Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Lasiopetalum pterocarpum
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan] as Lasiopetalum pterocarpum.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Lasiopetalum pterocarpum.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Lasiopetalum sp. Serpentine (S.Paust 1103A) WA Herbarium.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (87) (23/09/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009i) [Legislative Instrument] as Lasiopetalum pterocarpum.
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Lasiopetalum pterocarpum
Scientific name Lasiopetalum pterocarpum [64922]
Family Sterculiaceae:Malvales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author E.M.Benn. & K.Shepherd
Infraspecies author  
Reference Shepherd, K.A., E.M. Bennett, C.F. Wilkins & L.W. Sage (2006) Lasiopetalum pterocarpum (Malvaceae s.l.: Lasiopetaleae), a new and rare species from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 16(1): 177-179, Figs 1-4 [tax. nov.]
Other names Lasiopetalum sp. Serpentine (S.Paust 1103A) WA Herbarium [82047]
Lasiopetalum pterocarpum E.M.Benn. & K.Shepherd ms. [67441]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Lasiopetalum pterocarpum

Common name: Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum is a multi-stemmed shrub (Paczkowska & Chapman 2000). It has distinctive winged membranous fruit with 6–12 elongated wings that usually consist of five large and several smaller wings. The fruit splits open when mature. The leaves are more obviously lobed than other Lasiopetalum. The bracteoles are linear and there are no petals or stipules. The apex of the style contains stalked, star-shaped hairs (Clarke 2006). This species has pink flowers in August–November (Brown et al. 1998).

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum is highly restricted and occurs on the slopes of the Darling Range (Brown et al. 1998; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000) in an area of the Serpentine National Park in Serpentine, Western Australia (Clarke 2006; Stack & English 1999e).

The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 0.356 km². A dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's (WA DEC) Threatened Flora Database was used to determine the area. There is no data to indicate trends in extent of occurrence (WA DEC 2007).

The area of occupancy is estimated to be 0.02 km² (or approximately 2.1 hectares) according to on-ground area of occupancy estimates recorded for all subpopulations except 1d (which is only three plants and will not significantly affect this estimate) (refer to the Surveys Conducted section). The area of occupancy for the translocated subpopulations is not known and was not included as these have not yet proved to be self-sustaining. There is no data to indicate trends in the area of occupancy for this species (WA DEC 2007).

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum is known from one natural location and two translocated locations (WA DEC 2007). Subpopulations 2t and 3t are translocated subpopulations which consist of 46 plants that were translocated in June 2001 (2t) and 78 seedlings in June 2006 (2t and 3t). The sites were chosen for their similarity in vegetation, soils and topography to the wild subpopulation, as well as limited public access and few weeds. The distance between wild and translocated subpopulations reduces the risk of extinction from a single fire event. Subpopulation 2t is affected by Armillaria fungus (Clarke 2006; WA DEC 2007).

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum was first collected in October 1899 from near Serpentine, south of Perth (Brown et al. 1998) and it was not collected again until 1972 (Wilkins et al. 2007). A number of surveys have been conducted in potential habitat for this species, including:

  • October 1995, three to four plants were located on the north bank at the base of the weir, along the Serpentine River, as part of the revision of Sterculiaceae (WA DEC 2007).
  • December 1996, one plant located during a Northern Darling Scarp survey that included potential habitat and many creeklines within Serpentine National Park (WA DEC 2007).
  • July–August 1997, nine plants found along the banks of the Serpentine River, five of these had been previously recorded (WA DEC 2007).
  • August 1997, no plants found during surveys of suitable habitat at the foot of Oakley Dam falls, Dwellingup (WA DEC 2007).
  • 1997, no extra subpopulations found in floristic surveys of the Darling Scarp (Markey 1997).
  • Since 1997, three small subpopulations (1c, 1d and 1e) of approximately 60 plants have been discovered (Clarke 2006).
  • Surveys for potential translocation sites failed to locate extra subpopulations (Harris 2000).

The following table outlines surveys conducted, recorded individuals and area of occupancy (WA DEC 2007; Wilkins et al. 2007)

Subpopulation Survey history Number of plants recorded Area
1a and 1b 22/10/1899
05/08/1972
26/10/1995
28/07/1997
31/07/1997
25/02/1999
06/09/1999
15/12/1999
18/01/2000
19/12/2000
10/07/2001
21/03/2002
2005
Collection only
Collection only
4
5
8
11
21
20
4
380 (seedlings)
476 (seedlings)
400 (seedlings)
282
Not recorded
Not recorded
Unknown
750 m²
Unknown
Not recorded
Not recorded
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
16 000 m²
Not recorded
1c 15/12/1999
07/09/1999
24/09/1999
18/01/2000
19/12/2000
12/03/2001
14/06/2001
2004
2006
11
2
9
10
10
8
17
1
2
Not recorded
Not recorded
5000 m²
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
1d 08/10/2003 3 Not recorded
1e 05/04/2006
2005
40
180
100 m²
Not recorded
1f 1997
14/09/2004
2005
1
87
88
Not recorded
10 m²
Not recorded
2t (translocated) 15/06/2001
24/09/2001
31/01/2002
24/03/2002
18/07/2002
March 2003
May 2006
June 2006
20/12/2006
46 (planted)
46 (survived)
46 (survived)
45 (survived)
44 (survived)
42 (survived
24 (survived)
39 (planted)
63 (survived)
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
3t (translocated) June 2006
20/12/2006
39 (planted)
39 (survived)
Unknown
Unknown

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum total population size is estimated to be 555 mature individuals in the wild subpopulations (WA DEC 2007). The 102 translocated plants have not been included in this count due to their uncertain viability (WA DEC 2007). This species is known from one natural location and two translocated locations. The subpopulations are split based on different locations.

The population trend appears to be stable, however, Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum appears to be a disturbance specialist, germinating after disturbance events such as a fire (WA DEC 2007).

The wild subpopulations are considered important as they have the largest population size, they demonstrate natural germination and provide material for future translocations (WA DEC 2007).

All natural and translocated subpopulations are located within the Serpentine National Park, which is managed for the conservation of flora and fauna, but not specifically for the Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (WA DEC 2007).

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum occurs in a riparian community with Flooded Gum (Eucalyptus rudis), Marri (Corymbia calophylla), Swamp Peppermint (Taxandria linearifolia), Winged Wattle (Acacia alata), Grevillea diversifolia, Melaleuca rhaphiophylla, Darwinia citriodora, Rib Wattle (Acacia nervosa), Hemigenia sericea, Hibbertia serrata, Labichea lanceolata, Lasiopetalum floribundum, and Trymalium floribundum (Clarke 2006). Markey (1997) noted that no other riverine woodland supports similar vegetation within the northern Darling Scarp. However, similar habitat does occur elsewhere (Clarke 2006).

Little is known of the biology and ecology of Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Stack & English 1999e), however, juvenile plants produced viable seeds two years after a fire (WA DEC 2007). This species is an obligate re-seeder (Clarke 2006), killed by fire and and germinating following disturbance (Wilkins et al. 2007). No adult plants resprouted following a 1999 fire (Stack & English 2003f), however abundant seedlings germinated (Wilkins et al. 2007).

The pollinators of Lasiopetalum species are generally native bees. Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum has an aril on the seed, which is a structure picked up by ants which results in seed burial (Clarke 2006; Gove 2006). Layering has been observed in a mature plant at subpopulation 1c (an unburnt site) where roots are produced from lateral above-ground branches that touch the soil. This could be a survival strategy in the absence of fire (Wilkins et al. 2007).

In the past, Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum has been mistaken for Lasiopetalum floribundum. However, Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum has distinct, even lobing of its cordate leaves, while Lasiopetalum floribundum leaves are sometimes sinuate but not distinctly lobed. Wing-fruited Lasiopetalu leaves also appear faintly bi-coloured with a denser covering of stellate hairs on the abaxial (lower) surface. The other distinctive feature is the very unusual ovary and fruit which appears oval in shape in the very young flowers. Six 'wings' extend outward from the ovary as it develops and the distinctive white reflexed stellate hairs are still present on the style (WA DEC 2007).

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum only occurs in suitable riverine habitat within the Serpentine area. Further surveys should be conducted in this area during the species flowering period (August–November) (WA DEC 2007).

Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum is considered naturally rare, and this is due to its short persistence and narrow distribution (Wilkins et al. 2009). This species' life-history strategy of obligate seeding has been particularly effected by changed fire regimes since European settlement. Changed fire regimes are a major factor in this species' very limited distribution (Wilkins et al 2009). The following table presents Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum subpopulation threats (WA DEC 2007):

Subpopulation number 2006 condition Past Present Potential future
1a and 1b Healthy Weeds (Blackberry (Rubus spp.),Gladiolus and Watsonia), trampling and fire Weeds (Cottonbush (Gomphocarpus spp.)), trampling, changes to streamflow or water quality Fire and recreational activities
1c Healthy Weeds (Blackberry,Gladiolus and Watsonia) Weeds (Cottonbush), trampling, changes to streamflow or water quality Fire and recreational activities
1d Healthy   Weeds (Blackberry and Watsonia) Fire and recreational activities
1e Healthy     Fire
1f Healthy   Kangaroo grazing and weeds Kangaroo grazing and weeds
2t   Amillaria fungus   Weeds and fire
3t       Weeds and fire

Weeds
Weeds including Blackberry, Gladiolus and Watsonia appear to pose the most immediate threat to the species and its habitat (Brown et al. 1998; Stack & English 1999e). Cottonbush appears to be an emerging threat. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. The habitat of subpopulation 1c has experienced moderate infestations of Blackberry and Watsonia, whereas the habitat of subpopulations 1a and 1b were severely infested prior to a fire in 1999. A high level of weed control has been undertaken in the park which has improved the habitat for this species (Clarke 2006).

Recreational activities
The wild subpopulations occur close to a carpark and walkway in a national park subject to heavy recreational use. Numerous visitors come to the park each year and recreational use of some areas adjacent to trails leads to trampling and degradation of the habitat. This may also lead to accidental destruction of Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum plants.

Fire
In December 1999, wildfire burnt subpopulations 1a and 1b to ash (Stack & English 2003f). Subpopulation 1f was also affected by fire (WA DEC 2007). Seedlings germinated after the fire, so fire probably stimulates soil seed bank germination. If fire was to occur before post-fire plants produce seed, the species may be eliminated. Additionally, fire tends to stimulate weed invasion and weeds have already infested the habitat of the known subpopulations. Conversely, given that this species is an obligate seeder, exclusion of fire for long periods may result in an over-mature or senescent population and a depletion in the quality of the seed bank (Clarke 2006). Controlled research burns have been proposed for subpopulation 1c (Clarke 2006).

Changes to streamflow or water quality
The only wild population occurs close to a creekline. A gauging station is immediately upstream and two additional dams are located further upstream of this population. The water flow at the latter two dams is controlled by the Western Australia Water Corporation. Changes to stream flow or water quality as a result of any developments along the stream channel upstream have the potential to impact the population.Redevelopment of the recreational site adjacent to the population is recommended in the management plan for the Serpentine National Park (WA CALM 2000). This includes removal of the weir immediately upstream and expansion of the nearby carpark (Stack & English 2003f). The flow of water alongside the wetland habitat of the wild population is artificially maintained by water piped to the weir adjacent to the wetland habitat (Stack & English 2003f).

Disease
Disease has effected subpopulation 2t with some deaths attributed Armillaria fungus (Clarke 2006). Glasshouse trials indicate that Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum is not susceptible to dieback disease caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi. Anecdotal field observations appear to confirm this, as many of the plants occur in high recreational use areas but have not been observed to suffer the impacts of the disease (Clarke 2006).

Disturbance
Disturbance events (such as fire) are likely to be necessary for the future regeneration of Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum. Photographs of the site of subpopulation 1a show that the area was cleared and the soil extensively disturbed when the river was diverted. This indicates that Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum is probably very tolerant of major disturbance events. It is also possible that the current locations of plants at subpopulation 1b were the result of seed moved by machinery (WA DEC 2007).

Grazing
Kangaroo grazing is an actual threat to subpopulation 1f (and may be a threat to the other subpopulations as kangaroos are abundant in the area) (Wilkins et al. 2007).

Weed control post-fire, fencing of burnt areas and grazing control post-fire have been suggested as key management strategies (Wilkins et al. 2009).

Existing recovery actions
National park rangers are familiar with the location of this species, its management needs and undertake regular monitoring. The Western Australia Water Corporation has been notified of the location associated legal responsibilities of the species. An information pamphlet has been developed and distributed (Stack & English 2003f).

Where there is sufficient distance from flowing water to allow herbicide use, weed control of Watsonia has been undertaken. Control of resprouting and germinating weeds (following the 1999 fire) has been ongoing and control of Blackberry and Watsonia numbers are in decline (Stack & English 2003f).

A fence was erected around the habitat of subpopulation 1a in early 2000. This has prevented trampling while vegetation re-established after the 1999 fire (Stack & English 2003f).

Seed was collected in 1998–1999 from the wild population, and approximately 2700 seeds are stored in the WA DEC Threatened Flora Seed Centre. The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) holds 13 plants of Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum from three clones (Stack & English 2003f).

A translocation proposal was developed in 2001 and implemented in 2001 and 2006. A translocation site was selected that was similar to the wild population, but with sufficient distance so that both sites would not be burnt in a single fire event. This program has had some success, however, 50% of plants had died at 2t by the fourth year and this site also has evidence of Amillaria fungus (Clarke 2006; Stack & English 2003f; WA DEC 2007).

Future recovery actions
A number of recovery actions are identified in the Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003–2008 (Stack & English 2003f) and include:

  • coordination of recovery actions
  • continued weed control
  • access restriction and unauthorised track rehabilitation
  • management of appropriate stream flow and water quality
  • development and implementation of a fire management strategy
  • critical habitat mapping
  • continued subpopulation monitoring
  • seed collection
  • further surveys
  • continuing the translocation program
  • research into the biology and ecology of the species
  • increased awareness
  • incorporation of general recovery actions inf the Serpentine National Park management plan.

Research into the Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum includes Gove (2006) and Wilkins and colleagues (2007, 2009).

Two interim recovery plans have been prepared for this species: Stack and English (1999e, 2003f). Other relevant management documents include Clarke (2006) and Evans and colleagues (2003).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Gladiolus undulatus (Wild Gladiolus) Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Gomphocarpus fruticosus (Narrow Leaf Cotton Bush, Narrow-Leaved Cotton Bush, Narrowleaf Cottonbush, Swan Plant, Swanplant, Milk Weed, Milkweed, Cape Cotton, Duck Bush, Swan Bush, Wild Cotton) Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Watsonia spp. (Watsonia, Bulbil Watsonia, Wild Watsonia, Bugle Lily) Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G. & V. English, 1999e) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & V. English, 2003f) [Recovery Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Clarke, V. (2006). Translocation Proposal: Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms). Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Evans, R., N. Willers & D. Mitchell (2003). Threatened flora of the Swan Region. Unpublished report to the Department of Conservation and Land Management and Environment Australia.

Gove, A. (2006). Ant dispersal of rare and common Lasiopetalum species in the Serpentine region. Unpublished report to the Department of Environment and Conservation.

Harris, A. (2000). Survey for Critically endangered flora Lasiopetalum pterocarpum translocation sites. An unpublished report prepared for Department of Conservation and Land Management by Helena Holdings WA Pty Ltd.

Markey, A. (1997). A floristic survey of the northern Darling Scarp. Unpublished report to the Department of Conservation and Land Management, Department of Environment Protection and the Western Australian Conservation Council (Inc.) for the Australian Heritage Commission.

Paczkowska, G. & A.R. Chapman (2000). The Western Australian Flora, A Descriptive Catalogue. The Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.), the Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority.

Stack, G. & V. English (1999e). Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: WA Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/l-pterocarpum/index.html.

Stack, G. & V. English (2003f). Wing-fruited Lasiopetalum (Lasiopetalum pterocarpum ms) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/l-pterocarpum/index.html.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2000). Serpentine National Park Management Plan 2000-2009. Management Plan number 44. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Wilkins, C.F., B.J. Vincent, A.D. Crawford, P.G. Ladd & L.W. Sage (2007). Conservation Biology of a naturally rare but critically endangered shrub Lasiopetalum pterocarpum (Malvaceae s.l.). An unpublished report to the Department of Environment and Conservation.

Wilkins, C.F., P.G. Ladd, B.J. Vincent, A.D. Crawford, & L.W. Sage (2009). Using hierarchies of cause to inform conservation of a naturally rare but critically endangered shrub Lasiopetalum perocarpum (Malvaceae s.l.). Australian Journal of Botany. 57:414-424.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Lasiopetalum pterocarpum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 16:31:33 +1000.