Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cf) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zs) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (45) (14/08/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006j) [Legislative Instrument] as Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt (Collins, J., 2009) [State Species Management Plan].
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora Largely Restricted to the Shire of Wongan-Ballidu (Stack, G., N. Willers, M. Fitzgerald & A. Brown, 2006) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa
Scientific name Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa [65112]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author Maslin & A.R.Chapm.
Reference Maslin, B.R. & Chapman, A.R. (1999) Acacia miscellany 19. The taxonomy of some Western Australian species Acacia section Juliflorae with 4-merous flowers (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Nuytsia 12(3): 475 [tax. nov.]
Other names Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. "velutinosa" [23862]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/14063

Scientific name: Acacia cochlocarpa subsp.velutinosa (Maslin & Chapman 1999).

Common name: Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle (Stack et al. 2003).

The Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is a spreading shrub growing to 70 cm high and up to 3 metres across. The bark is smooth or slightly stringy, and reddish-grey. Branches are more or less straight, ribbed and pubescent. Phyllodes are erect, green, 2.5 to 4 cms long and 3 to 5 mm wide, flat and shallowly to strongly curved, with three to seven unequal nerves, usually hairy on nerves. Inflorescences are paired in axil of phyllode. The wattle flower-heads are bright golden, sub-globular, axillary and 5 to 7 mm long when dry. Pods are tightly coiled, smooth, brown, velvety, impressed around seeds, with broad yellow glabrous margins. Seeds are longitudinal in pod, up to 2.5 mm long and wide, glossy grey with brown speckling with a cream aril. This subspecies is named for its velvety branchlets, nerves and pods (CALM 2005; Maslin & Chapman 1999; Mollemans et al. 1993; Stack et al. 2003).

The Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is endemic to Western Australia. This species is currently known from three natural populations and two translocated populations near Watheroo approximately 200 km north of Perth. The three natural populations occurring across a restricted range from 2.5 km north-west of Watheroo to 9 km north-north-west of Watheroo. The two translocated populations are within a Nature Reserve approximately 12 km north of Watheroo. All populations occur within the Northern Agricultural NRM region (CALM 2005).

The Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is restricted to three known populations located less than 5 km apart with an extent of occurrence of less than 5 km². There have only been several collections of this species since 1974, all from a very small geographic area near Manmanning (WA Herbarium 2005). There is little data to indicate a decline in the extent of occurrence of this very restricted species since its discovery. However, previous agricultural clearing may have resulted in the removal of habitat prior to its discovery (CALM 2005). The original extent of occurrence of this species is unknown although it is thought to be naturally restricted to a specific soil type of limited distribution (CALM 2005).

The species has a total area of occupancy of approximately 1.2 km². There is little data to indicate a past or future decline in area of occupancy of this very restricted species (CALM 2005).

The three known populations of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle occur in a very fragmented area. Much of the West Australian Wheatbelt has been cleared for agriculture (Shepherd et al. 2002) and the remaining populations occur in two small remnants on private property and an area of Unallocated Crown Land which is surrounded by cleared farm land (CALM 2005).

A number of surveys have been undertaken to try and locate additional populations of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle as summarized below (CALM 2005):

  • Staff from the West Australian Herbarium searched 160 km of roadsides and 22 reserves in the Manmanning area specifically for this species during the 2001 flowering season. Geological maps were used to target geologically similar areas. However, no other populations were found.
  • Staff from CALM's Merredin District Office conducted a search of Crown lands within a 25 km radius of Manmanning, during the 2000 flowering season. Geological data were also used to identify possible sites. However, no other populations were found.
  • Broader survey work by Merredin CALM District staff and volunteers between 2000 and 2002, during the preparation of the Wongan-Ballidu Threatened Flora Management Plan, failed to locate any other populations.
  • Several local flora volunteers are very familiar with the flora of the Manmanning area. They have conducted numerous collecting trips over many years, and have not found any other populations of this species.

The total population size for the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is approximately 85+ mature individuals (CALM 2005).

Population 1: 30+ plants.

Population 2: 5 old plants.

Population 3: 50+ plants.

This species is known from three separate populations which would be considered subpopulations under IUCN criteria (CALM 2005).

The limited anecdotal data available indicates that there has been a decline in the population size of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle. The species was previously recorded as 'plentiful' at Avon location 18304, 2 miles south-west of Manmanning (Population 3) on the 13 May 1984. There are currently only 85+ plants in total and some of these have been recorded as `half-dead'. If this decline continues then there is likely to be a significant reduction in population size over the next 10 years (CALM 2005).

The limited anecdotal data available indicates that there has been a decline in the population size of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle. The species was previously recorded as 'plentiful' at Avon location 18304, 2 miles south-west of Manmanning (Population 3) on the 13 May 1984. There are currently only 85+ plants in total and some of these have been recorded as `half-dead'. If this decline continues then there is likely to be a significant reduction in population size over the next 10 years (CALM 2005).

The generation length of this species is unknown. However, plants at population 3 are thought to have regenerated after a fire in 1986. These plants were found to be flowering during June 2001 and appeared younger and healthier than the other two populations which were also recorded as flowering that year (2001) (CALM 2005).

None of the three known populations of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle are located within the reserve system or are managed specifically for conservation. The property owners of the land parcels containing populations 2 and 3 are aware of the conservation status of the species and are keen to protect it but there is the risk that the site may not be managed appropriately if the property should change hands. Population 1 occurs on a parcel of Unallocated Crown Land and it may be possible to reserve some of this area in order to protect this species (CALM 2004; Stack et al. 2003).

The three known populations of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle grow in a hard white clay which appears to be quite localized and may be a unique soil type (possibly associated with the nearby Cadoux Fault Line) (CALM 2005). All three populations occur on gently sloping topography in an open shrubland of Allocasuarina campestri over open heath (WA Herbarium 2005).

Species associated with the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle include: Allocasuarina campestris, Ecdeiocolea monostachya, Hakea sp., Astroloma serratifolium, Leucopogon sp. Bungulla (P2), Melaleuca sp., M. sclerophylla, M. radula, Cryptandra dielsii, Grevillea sp., Hakea scoparia, Verticordia sp., Calytrix sp. Borya sp. and Drosera sp. (WA Herbarium 2005).

Several populations of the rare flora species Eucalyptus recta occur on the same land parcel as populations 2 and 3 of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle, but not in the same remnants (CALM 2005).

Details of the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle are unknown but population 3, which was thought to have regenerated after a fire in 1986, was found to be flowering and appeared healthy 15 years after the fire. The other two populations, which are thought to be older, were also flowering but appeared less healthy (CALM 2005).

The flowering period for the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is May to August and mature seed pods have been collected in November (Maslin & Chapman 1999; WA Herbarium 2005). Little is known regarding the levels of flower and fruit production, pollination mechanisms or the requirements for flower and seed production. However, fire is likely to be beneficial for inducing recruitment (Stack et al. 2003).

The Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is superficially similar to Acacia lirellata subsp. compressa, in having flat, curved, strongly multinerved phyllodes, sessile, subglobular to shortly obloid heads and acute to acuminate, dark-coloured bracteoles. However, A.l. subsp. compressa is distinguished by its long narrow non-coiled, glabrous pods, glabrous branchlets and glabrous, narrow phyllodes (Maslin 2001; Maslin & Chapman 1999).

Any additional survey of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle should focus on remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types. Although this species has quite distinctive leaves and pods, survey is easier when plants are in flower (May to August) and it is recommended that survey coincides with the mid-flowering season in early July (CALM 2005).

The main current threats to the survival of the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle are track maintenance and illegal rubbish dumping near some of the plants in populations 1. Part of this uncleared area of Unallocated Crown Land has been used for illegal rubbish dumping and the plants are found growing down both sides of the access track (CALM 2005).

Potential threats to this population on Crown Land include the risk of expansion of the rubbish dump and other developments on the site. The two populations on private property are at risk of possible clearing and/or grazing (due to lack of security of tenure), weed invasion and changed fire regimes. Decreasing rainfall may have a long-term affect on the taxon. Senescence and poor recruitment due to lack of disturbance (fire) is likely to result in a continuing decline in population size (CALM 2005; Stack et al. 2003)

Population Past Present Future
1 Clearing Rubbish Dumping, No security of tenure Rubbish dumping and development, weed invasion, changed fire regimes
2 Clearing No security of tenure No security of tenure therefore possible grazing etc., weed invasion, changed fire regimes
3 Clearing No security of tenure No security of tenure therefore possible grazing etc., weed invasion, changed fire regimes

Recovery Actions for the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle are noted below (CALM 2005; Stack et al. 2003; TFSC 2005):

  • Seed has been collected and is stored at the Threatened Flora Seed Centre. Some of this material may be made available should a translocation program be required in the future.
  • All land managers who have populations of this species on their property have been notified and advised of their legislative responsibilities to protect the plants. Legislative protection under the Wildlife Conservation Act (1950) and clearing provisions under the Environmental Protection Act (1986) provide legal protection from clearing and other human physical disturbance to the plants and population sites.
  • The rubbish which has been dumped adjacent to some of the plants in population 1 needs to be removed and steps should be taken to prevent further rubbish dumping in the vicinity of this population.
  • It may be possible to reserve some of the unallocated crown land at population 1 and this needs to be investigated.
  • It may be appropriate to carry out seed germination trials and small disturbance trials to initiate regeneration of the populations.

The Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle was first described by B.R. Maslin and A.R. Chapman (1999).

As the Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is currently listed as Rare under Western Australian Wildlife and Conservation Act (1950) and meets IUCN criteria for Critically Endangered, an IRP will be prepared for this species in accordance with CALM's draft Policy Statement 9 (CALM 2004).

The Velvety Spiral Pod Wattle is described as a Priority 1 species in the CALM Declared Rare Flora and Other Plants in Need of Special Protection in the Merredin District (Mollemans et al. 1993) and in a draft Wildlife Management Plan for the Wongan-Ballidu Shire (Stack et al. 2003).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cf) [Listing Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cf) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cf) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zs) [Conservation Advice].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Commonwealth Listing Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cf) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers NON-APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cp) [Conservation Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zs) [Conservation Advice].

CALM (2004). Draft Policy Statement No 9. Conserving Threatened Species and Ecological Communities (Revised). Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management.

IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. IUCN, Gland Switzerland.

Maslin, B.R. (2001). Wattle. Acacias of Australia. Interactive Identification CD. ABRS and CALM, Collingwood.

Maslin, B.R. & A.R. Chapman (1999). Acacia miscellany 19. The taxonomy of some Western Australian species of Acacia section Juliflorae with 4-merous flowers (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Nuytsia. 12(3):469-486.

Mollemans, F.H., P.H. Brown & D.J. Coates (1993). Declared rare flora and other plants in need of special protection in the Merredin District (excluding the Wongan-Ballidu Shire). Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Shepherd, D.P., G.R. Beeston & A.J.M. Hopkins (2002). Native vegetation in Western Australia : extent, type and status. Resource management technical report 249, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth.

Stack, G., N. Willers, M. Fitzgerald & A. Brown (2006). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora Largely Restricted to the Shire of Wongan-Ballidu. [Online]. Department of Environment and Conservation. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 39. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) (2005). Records held in the Department of Conservation and Land Management's Threatened Flora Seed Centre database. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 04:03:32 +1000.