to 2007, but these individuals probably arrived via natural dispersal from Two Peoples Bay (S, Comer 2007, pers. comm.).


Summary of Noisy Scrub-bird Translocations to 2003 (Gilfillan et al. 2007).
Ratios are given as number of males to number of females. The last row describes the year in which the number of males observed in the population exceeded the number released, and is used to indicate that the population has become established.

 

Year Manypeaks Nuyts Quarram Mt Taylor Mermaid Bald Island Stony Hill Darling Range
1983 10:6              
1985 8:7              
1986   8:8            
1987   8:7            
1989     11:10          
1990     4:1 5:1        
1991       0:2        
1992       1:3 5:0 5:0    
1993         3:0 2:2    
1994         0:2 1:1 5:0  
1997               13:0
1998               13:5
1999               8:3
2000               10:1
2001               14:3
2002               2:4
2003               0:4
TOTAL 18:13 16:15 15:11 6:6 8:2 8:3 5:0 60:20
Year increase observed 1988 - - 1993 2001 1997 - Not observed yet
 
  • A management program (Burbidge et al. 1986) and recovery plan (Danks et al. 1996) have been developed to guide the recovery of the species, although both of these documents have expired.
  • Actions have been undertaken to minimise the potential impacts of fire and other threatening processes (Danks et al. 1996; Department of Conservation and Land Management 1995; Garnett & Crowley 2000).
  • Research has been conducted on the behaviour and ecology of the species (Danks et al. 1996).
  • Preliminary research has begun to determine the degree of genetic variation amongst local populations (S. Comer 2007, pers. comm.).
  • A recovery team has been formed to manage the recovery of the Noisy Scrub-bird and other threatened birds of the southern coastal region of Western Australia (Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).

There has been intensive research and monitoring of the Noisy Scrub-bird since the species was rediscovered in 1961 (Danks 1997; Danks et al. 1996). Research on the Noisy Scrub-bird has included studies of the habitat (Archer 2000; Smith 1985b), morphology (Bock 1985; Bock & Clench 1985; Clench 1985; Clench & Smith 1985; Morlion 1985; Raikow 1985; Rich et al. 1985; Smith 1985b; Zusi 1985), diet (Bain & Heaton 2003; Danks & Calver 1993; Smith & Calver 1984), breeding behaviour (Smith & Robinson 1976), territorial behaviour (Smith 1976, 1985c; Smith & Robinson 1976), vocal behaviour (Portelli 2004; Smith & Robinson 1976), movements post translocation (Danks et al. 1996), potential for natural dispersal (Danks 1991) and potential for captive breeding to be integrated into the recovery process. In addition to these studies, surveys of part or all of the population of the Noisy Scrub-bird have been undertaken in most years since 1970 (Comer & Danks 2000; Danks et al. 1996; Gilfillan et al. 2007).

The key management document is the Noisy Scrub-bird Recovery Plan (Danks et al. 19996). In addition to this, a brief recovery outline for the species is featured in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Noisy Scrub-bird Recovery Plan. Wildlife Management Recovery Plan. 12. (Danks, A., A.A. Burbidge, A.H. Burbidge & G.T. Smith, 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Atrichornis clamosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bn) [Internet].
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes The Noisy Scrub Bird. Wildlife Management Program. 2. (Burbidge, A.A., G.L. Folley & G.T. Smith, 1986) [State Species Management Plan].
Atrichornis clamosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bn) [Internet].
A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Atrichornis clamosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bn) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Ecological and behavioural comparisons between the Atrichornithidae and Menuridae. In: Frith, H.J. & J.H. Calaby, eds. Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress. 16:125-136. (Smith, G.T., 1976) [Proceedings].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Atrichornis clamosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bn) [Internet].
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
A research recovery plan for the Yarra pigmy perch, Edelia obscura in south-eastern Australia (Saddlier, S.R., 1993) [State Recovery Plan].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Atrichornis clamosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006bn) [Internet].

Abbott, I. (1999). The avifauna of the forests of south-west Western Australia: changes in species composition, distribution and abundance following anthropogenic disturbance. CALMScience Supplement. 5:1-176.

Abbott, I. (2000). Impact of agricultural development and changed fire regimes on species composition of the avifauna in the Denmark region of south-west Western Australia, 1899-1999. CALMScience. 3:279-308.

Archer, R.R. (2000). Habitat Preferences of the Reintroduced Noisy Scrub-bird, Atrichornis clamosus, in the Darling Scarp, Western Australia. Honours thesis, Murdoch University.

Bain, K. & R. Heaton (2003). An Investigation of Noisy Scrub-bird Food Availability in Well-established Territories on Mount Gardener in the Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, and in Translocation Sites in the Darling Range, Western Australia.

Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Bock, W.J. (1985). The skeletomuscular system of the feeding apparatus of the Noisy Scrub-bird, Atrichornis clamosus (Passeriformes: Atrichornithidae). Records of the Australian Museum. 37:193-210.

Bock, W.J. & M.H. Clench (1985). Morphology of the Noisy Scrub-bird, Atrichornis clamosus (Passeriformes: Atrichonithidae): systematic relationships and summary. Records of the Australian Museum. 37:243-254.

Burbidge, A.A., G.L. Folley & G.T. Smith (1986). The Noisy Scrub Bird. Wildlife Management Program. 2. WA Dept Conservation & Land Management, Perth.

Burbidge, A.H. (2003). Birds and fire in the Mediterranean climate of south-west Western Australia. In: Abbot, I., & N. Burrows, eds. Fire in Ecosystems of South-west Western Australia: Impacts and Management. Page(s) 321-347. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Chisholm, A.H. (1965). Further remarks on vocal mimicry. Emu. 65:57-64.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (1994). The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Monograph 2. Melbourne, Victoria: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.

Clench, M.H. (1985). Body pterylosis of Atrichornis, Menura, the 'corvid assemblage' and other possibly related passerines (Aves: Passeriformes). Records of the Australian Museum. 37:115-142.

Clench, M.H. & G.T. Smith (1985). Morphology of the Noisy Scrub-bird, Atrichornis clamosus (Passeriformes: Atrichornithidae): introduction, with remarks on plumage and systematic position. Records of the Australian Museum. 37:111-114.

Comer, S. (2007). Personal communication.

Comer, S. & A. Danks (2000). Noisy Scrub-bird Recovery Plan Annual Report 1999. South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Team, Albany.

Cramer, V.A. & R.J. Hobbs (2002). Ecological consequences of altered hydrological regimes in fragmented ecosystems in southern Australia: impacts and possible management responses. Austral Ecology. 27:546-564.

Danks, A. (1991). The role of corridors in the management of an endangered passerine. In: Saunders, D.A. & R.J. Hobbs, eds. Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors. Page(s) 291--296. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.

Danks, A. (1993). What annoys a scrub-bird?. Wingspan. 12:6-7.

Danks, A. (1995). Noisy Scrub-bird translocations: 1983-1992. In: Serena, M., ed. Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna. Page(s) 129-134. Surrey Beatty, Sydney.

Danks, A. (1997). Conservation of the Noisy Scrub-bird: a review of 35 years of research and management. Pacific Conservation Biology. 3:341-349.

Danks, A. & M.C. Calver (1993). Diet of the Noisy Scrub-bird Atrichornis clamosus at Two Peoples Bay, south-western Western Australia. Emu. 93:203-205.

Danks, A., A.A. Burbidge, A.H. Burbidge & G.T. Smith (1996). Noisy Scrub-bird Recovery Plan. Wildlife Management Recovery Plan. 12. [Online]. WA Dept Conservation & Land Management, Perth. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/noisy-scrub-bird/index.html.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006p). Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/trampants.html.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Garnett, S., ed. (1993). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report 82. Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, and Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

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Gilfillan, S., S. Comer, A.H. Burbidge, J. Blyth & A. Danks (2007). South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Plan Western Ground Parrot Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris, Western Bristlebird Dasyornis longirostris, Noisy Scrub-bird or Tjimiluk Atrichornis clamosus, Western Whipbird (Western Heath Subspecies) Psophodes nigrogul. Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth.

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Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter & W.K. Steele, eds. (2001). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 5: Tyrant-flycatchers to Chats. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Higgins, P.J., J.M. Peter and S.J. Cowling (2006). Boatbill to Starlings. In: The Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. 7. Melbourne: Oxford Press.

Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI) (2002). Climate Variability and Change in South West Western Australia. Indian Ocean Climate Initiative Panel, Perth.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Morlion, M.L. (1985). Pterylosis of the wing and tail in the Noisy Scrub-bird, Atrichornis clamosus, and Superb Lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae (Passeriformes: Atrichornithidae and Menuridae). Records of the Australian Museum. 37:143-156.

National Land and Water Resources Audit (2001). Australian Dryland Salinity Assessment 2000: Extent, mpacts, Processes, Monitoring and Management Options. National Land and Water Resources Audit, Canberra.

Nichols, O.G. (1998). Impacts of dieback-induced vegetation changes on native faunal communities in south-west Western Australia. Coates, D.J. & D.I.L. Murray, eds. Control of Phytophthora and Diplodina Canker in Western Australia. Page(s) 78-110. Final report to the Threatened Species and Communities Unit, Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Portelli, D.J. (2004). The singing behaviour of the Noisy Scrub-bird, Atrichornis clamosus: congeneric comparisons and the feasibility of using individual variation in song as a census tool. Emu. 104:273-281.

Raikow, R.J. (1985). Systematic and functional aspects of the locomotor system of the scrub-birds, Atrichornis, and lyrebirds, Menura (Passeriformes: Atrichornithidae and Menuridae). Records of the Australian Museum. 37:211-228.

Rich, P.V., A.R. McEvey & R.F. Baird (1985). Osteological comparison of the scrub-birds, Atrichornis, and lyre-birds, Menura (Passeriformes: Atrichornithidae and Menuridae). Records of the Australian Museum. 37:165-191.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Atrichornis clamosus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 09:19:39 +1000.