In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Critically Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Daviesia glossosema (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cj) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia glossosema (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zg) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (45) (14/08/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006j) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Daviesia glossosema |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific Name: Daviesia glossosema (Crisp 1995).
Common Name: Maroon-Flowered Daviesia (Brown et al 1998; Phillimore & Brown 2001).
Daviesia glossosema is conventionally accepted and contains the nomenclatural synonym Daviesia glossantha Crisp ms M.Crisp in litt. 11.11.94 (WA Herbarium 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia is a small shrub growing to 50cm tall with intricate arching branchlets. Flowers are deep maroon in colour (WA Herbarium 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia is endemic to Western Australia and is known from five populations within the Stirling Range National Park approximately 80 km north north-east of Albany (CALM 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia occurs over a distance of approximately 11.5 km, with an extent of occurrence of approximately 11.5 km². There is little data to indicate a decline in the extent of occurrence of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia since its discovery. However, it is probable that the species was considerably more abundant within its current extent prior to the impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi (CALM 2005).
The original extent of the occurrence of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia is unknown, although it is restricted to the soil types contained in the Stirling Range National Park (Phillimore & Brown 2001). It is probable that the species has always had a restricted distribution with this National Park (CALM 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia has a total area of occupancy of less than 0.08 km².
Population 1a: 1 ha
Population 1b: 5ha
Population 2: 1ha
Population 3abc: 3x3m
Population 4a: 5x3m
Population 5: (only one plant recorded)
Anecdotal information and FloraBase records suggest that the Maroon-flowered Daviesia may have been more abundant in the South Bluff Knoll Track population, than currently recorded (CALM 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2001). Hence, on this basis there is evidence to suggest that the area of occupancy had declined in the past. The species abundance was not quantified in the 1979 survey. However, based on the amount of potential habitat, it has been assumed that the species was considerably more widespread prior to infestation by Phytophthora cinnamon (CALM 2005).
Although all known populations of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia occur in the Stirling Range National Park, the species distribution is considered to be fragmented as the populations are scattered with considerable distances between them (CALM 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia is known from five populations that would be considered locations under IUCN criteria. Surveys in similar adjacent habitat have failed to locate any additional populations (CALM 2005).
There are no translocated populations of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia. In 1997 a limited amount of seed was collected from population 2 (CALM, 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2001; TFSC 2005).
Populations 1 and 2 have been regularly monitored to determine the species' recovery after a fire in Spring 2000 and to determine the success of Phosphite spraying programs to try and reduce the impact of Phytophthora cinnamoni in the area. Populations 3, 4 and 5 have also been surveyed within the past 5 years (CALM 2005).
CALM's flora officer in Albany undertook a survey of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia population on the South Bluff Knoll Track during April-May 1999. Although the species was not in flower, it was reported that the species has conspicuous foliage and is easy to recognize in the field. One hundred and fifty plants, in poor condition, were located at this site (CALM 2005).
CALM's flora officer undertook further surveys for the Maroon-flowered Daviesia along Ellen Track, and other areas along South Bluff Knoll Track. Surveys were also undertaken along the East Pillenorup Track, and the success Ridge Track in April and May 1999. The landscape on the south side of the eastern Stirling Range from Yungemere Peak to Ellen Peak has been extensively surveyed from 1999 to 2005, with no additional populations located (CALM 2005).
CALM's environmental officer at Albany is also aware of the status of Maroon-flowered Daviesia and has "kept a look out" for it while working at Stirling Range National Park. However, no additional populations have been located (CALM 2005).
In spring 1999 CALM's flora officer undertook surveys for the Maroon-flowered Daviesia. Several additional plants were located at Ellen Track and 2 new plants located along the South Bluff Knoll Track. Both were located in areas adjoining the known populations. In addition the officer advised that "there is limited suitable habitat remaining which is unaffected by dieback, but no doubt there may be small pockets here and there" (CALM 2005).
The total population size for this species is approximately 3064 adults and 3010 juvenile plants (CALM 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia is known from five separate populations, which all occur within the Stirling Range National Park and could be considered subpopulations under IUCN criteria 2abc. Several of these populations can be further separated due to small geographic separation between patches of plants (CALM 2005).
Results of survey at populations 1 and 2 show changes in population size as a result of response to fire which burnt both populations in Autumn 1991 and then populations 1b, 2 and 4 in Spring 2000. Changes indicate an initial decline in population size as adults are killed by the fire and then an increase in the numbers of seedlings, juveniles and then young adult plants as a result of recruitment after the fire.
There is evidence to suggest that the Maroon-flowered Daviesia has experienced an 80% decline in abundance based on observational trends. A decline of 80% in extent/area/population size is based on the extensive areas of dieback infestation in the species habitat, and presumably a lack of species in this area which would otherwise be suitable (i.e. soil type and location) implies loss of species to dieback. Accordingly an 80% decline originates from IUCN scoring criteria based on these observations (CALM 2005).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia is very susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamoni and is an obligate reseeder that is killed by wildfire which promotes the release and germination of seed. On this basis, the species has the potential to undergo extreme natural fluctuation (CALM 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2001).
Given there are five known populations with an estimated 3064 mature individuals that are susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamoni and inappropriate fire regimes, all known populations would be considered important for the species long-term survival and recovery. Population 1b contains the most plants and was observed to be in a moderate condition when last surveyed in September 2004 (CALM 2005).
All known populations of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia occur in the Stirling Range National Park and are managed by CALM.
The known populations of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia grow in sandy loams with low laterite gravel content on sandstone and metamorphosed sandstone with quartz gravel (CALM 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2001).
Species associated with the Maroon-flowered Daviesia include: Eucalyptus marginata, Beaufortia anisandra, Andersonia echinocephala, Hakea cucullata, Taxandria spathulata, T. parviceps, Melaleuca thymoides, Lambertia inermis, L. ericifolia and Banksia coccinea (CALM 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2001).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia occurs with two other critically endangered species (listed under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act), Dryandra anatona and Daviesia pseudaphylla (CALM 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2000).
The life expectancy and mortality of this species is largely unknown. It has been observed that first flowering and seed set occurred in spring 2004 after germination in spring 2001, 25-50 % of individuals flowered. The sudden increase in mortality in autumn 2005 at population 1a, burnt in 1991, may be related to aging and loss of vigour as well as disease (CALM 2005).
The flowering period for this species is September to November (WA Herbarium 2005). Little is known about the levels of flower and fruit production, pollination mechanisms and the requirements for flower and seed production. However, the unusual flowers suggest an unusual, specialized pollination process (Crisp 1995; Phillimore & Brown 2001).
Daviesia glossosema is similar to several other species of Daviesia when not in flower. However, its minutely scabrous epidermis distinguishes it from all but D. articulate, which has different flowers and small, compressed pods (Crisp 1995). The flowers of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia cannot be confused with any other species in the genus. The inflorescence, maroon petals and exposure of the stamens, style and anthers are unique (CALM 2005; Phillimore & Brown 2001).
Any additional survey for the Maroon-flowered Daviesia should focus on remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types (CALM 2005).
Phytophthora cinnamoni disease has been present within the Stirling Range National Park for a number of years and would have been one of the main threats to the Maroon-flowered Daviesia for some time (CALM 2005).
Phytophthora cinnamoni poses a significant threat to the populations of Maroon-flowered Daviesia with numerous deaths being observed by a CALM Conservation Officer in April/May 1999 surveys. All populations are extremely vulnerable in the short term with all populations in or adjacent to dieback infestations. Therefore, urgent management is required to ensure the area of occupancy and survival of the species is not further threatened (CALM 2005).
Inappropriate fire regimes may also pose a serious threat to the survival of this species (CALM 2005).
Critical habitat has not been mapped or quantified for the Maroon-flowered Daviesia (CALM 2005).
Currently practiced threat abatement strategies for the Maroon-flowered Daviesia include (CALM 2005);
- Spraying of phosphite to treat P.cinnamonii, which has infected the habitat of the Maroon-flowered Daviesia. Phosphite treatments have resulted in survival rates of approximately 85% from 2001 to 2004 for populations 1a and 94% from 2002 to 2004 for 1b (Phillimore & Brown 2001). However, for population 1a this had dropped to 50% survival by 2005 (CALM 2005).
- Seed material has been collected from several populations and is currently stored at the West Australian Threatened Flora Seed Centre and is periodically tested for viability (TFSC 2005).
Staff from CALM's Albany District regularly monitors the condition of populations particularly in relation to the impact of P. cinnamomi and the effectiveness of phosphite application (CALM 2005).
The Albany District Threatened Flora Recovery team overseas the implementation of recovery actions outline in the IRP for this species. Recommended additional recovery actions include (Phillimore & Brown 2001);
- Continue with the phosphite application program,
- Continue with the monitoring of all populations,
- Develop and implement a fire management strategy for this species,
- Conduct further survey,
- Collect additional seed and cutting material,
- Obtain additional biological and ecological information about this species.
This species was first described by M.D. Crisp (1995).
The Maroon-flowered Daviesia is described in CALM's Maroon Flowered Daviesia (Daviesia glossosema) Interim Recovery Plan (Phillimore & Brown 2001).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Daviesia glossosema (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cj) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by marine invertebrates||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Daviesia glossosema (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2006cj) [Listing Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia glossosema (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zg) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Vegetation and habitat mortality caused by dieback||Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].|
Crisp, M.D. (1995). Contributions Toward a Revision of Daviesia (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). III. A Synopsis of the Genus. Australian Systematic Botany. 8(6).
Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.
Phillimore & Brown ) (2001). Interim Recovery Plan. No. 94. Maroon-flowered Daviesia (Daviesia glossosema) Interim Recovery Plan 2001-2004. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/flora/dav_glo_irp94.pdf.
Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) (2005). Records held in the Department of Conservation and Land Management's Threatened Flora Seed Centre database. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2005). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and Rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.
Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Daviesia glossosema in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 18:45:03 +1000.