Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ade) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (62) (14/11/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008n) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Listing Statement grassland greenhood Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2008d) [State Species Management Plan].
TAS:Pterostylis ziegeleri (Grassland Greenhood, Cape Portland Greenhood): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014fl) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Flowering Times of Tasmanian Orchids: A Practical Guide for Field Botanists (Wapstra, M., N. Roberts, H. Wapstra & A. Wapstra, 2008) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Scientific name Pterostylis ziegeleri [64971]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author D.L.Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference D.L. Jones (1998), Austral. Orchid Res. 3: 158
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Pterostylis ziegeleri D.L.Jones

Common name: Grassland Greenhood, Cape Portland Greenhood

The Grassland Greenhood was described as an endemic Tasmanian species in 1998 (Jones 1998d), being one of two new species in the Pterostylis cycnocephala complex (the other being the EPBC-listed P. pratensis). The circumscription of the Grassland Greenhood has been expanded to include Tasmanian plants formerly assigned to Pterostylis cycnocephala; true Pterostylis cycnocephala is now considered to be confined to mainland Australia (CHAH 2010).

The Grassland Greenhood is a multi-flowered orchid with a rosette of 6–12 dark green leaves that encircle the base of the species' flower stem. Small green and white hooded flowers crowd the end of the stem which is about 20 cm high. The leaves are crowded, oval shaped, 12–25 mm long and 8–18 mm wide. In flower, the species is generally 8–20 cm tall, though in dry years the plants may remain as short as 5 cm. They have 2–24 moderately crowded bright green and white flowers. The hood apex curves down and terminates with a short tip. The two lateral sepals hang down and are fused to form a pouch below the labellum though the tips may remain free. The labellum, which also hangs down, is thin-textured, pale green and oblong and has an appendage that points out with a dark green, knob-like apex with a pointed beak about 0.9 mm long. In all, the flowers are 7–9 mm long and 4–4.5 mm wide (Jones et al. 1999; TSU 2000).

The Grassland Greenhood is endemic to Tasmania, being known from widely separated localities in the near-coastal areas of the north-west, north, east and south-east, and also in the Midlands (TSU 2000; TSS n.d., unpubl). The linear range of the species is 330 km (TSS 2008d).

The extent of occurrence for the Grassland Greenhood is 43 000 km² (TSS 2008d).

The species area of occupancy is 0.07–0.08 km² (TSS 2008d).

The species is known from 19 locations, each of which is considered liable to a single threatening event due to their small size (TSS 2008d).

Prior to European settlement it is considered likely that the Grassland Greenhood would have been relatively widespread and locally common in native pastures in Tasmania's Midlands. The species is now reduced to a few subpopulations in the Midlands, only one of which qualifies as 'locally common' (TSU 2000). Native grasslands on basalt in Tasmania's Midlands have been decimated since European settlement, with remnants being largely confined to small pockets on private property, roadsides, rail reserves and country cemeteries (Kirkpatrick et al. 1988; McDougall & Kirkpatrick 1994). The species' near-coastal habitat has also been subjected to fragmentation due to agricultural development and coastal subdivisions (TSU 2000, 2000a).

The species' Midlands habitat was subject to intensive botanical surveys over a period of 20 years as the significance of its remnant native grasslands began to be appreciated (Fensham 1989; Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1993; Kirkpatrick et al. 1988), with a particular focus on threatened orchids (Jones et al. 1999).

Surveys of potential orchid habitat in the Midlands and near-coastal areas undertaken as part of several Natural Heritage Trust funded projects, included:

  • Management and Recovery of Tasmanian Grassland Orchid Species (1999)
  • Preparation of the Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (TSS 2006a)
  • Native grassland management in cemeteries, golf courses and road reserves (with management plans prepared for around 20 sites targeted in 2001–2003)
  • Extension surveys of private property during the period 1998–2005 by Bushcare, the Private Forest Reserves Program and the Non-forest Vegetation Program.

    In addition, orchid enthusiasts throughout the State have continued to provide new site information; two of the three 'new' subpopulations discovered in the 2004–2005 flowering seasons were by orchid enthusiasts (TSS 2008d; TSU 2000; TSS n.d., unpubl).

  • Total population size is estimated to be in the order of 1500–1600 mature individuals (TSU 2000, TSS n.d., unpubl).

    The Grassland Greenhood is known from 19 subpopulations in Tasmania, where individual subpopulations have been presumed to be discrete patches separated by discontinuities of at least 1 km (Keith 2000). Two subpopulations recorded in the 19th century are presumed to be extinct (subpopulations 20 & 21 in Table 1) (TSS 2008d).

    Quantitative data is not available for three of the Midlands' subpopulations (3, 10 and 11 in Table 1), though they are each considered likely to have numbered <30 plants at the time of survey (TSU 2000a); there are no details for subpopulation 14. The status of three other subpopulations is uncertain (12, 16 and 18 in Table 1), as searches in the late 1990s failed to relocate plants at known sites (TSU 2000a).

    TABLE 1. The Grassland Greenhood in Tasmania.


      Subpopulation Tenure NRM 1:25,000 mapsheet Year last seen Area (ha) Number Threats
    1 Fort Direction Commonwealth Dept. of Defence South Blackmans Bay 2005 0.04-0.05 470 Rabbits, snails
    2 Pontville Commonwealth Dept. of Defence South Tea Tree 1999 1
    (nearby patch now extinct)
    140  
    3 Glen Morey Salt Pan Private land South Tunbridge 1984   <30 Clearance, over-grazing
    4 North of Tunbridge Private land North Ellinthorp 1999   1 Clearance, over-grazing
    5 Northeast of Ross Private land North Ross 1999 0.25 25 Clearance, over-grazing
    6 Southeast of Ross Private land North Ross 2005 0.04 20 Clearance, over-grazing
    7 West of Campbell Town Private land North Jacobs 1999 4-5 500 Clearance, over-grazing
    8 Campbell Town Golf Course Private land* North Campbell Town 1999 0.5 100  
    9 South of Conara Private land North Conara 1999 0.05 5 Clearance, over-grazing
    10 Cleveland Private land North Cleveland 1985   <30 Clearance, over-grazing
    11 West of Perth Private land North Longford 1992   <30 Clearance, over-grazing
    12 Dolphin Sands Private land South Swansea 1985 0.01
    Status uncertain
    5 Clearance
    13 Swanwick Bay Private land South Coles Bay 1998 0.0005
    (nearby patch now extinct)
    7 Clearance
    14 Bicheno Private land South Bicheno 1972   ? Clearance
    15 Chain of Lagoons Lagoons Beach Conservation Area North Gray 1998 0.004
    30–40 Camping, scrub invasion
    16 Bakers Beach
    (several sites)
    Narawntapu National Park N'west Port Sorell 1987 Status uncertain Several colonies of <20–30 Scrub invasion
    17 Cape Portland Private Sanctuary North Lyme Regis 1998
    1.2
    110–130 Scrub invasion, snails
    18 Lanoma Point Musselroe Bay Conservation Area North Lyme Regis 1983 Status uncertain   Scrub invasion
    19 Nettley Bay West Point State Reserve N'west Marrawah 2005 Small 4 Scrub invasion
    20 Launceston Unknown North Launceston 1841 Presumed extinct    
    21 Hampshire Hills Unknown N'west Tewkesbury 1841 Presumed extinct    
    Data sources: TSS 2008d; TSU 2000; TSS n.d., unpubl
    * = covered by a Conservation Covenant under the Tasmanian Nature Conservation Act 2002.

    Based on observations of other Pterostylis species it may be reasonable to expect year-to-year fluctuations of the Grassland Greenhood in the number of flowering plants in response to yet to be determined environmental triggers (Jones et al. 1999).

    Plant longevity and age at reproductive maturity have yet to be determined for the species.

    All subpopulations are considered necessary for the species' long-term survival.

    The Grassland Greenhood is known from West Point State Reserve, Narawntapu National Park, Lagoons Beach Conservation Area, Musselroe Bay Conservation Area and Cape Portland Private Sanctuary. Management for the species has been essentially passive to date. Proposed activities within these Reserves are subject to the Tasmanian Reserve Management Code of Practice (TTS 2008d).

    The Grassland Greenhood occurs in two distinct habitats in Tasmania. In the Midlands it generally grows in native grassland and grassy woodland on well-drained clay loams derived from basalt (with one record from Eucalyptus viminalis woodland on sandstone), while in coastal areas it is found on the slopes of low stabilised sand dunes and in grassy dune swales (TSU 2000). The altitude range of extant sites is 5–300 m asl (TTS 2008d).

    The Midlands' occurrences of Grassland Greenhood are generally associated with lowland Themeda triandra grassland (TSU 2000); this community is listed as a threatened vegetation community in schedule 3a of the Tasmanian Nature Conservation Amendment (Threatened Native Vegetation Communities) Bill 2005.

    Associated threatened plants listed under the EPBC Act include Caladenia anthracina, Glycine latrobeana, Leucochrysum albicans var. tricolor, Prasophyllum olidum, Prasophyllum tunbridgense and Pterostylis wapstrarum.

    The Grassland Greenhood flowers from September to December. The species belongs to a group of orchids commonly known as greenhoods because the dorsal sepal and petals are united to form a predominantly green, hood-like structure that dominates the flower. When triggered by touch, the labellum flips inwards towards the column, trapping any insect inside the flower, thereby aiding pollination as the insect struggles to escape. Greenhoods are deciduous terrestrials that have fleshy tubers, which are replaced annually. At some stage in their life cycle all greenhoods produce a rosette of leaves (TSU 2000).

    The Grassland Greenhood can be distinguished from the closely related Pterostylis pratensis by its paler green and white flowers and smaller leaves. The Grassland Greenhood is essentially a lowland greenhood, whereas Pterostylis pratensis occurs in montane and subalpine regions on Tasmania's Central Plateau (Jones et al. 1999). The latter species has a dark green apex on the appendage of the labellum, and the labellum is also broader and blunter than that of the Grassland Greenhood (TSU 2000).

    Surveys should be undertaken during the species flowering period, September to December.

    Midlands subpopulations
    Orchids currently listed on the EPBC Act known from native grasslands in Tasmania's Midlands are confined to very small sites (and usually numbers) among larger seemingly similar habitats or with seemingly similar sites available in the district. It may be assumed that their distribution was always patchy, but the number of sites has been drastically reduced due to habitat loss and/or degradation (Jones et al. 1999). Threats to Midlands subpopulations include:

    • Land clearance
      Agricultural development has been the main cause of decline in orchids on the Midlands, as orchids are extremely sensitive to ploughing. Considerable areas of potential habitat for the Grassland Greenhood in Tasmania's Midlands are thought to have been lost through agricultural development since European settlement, with the loss of an unknown number of plants. The possibility of further decline through land clearance is exacerbated by the species' brief identification window and the non-emergence of flowering plants in unfavourable seasons (Jones et al. 1999, TSS 2008d).

    • Fertiliser application
      In addition to land clearance, the application of fertilisers to native grasslands is seen as a significant threat to species like the Grassland Greenhood. Artificial fertilisers dramatically change the soil of an area, usually to the detriment of orchids. Not only are orchids hampered by the increased competition created by invigorated growth of pasture plants and weeds, but they also suffer as their mycorrhizal fungus takes up phosphorus and quickly concentrates phosphates to a toxic level (Jones et al. 1999). A number of the species on a golf course close to the 'Pontville' subpopulation are known to have been lost in the 1990s through fertilisation and the introduction of exotic grasses (TSU 2000).

    • Disturbance regimes
      Changes in fire frequency or grazing/slashing regimes are also likely to have had an adverse impact on orchid persistence in native grasslands in Tasmania's Midlands. As herbs requiring light and some space, orchids may be shaded out in tussock grasslands that are allowed to grow rank without some form of disturbance. Greenhood orchids do possess tubers, and might therefore be expected to persist in a dormant state during unfavourable conditions. However, the longer the period without flowering and fresh seed production, the less likely the long-term persistence of a species (Jones et al. 1999). Most subpopulations in the Midlands are in areas subject to rough sheep grazing, which may be beneficial or detrimental to the species, depending on its timing and intensity.

    Coastal subpopulations
    Coastal colonies of the Grassland Greenhood are also considered to be remnants of a once wider distribution in coastal grasslands, and are subject to a range of threatening processes (TSU 2000). Threats to coastal subpopulations include:

    • Competition
      The subpopulation in Narawntapu National Park used to occur behind the sand dunes in grassy swales now almost totally overtaken by Coast Wattle (Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae); the species has not been seen there for more than a decade. Coast wattle expansion is also likely to be the cause of the loss of the Lanoma Point population (TSS 2008d).

    • Disturbance
      The Swanwick Bay and Chain of Lagoons localities are extremely vulnerable, as they are adjacent to vehicular tracks, in camping areas and in openings giving access to a lagoon. The Cape Portland colonies are at risk from browsing from the introduced garden snail, Helix aspersa, while much suitable habitat in this area is likely to have been lost by conversion to grazing land (TSS 2008d).

    • Land clearance
      One site at Swanwick Bay has been lost to development (TSS 2008d).

    The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008ade) recommend the following local and regional priority recovery and threat abatement actions:

    • Suitably control and manage access on private land.
    • Fence known sites on private property to protect the species from trampling by domestic livestock.
    • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.
    • Manage known sites on private property to ensure appropriate sheep grazing regimes are conducted..

    Recovery actions required to ensure the long term survival of the species include (TSS 2008d):

    • Pursue management options with landowners/managers to protect populations of the Grassland Greenhood against possible changes in land use that would be detrimental to the species.
    • Refine grazing management guidelines at the Pontville Army Rifle Range.
    • Protect the small colonies at Swanwick and Chain of Lagoons from damage by trampling and vehicles.
    • Monitor known populations for threats and declines.
    • Establish a mechanism to ensure management intervention when required.
    • Conduct further surveys.

    Conservation on private land
    The Grassland Greenhood population at the Campbell Town golf course occurs on a 25 ha land parcel that is covered by a Conservation Covenant under the Tasmanian Nature Conservation Act 2002. The Covenant binds the landowner to undertake activities that protect and enhance the natural values of the area, whilst prohibiting any activity that may be considered detrimental to the area's native grasslands and threatened plants (Nicholson 2000).

    Management on Commonwealth land
    The subpopulations at Pontville and Fort Direction occur on land owned by the Commonwealth Department of Defence. The Department of Defence is in the process of developing an Environmental Management System for its Tasmanian holdings, while a Heritage Management Plan is being developed for the native grasslands at Pontville that will address the management of the Grassland Greenhood and other threatened orchids (Collins 2002; Verrier 1999). A similar planning exercise is about to be undertaken for the Fort Direction site. Standing Orders for both sites have chapters on environmental management and identify no-go areas for aspects such as threatened species.

    Improved formal reservation
    The species' reservation status has been improved following the recent discovery of plants within the West Point State Reserve, while the status of two other coastal occurrences has been upgraded to Conservation Area since the preparation of a listing statement in 2000 (TSU 2000). However, the issue of scrub invasion of the species' coastal habitat has yet to be addressed and fire management plans for the reserves in question are required (TSS 2008d).

    Development assessments
    The Conservation Assessment Section (Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment) and the Forest Practices Authority (Tasmanian Department of Infrastructure, Energy & Resources) are required to consider the impacts of proposed developments on any species listed under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

    Monitoring
    Monitoring has been undertaken essentially on an ad hoc basis by orchid enthusiasts. Baseline monitoring of the taxon has been identified as a moderate priority within the Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Orchids (TSS 2006a).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Habitat degradation caused by intensive grazing/feedlots Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ade) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ade) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:camping Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ade) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ade) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adr) [Listing Advice].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ade) [Conservation Advice].

    Collins, T. (2002). The Environmental Conservation Values of Defence Training Areas in Tasmania. Hons. Thesis. Honours Thesis, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.

    Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

    Fensham, R.J. (1989). The pre-European vegetation of the Midlands, Tasmania: a floristic and historical analysis of vegetation patterns. Journal of Biogeography. 16:29-45.

    Gilfedder, L. & J.B. Kirkpatrick (1993). Factors influencing the condition of natural vegetation remnants in subhumid Tasmania. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Save the Bush Research Program Publisher.

    Jones, D., H. Wapstra, P. Tonelli & S. Harris (1999). The Orchids of Tasmania. Carlton South, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

    Jones, D.L. (1998d). Contributions to Tasmanian Orchidology 1-9. Australian Orchid Research. 3. Essendon, Victoria: Australian Orchid Foundation.

    Keith, D.A. (2000). Sampling designs, field techniques and analytical methods for systematic plant population surveys. Ecological Management & Restoration. 1(2):125-139.

    Kirkpatrick, J., L. Gilfedder & R. Fensham (1988). City Parks and Cemeteries: Tasmania's remnant grasslands and grassy woodlands. Hobart, Tasmanian Conservation Trust.

    McDougall, K. & Kirkpatrick, J.B. (eds) (1994). Conservation of lowland native grasslands in south-eastern Australia. World Wide Fund for Nature Australia.

    Nicholson, R. (2000). Rarities in the Rough: playing golf amongst rare and endangered plants. Management plan for the Campbell Town golf course. Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008ade). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis ziegeleri. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64971-conservation-advice.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006a). Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: DPIWE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tasmanian-orchid.html.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2008d). Listing Statement grassland greenhood Pterostylis ziegeleri. [Online]. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LJEM-7GK4DL/$FILE/Pterostylis%20ziegeleri%20listing%20statement.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (no date). Unpublished data held by the Threatened Species Section. Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (DPIWE), Hobart.

    Threatened Species Unit (TSU) (2000). Listing Statement Swan Greenhood Pterostylis cycnocephala. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Threatened Species Unit (TSU) (2000a). Pterostylis cycnocephala Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 nomination, 6 June 2000. Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Verrier, F.J. (1999). Ecology and Conservation of the Native Vegetation and Vascular Flora at the Pontville Small-arms Range Complex, Tasmania. Hons. Thesis. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.

    EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterostylis ziegeleri in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:36:37 +1000.