In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora |
|Reference||Makinson, R.O. in Wilson, A.J.G. (Ed) (2000), Flora of Australia 17A: 232, 234, 501, Fig. 22, Map 213 [autonym]|
|Other names||Grevillea parviflora var. parviflora |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
I. Marmott (2013). From the Botany Desk: Small flower Grevillea. Consulting Ecology 30: 37-39
Scientific name: Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora
Common name: Small-flower Grevillea
McGillivray had treated this species as form 'd', the narrow leaved Sydney form of Grevillea linearifolia (McGillivray & Makinson 1993). Olde and Marriott (1995) included the species as one of two forms in their treatment of Grevillea parviflora.
Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora was recognised and described by Makinson from the Grevillea linearifolia complex in Flora of Australia (Makinson 2000b). However, a number of elements remain unresolved. The complex is taxonomically difficult and many of the species recognised are very narrowly defined and somewhat flexible in their description (ASGAP 2005).
Small-flower Grevillea is a spindly shrub that can vary from prostrate to erect, growing up to 1.52 m high. It suckers readily from rhizomes, although individuals sometimes have single stems. The rhizome can easily be seen below the soil surface. Leaves are crowded, erect to ascending, narrow, mostly 23.5 cm long, to 1.3 mm wide with the lower surface silky-hairy, and the apex is shortly pointed. Leaf margins are curved back or rolled completely under. The flowers are spider-like, clustered in groups of 612. They are small and white or pinkish with rusty-brown hairs and can become red with age. The fruiting capsule is 810 mm long and has 12 seeds (NSW DECC 2005p; NSW NPWS 2002g, 2002h).
The main occurrence for the species is centred south of Sydney in the Appin, Wedderburn, Picton and Bargo districts associated with the Nepean and Georges Rivers. The northern limit of Small-flower Grevillea is at Heddon Greta in the Lower Hunter Valley. The southern limit is Bargo which is south of Sydney (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Two distinct, disjunct northern populations are found in the Lower Hunter Valley at Kurri Kurri and Heddon Greta and on the western shores of Lake Macquarie at Dooralong, Cooranbong and Awaba (Makinson 2008, pers. comm.; NSW NPWS 2002g). There is also a separate population from Putty to Wyong (NSW DECC 2005p).
To the west of Sydney small populations occur at Kemps Creek and Voyager Point (NSW DECC 2005p; NSW NPWS 2002h). A population may also occur at Moss Vale, NSW, which would make it the most southern limit for the species (Makinson 2000b).
The extent of occurrence is estimated at 6590 km². These figures are based on Australian Virtual Herbarium data. This estimate is considered to be of low reliability (Australian National Herbarium 2008).
The area of occupancy is estimated at 55 km², based on the number of 1 km² grid squares in which the species is thought to occur. The estimate is considered to be of low reliability, as recent ground-truthing at all populations has not occurred (Australian National Herbarium 2008).
There are at least 21 known populations of Small-flower Grevillea. Of these three are thought to be extinct and several older records of the plant need to be confirmed (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea is distributed sporadically throughout the Sydney Basin. There are two distinct, separate populations on the Central Coast and in the Lower Hunter (NSW DECC 2005p). In more urbanised areas closer to Sydney the isolation of populations is likely to be increasing and perhaps reflected in the smaller population sizes in these areas (NSW NPWS 2002h).
In 2001, a field survey was carried out by Bell (2004) in Werakata National Park for three months between December 2000 and February 2001. Seventeen full floristic plots were completed and combined with existing plot data, resulting in 21 sites in which Small-flower Grevillea were found (Bell 2004).
In 200105, vegetation mapping and surveys were undertaken for the Branxton Freeway Link. Vegetation clearing figures that were presented in the environmental impact statement (Connell Wagner 1995 cited in Acacia EP 2007) and the Representations Report (RTA 2001 cited in Acacia EP 2007) were based on vegetation polygons delineated from aerial photography and limited ground-truthing.
Biosis Research updated Lower Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy vegetation mapping using 200304 high-resolution aerial photography to better define vegetation community boundaries. Biosis Research also updated the mapping to incorporate the results of targeted flora surveys and selected ground-truthing and threatened species and endangered ecological communities that have been gazetted since 2001. Acacia EP (2007) concluded that Small-flower Grevillea was present at the Branxton Freeway Link site.
In 2004, Maunsell Australia commissioned Environmental Appraisal & Planning Pty Ltd (O'Brien 2004) to undertake a flora, fauna and Eight Part Test of Significance for the proposed advanced waste treatment facility at Elizabeth Drive, Kemps Creek within the Penrith Local Government Area (LGA). The vegetation community and associated floristics were assessed entirely on foot and were conducted throughout the subject site. Vegetation transects and random meander based assessments were both undertaken within the subject site. Special emphasis was placed on locating threatened species of flora, uncommon species, species with poor representation in existing regional National Parks and species of flora with known geographical limits of the locality. No Small-flower Grevillea were found on the site (O'Brien 2004).
In 2006 Ecovision Consulting were employed to undertake flora surveys in the Cessnock LGA between Cessnock and Kurri Kurri for mining development. Field surveys were conducted within the subject site on areas identified that would experience the greatest impact from the project. A combination of sampling methods was used both systematic and opportunistic with a minimum of three survey methods at the site. These were random meanders, targeted surveys for threatened species such as Small-flower Grevillea, quadrats and transects. There were 94 plants of Small-flower Grevillea identified within the site with 49 plants on roadside verges that were planned for development (Ecovision Consulting 2006).
Between January and April 2007 a survey was undertaken of the borefield corridor at Cliftleigh near Cessnock. A population of Small-flower Grevillea was recorded on Tourist Road between Firetrail 3 and Firetrail 2A on the road verge which had been slashed for hazard reduction (Lesryk 2007 cited in HSO 2007). As the plants were not in flower there were some questions over its identification. The same area was surveyed in November 2007, in a targeted Threatened Species Survey for Small-flower Grevillea and other species. It was carried out by five locally experienced ecologists between 59 November with an additional day of 19 November 2007 (HSO 2007). Areas of potential habitat for this and other species was undertaken using a random meander transect (Cropper 1993). The area surrounding the known population was surveyed for additional individuals. It was discovered that the species was misidentified and was actually G. patulifolia. No evidence of Small-flower Grevillea was found within the area (HSO 2007).
In 2007 Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd conducted a survey within the Wyong Employment Zone. Within the study area, specimens currently broadly attributable to Small-flower Grevillea were widespread in the southern and south-western parts of the Warnervale Business Park. Population estimates are of least 300500 plants being present. A second smaller population occurrs to the immediate north of the study area in Precinct 14, off Kiar Ridge Road (Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd 2007).
The exact number of mature reproducing plants of Small-flower Grevillea is uncertain. Due to its suckering nature it is often difficult to determine the number of plants at a site. Sucker stems often occur in patches close to the parent plant (NSW NPWS 2002h). Population estimates can be a reflection of the number of suckers rather than individual plants, so populations may be smaller than previously thought (NSW NPWS 2002g)
Population size vary but are mostly small (less than 20 plants) to medium size (50100 plants) with few large populations (greater than 200 plants). The largest known population occurs north of Bargo with an estimated 2000 or more plants (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea is restricted to the Sydney Basin Bioregion (NSW NPWS 2002h). There are two northern disjunct populations at Lake Macquarie and in the Lower Hunter Valley (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Known populations: locality, land tenure and number of plants (see references below table)
|Locality||Land Tenure||Number of Plants|
|Appin, Wollondilly LGA|
|Picton, Wollondilly LGA|
|Bargo, Bargo Rd, Wollondilly LGA||Approximately 2000|
|Wirrimbirra, Bargo, Wollondilly LGA||Reserve||50|
|Kemps Creek, Liverpool LGA||Reserve||1|
|Voyager Point, Liverpool LGA||Small|
|Tahmoor, Wollondilly LGA||Private land||Extinct|
|Thirlmere, Wollondilly LGA||Private land||Extinct|
|Prospect LGA||Private Land||Extinct|
|Upper Georges River, Liverpool LGA||Large|
|Wedderburn, Campbelltown LGA|
|Maldon, Wollondilly LGA||Wildlife Refuge|
|Sydney Water||Schedule 1 Special Area||at least 2|
|Moss Vale, Wingecaribee LGA||To be confirmed|
|Kurri Kurri, Cessnock LGA|
|Heddon Greta, Cessnock LGA|
|Dooralong, Wyong LGA|
|Cooranbong, Freemans Drive Macquarie LGA|
|Awaba, Lake Macquarie LGA|
|Wyong to Putty, Wyong LGA|
|Werakata National Park (Kitchener area)||National Park||Substantial numbers|
|Cessnock LGA||Widespread||At least 94|
|West Wallsend, Lake Macquarie LGA|
(Benson & McDougall 2000; Ecovision Consulting 2006; Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd 2007; Makinson 2000b; Murray & Bell, 2001; NSW NPWS 2002g, 2002h; Rivers SOS 2004-2008).
James and colleagues (1999) state that Small-flower Grevillea once occurred from the Woronora Plateau to Prospect but recent records of the species in that area are only at Kemps Creek Park and Wedderburn in outer Sydney.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Services (2002h) suggest that the species may be more common than documentation suggests due to its wide distribution and habitat requirements.
Very little information is available on the life cycle of Small-flower Grevillea (NSW NPWS 2002h). The species can regenerate from rhizomes in the soil after a fire event and can be long-lived, between 2560 years (D. Keith pers. comm. cited in Benson & McDougall 2000).
Sites of particular significance for Small-flower Grevillea would include any population with greater than 50 plants; a population with a varied age structure including active recruitment of seedlings; and an area of intact habitat away from high disturbance areas (NSW NPWS 2002h).
There are confirmed records of Small-flower Grevillea from Werakata National Park (NSW NPWS 2002g). There is no Management Plan.
The Fire Management Strategy Plan (NSW NPWS 2006) for Werakata National Park recommends the following actions to assist in Small-flower Grevillea management:
- Minimisation of frequent fires will encourage seeding of the species. Appropriate fire regime is identified at 815 year fire intervals.
- Avoid using machinery in areas of known populations.
One population of at least 50 plants of the species occurs within Wirrimbirra Sanctuary at Bargo, however the conservation status of this area is uncertain (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Two populations (one population with only one plant) occur on Sydney Water land within a Schedule 1 Special Area (SCA 2007). This area is jointly managed by the Sydney Water Catchment Authority and the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. They list the following management targets (SCA 2007):
- Manage Special Areas to protect and maintain water quality at or above 2004 standards and continually address priority water quality risks.
- Maintain current high level of ecological integrity and have programs in place to address priority threats.
- Manage access to the Special Areas to be controlled to protect water quality and ecological integrity.
- Fire management within Special Areas to maximise protection of water quality and ecosystem integrity.
- Minimise impacts from asset construction and maintenance within the Special Areas.
- Control impacts of priority pest and weed species on water quality and ecological integrity.
- Strategies put in place to ensure that activities and land use within Special Areas do not degrade water quality and ecological integrity.
A small population is located within a Wildlife Refuge near Maldon but this may not provide permanent reservation (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Small-flower Grevillea is found on ridge crests, upper slopes or flat plains in both low-lying areas between 3065 m above sea level (particularly in the Lower Hunter Valley and Lake Macquarie) and on higher topography between 200300 m above sea level south of Sydney (NSW NPWS 2002g). It occurs in sandy or light clay soils, usually over thin shales often with lateritic ironstone gravels which are often infertile and poorly drained. Soils are mostly derived from Tertiary sands or alluvium and from the Mittagong Formation with alternating bands of shale and fine grained sandstones. Soil landscapes include Lucas Heights and Berkshire Park. It occurs in a range of vegetation types from heath and scrubby woodland to open forest. It also occurs in exposed slightly disturbed sites close to roads and tracks (NSW DECC 2005p). Annual rainfall is between 8001000 mm (Benson & McDougall 2000).
Small-flower Grevillea has been recorded in a range of communities including the Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest. Associated species include Allocasuarina littoralis, Corymbia gummifera, Eucalyptus fibrosa, E. punctata, Kunzea ambigua, Pultenaea scabra var. biloba and Themeda australis (NSW NPWS 2002g).
At sites with a stronger sandstone influence Acacia suaveolens, Eucalytpus oblonga, E. piperita, E. sclerophylla, Grevillea diffusa, G. mucronulata and Persoonia pinifolia are found (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea is also found in the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland. Associated species include Acacia elongata, Angophora bakeri, Aristida vagans Dillwynia parvifolia, Eragrostis brownii, Eucalyptus fibrosa, E. parramattensis subsp. decadens, Grevillea montana, and Melaleuca thymifolia (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea can also occur in the open forest of Eucalyptus maculata-Angophora costata at Dooralong, the Sydney Sandstone Ridgetop Woodland at Wedderburn and Castlereagh Ironbark Woodland at Kemps Creek (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Canopy species do vary with community type but are generally species that favour soils with a strong lateritic influence (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Despite the range of associated vegetation communities, several understorey species which are common to several of the known sites of Small-flower Grevillea include
Pimelea linifolia and
Themeda australis (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea is associated within the Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest, Cumberland Plain Woodlands, the White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland, the Turpentine-Ironbark Forest, the Lower Hunter Spotted Gum - Ironbark Forest and the Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland in the Sydney Basin Bioregion. All are considered threatened ecological communities within NSW (GAI 2005; James 1997; NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea has been recorded growing with several other threatened species including Acacia bynoeana at Heddon Greta, Dillwynia tenuifolia at Kemps Creek and Persoonia bargoensis south of Appin and at Bargo (NSW NPWS 2002g).
The biology and ecology of Small-flower Grevillea is poorly known (NSW NPWS 2002g), though it is believed that the species lives between 2560 years (D. Keith pers.comm. cited in Benson and McDougall 2000).
Flowering occurs in April, May and between July and December. The flowers are insect pollinated. One to two seeds are released at maturity (Benson & McDougall 2000) but have limited seed dispersal, probably of less than 2 m (NSW NPWS 2002h). Plants are capable of suckering or regenerating from a rootstock (NSW DECC 2005p). Sucker stems usually occur in patches close to the parent plant (NSW NPWS 2002h). After fire or other disturbance, regeneration can occur from both the rhizomes and seed in the soil seedbank. However, after fire, adult plants are killed and seedling recruitment is uncommon (Benson & McDougall 2000).
Little is known about the production and viability of seed, seed predation or germination rates and requirements. Much of the current knowledge of Small-flower Grevillea is based on general observations (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea can be inconspicuous and similar in appearance to other Grevillea species which may grow in similar habitat including G. diffusa and G. montana (NSW NPWS 2002h). However, identifying features of Small-flower Grevillea include the reddish stems, the light green leaves often with a silvery sheen on the flower surface and the small white to pale pinkish flowers (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Grevillea parviflora subsp. supplicans can be distinguished from Small-flower Grevillea by its spreading branches, and the branchlets which are held to one side with the leaves held skyward. Grevillea parviflora subsp. supplicans is restricted to north-west of Sydney in the Berrilee and Maroota areas whereas Small-flower Grevillea occurs south-west of Sydney (Makinson 2000b; NSW NPWS 2002g; Olde & Marriott 1995).
It can also be confused with G. patulifolia which differs in its stout, sharply angular and prominently ribbed branchlets, its broader more rigid leaves and the sessile regular flower heads (Olde & Marriott 1995).
Small-flower Grevillea differs from G. micrantha by the bearded inner perianth surface, the leaves with looser, angularly refracted margins, the upper surface often punctated with faintly granular veins and the more or less one-sided flowering heads (Olde & Marriott 1995).
Small-flower Grevillea is best surveyed during the main flowering period between July and December when it is easier to identify. It is also reported to flower in April and May (NSW NPWS 2002h). Murray and Bell (2001) agree, stating that flowering specimens can be examined and identified with confidence. Leaf samples and general habit are also important to record when surveying. They add that surveys should be concentrated in areas of heath or woodland habitats.
Surveys should target flat to gently sloping land within areas with both a shale and sandstone influence. At higher altitudes the location of Shale/Sandstone Transition forest can be an indicator for the species (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Loss of biodiversity and degradation of habitat following clearing for urban and agricultural development and fragmentation of native vegetation is a key threatening process listed on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and is relevant for Small-flower Grevillea (NSW NPWS 2002h). Several sites near Prospect, Tahmoor and Thirlmere have already been developed and nearby areas of potential habitat have been degraded (NSW NPWS 2002g). Urban development can result in considerable modification of habitat including overshading, altered hydrology, grazing, mowing, the dumping of fill and waste and increased soil nutrients (NSW DECC 2005p; NSW NPWS 2002h).
Fire Control Activities
Small-flower Grevillea is killed by fire (D. Keith pers.comm. cited in Benson & McDougall 2000). However, they can regenerate from rhizomes protected in the soil and germination of seed in the soil seedbank. High fire frequency resulting in the disruption of life cycle processes and loss of vegetation structure and composition is a major threat. This frequency may be responsible for a decline in the soil seedbank and limit seedling recruitment. Low fire frequency may result in poor levels of seed germination and dense growth of the shrub layer (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Isolation of populations is likely to result in reduced gene flow and low genetic diversity which may affect the long-term viability of Small-flower Grevillea. Activities that can increase the isolation of some populations are mowing, the dumping of fill and grazing by domestic animals. This can prevent the plants from maturing and setting seed and can lead to changes in the frequency of species and increase weed colonisation (NSW DECC 2005p; NSW NPWS 2002g, 2002h).
Weedy species such as Blady Grass (Imperata cylindrica) and the Tick Bush (Kunzea ambigua) can reduce available habitat and create barriers for Small-flower Grevillea. In a wildlife refuge at Maldon it appears the species is being threatened by the spread of Tick Bush. This species is known to be an aggressive early coloniser of bare sites and has large seedling recruitment in disturbed areas. It is considered a threat at several sites populated by Small-flower Grevillea (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Road widening, maintenance works and vehicular use is a threat to Small-flower Grevillea occurring on roadside locations. It is also known that the maintenance of transmission line and gas pipeline easements is impacting on some populations. Trail bike riding can be another disturbance detrimental to the species. Rubbish dumping is also threatening known populations. Regular mowing or slashing of the understorey to maintain visibility or for protection around buildings can also have an impact on the life cycle. Grazing by domesticated animals is also detrimental. Any activity or development that impacts on the accumulation of seed in the soil seedbank, seed germination or seedling recruitment will reduce numbers due to limited seed dispersal of the species (NSW DECC 2005p; NSW NPWS 2002g, 2002h).
Known populations of Small-flower Grevillea appear to have low levels of seedling recruitment. Germination from the seedbank does occur after fire but field observations suggest it is uncommon. Although most populations are relatively large as a result of suckering, the health and long-term viability of populations is likely to be dependent on adequate seedling recruitment. This is important for maintaining genetic diversity within populations (NSW NPWS 2002h).Populations may have low genetic diversity despite their size (NSW NPWS 2002g).
The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (2005p) has listed a number of strategies to help recover Small-flower Grevillea:
- Ensure that personnel planning and undertaking road maintenance are able to identify the species and are aware of its habitat.
- Reinstate an appropriate fire regime (either restrict fire or undertake ecological burns as required).
- Ensure that this species is considered in all planning matters on land that contains or may contain populations.
- Mark and fence off sites during development/road maintenance activities.
- Undertake weed control using methods that will not impact on populations (avoid spraying in the vicinity of the plants and either hand pull weeds or cut and paint them).
- Ensure populations and their habitat are protected.
- Mark known sites and potential habitat onto maps used for planning maintenance work.
- Conduct searches in potential habitat for new populations.
Furthermore, the NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (2005q) list the following priority actions to help recover the species:
- Liaise with land managers to encourage the preparation of site management plans and the implementation of appropriate threat abatement measures particularly in fire management, bush regeneration, roadside management, weed control, fencing and signage.
- Investigate seed viability, germination, dormancy and longevity.
- Monitor known populations so potential local extinctions are detected before they occur and mechanisms can be put in place to reverse trends.
- Investigate genetic variation.
- Identify and survey potential habitat to detect new populations.
The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2002g) recommend that:
- Research is needed to determine fire intervals compatible with maintaining a varied age structure and open habitat conditions and then implement these fire regimes for Small-flower Grevillea.
- Bush regeneration programs should be maintained and implemented at known sites to maintain favourable habitat including controlling the Tick Bush (Kunzea ambigua) at disturbed sites.
- Populations should be protected from road or track upgrading or maintenance.
- Fencing of some sites to control recreation and dumping of rubbish.
A mitigation strategy has been developed to deliver a net positive benefit for local biodiversity at Cessnock: Environmental Assessment Report for the proposed recovery of carbonaceaous materials and site rehabilitation in the Cessnock City Local Government Area (Ecovision Consulting 2006). The key elements are:
- Avoid locally important ecological elements.
- Increase the net native vegetation cover within the locality through proactive rehabilitation.
- Salvage and recycle vegetation matter and fauna habitats within the rehabilitated landscape.
- Access control and monitoring of traversed tracks within Werakata National Park.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (2002g) has a number of management guidelines but no Recovery Plan has been prepared. Makinson (2000b) published a major taxonomic study of the genus Grevillea in which Small-flower Grevillea was described.
The Small-flower Grevillea-Priority actions (NSW DECC 2005q), the Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (NSW NPWS 2002h), the Central Coast Hunter Range Werakata National Park Fire Management Strategy (Type 2) (NSW NPWS 2006), the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2008bx) and the Special Areas Strategic Plan of Management 2007 (SCA 2007) provide brief biological overviews and management recommendations of this species.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ku) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ku) [Internet].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ku) [Internet].|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Acacia Environmental Planning Pty Ltd (Acacia EP) (2005). F3 Freeway to Branxton link. National Network. Modification to permit staged construction. [Online]. Prepared for Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW. Available from: http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/assessingdev/pdf/10-1-2006_rta_report.pdf.
Acacia Environmental Planning Pty Ltd (Acacia EP) (2007). F3 Freeway to Branxton link. Modification to the Approved Project Environmental Assessment. [Online]. NSW: Roads and Traffic Authority. Available from: http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/constructionmaintenance/downloads/hunter/f3_branxton/f3_branxton_mod-ea_01_0307.pdf. [Accessed: 01-May-2008].
Australian National Herbarium (2008). Australian Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/.
Australian Society for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP) (2005). Grevillea Study Group. Newsletter No. 72. [Online]. Penshurst NSW. Available from: http://asgap.org.au/ASGAP/grev72.pdf. [Accessed: 05-May-2008].
Bell, S.A.J. (2004). Vegetation of Werakata National Park, Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Cunninghamia. 8(3):331-347.
Benson, D. & L. McDougall (2000). Ecology of Sydney plant species: part 7b Dicotyledon families Proteaceae to Rubiaceae. Cunninghamia. 6(4):1016-1202.
Cropper, S.C. (1993). Management of Endangered Plants. East Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.
Ecovision Consulting (2006). Ecological Impact Assessment, Proposed Recovery of Carbonaceous Materials and Site Rehabilitation of former coal mines at Neath, Aberdare East and Richmond Main East. [Online]. Environmental Assessment Report, Chitter and Tailings Reclamation Project. Available from: http://www.hunterenviro.com.au/www/323/1001127/displayarticle/1001238.html.
Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd (2007). Threatened Species Impact Assessment Wyong Employment Zone. [Online]. Available from: http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/assessingdev/pdf/sss/wez_floraandfauna_report_pt5.pdf. [Accessed: 21-May-2008].
Government Advertising and Information (GAI) (2005). Government Gazette of New South Wales. 26. [Online]. Sydney, NSW. Available from: http://www.advertising.nswp.commerce.nsw.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/enzk52kldrlu6ldvmdovg2tbnf7fbqim4rozn7y5s2ctww5easxq542vxquc5sxccbgmydlr2fyzwh/18th_February.pdf. [Accessed: 03-May-2008].
Harper Somers O'Sullivan Pty Ltd (HSO) (2007). Flora and Fauna Assessment for a Proposed Rezoning over land at Cliftleigh. [Online]. Available from: http://www.cessnock.nsw.gov.au/cessnock/uploadedFiles/Council_Services/Building_and_Development/Major_Projects_-Advertised_Development/Appendix_4_Flora_&_Fauna_Assessment.pdf. [Accessed: 06-Apr-2008].
James, T. (1997). Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey. Stage 1: Western Sydney: Native Flora. Hurstville: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
James, T., L. McDougall & D.H. Benson (1999). Rare Bushland Plants of Western Sydney - 2nd edition. Sydney, NSW: Royal Botanic Gardens.
Makinson, R.O. (2000b). Proteaceae 2 - Grevillea. In: Flora of Australia. 17A:1-524. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.
Makinson, R.O. (2008). Personal Communication.
McGillivray, D.J. & R.O. Makinson (1993). Grevillea, Proteaceae. Victoria: Melbourne University Press.
Murray, M. & S. Bell (2001). Lake Macquarie City Council Flora and Fauna Survey Guidelines. [Online]. Eastcoast Flora Survey. Available from: http://www.lakemac.com.au/downloads/I_FloraFaunaSurveyGuidelines.pdf.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005p). Small-flower Grevillea-profile Threatened species Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10373.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005q). Small-flower Grevillea-Priority actions. [Online]. Available from: http://threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/pas_profile.aspx?id=10373. [Accessed: 10-Apr-2009].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002g). Threatened Species Information Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora. [Online]. Hurtsville, NSW: Threatened Species Unit. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/TSprofileGrevilleaParvifloraSspParviflora.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Apr-2008].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002h). Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines, Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora. [Online]. Hurstville, NSW: Threatened Species Unit. Available from: http://www2.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/Gparviflora_eia_0802.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Apr-2008].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006). Central Coast Hunter Range Werakata National Park Fire Management Strategy (Type 2), Central Coast Hunter Range Region, Gosford, NSW. [Online]. Available from: http://www3.environment.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/WerakataFMS_Oct06.pdf. [Accessed: 15-May-2008].
O'Brien, D. (2004). Flora, Fauna & Ecological Assessment For The Proposed Advanced Waste Treatment Facility, Elizabeth Drive, Kemps Creek, Penrith Local Government Area. [Online]. Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Waste Treatment facility development at Elizabeth Drive, for SITA Environmental Solutions. Sydney NSW: Maunsell Australia Pty Ltd. Available from: http://www.sita.com.au/media/18532/appendix%20b%20flora%20and%20fauna%20small.pdf.
Olde, P.M. & N.R. Marriott (1995). The Grevillea Book; Volume 2. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.
Sydney Catchment Authority (SCA) (2007). Special Areas Strategic Plan of Management 2007. Prepared for Sydney Catchment Authority and Department of Environment and Conservation by Sydney Catchment Authority. [Online]. Available from: http://www.sca.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/4830/SASPoM07.pdf. [Accessed: 09-May-2008].
The Rivers SOS Alliance (Rivers SOS) (2004-2008). Submission to the Panel of Experts on the Southern Coalfield Inquiry of 2007. [Online]. Available from: http://www.riverssos.com/pdf_files/submission0707.pdf. [Accessed: 09-May-2008].
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008bx). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64910-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 15 Mar 2014 20:25:58 +1100.