In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora |
|Reference||Makinson, R.O. in Wilson, A.J.G. (Ed) (2000), Flora of Australia 17A: 232, 234, 501, Fig. 22, Map 213 [autonym]|
|Other names||Grevillea parviflora var. parviflora |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
I. Marmott (2013). From the Botany Desk: Small flower Grevillea. Consulting Ecology 30: 37-39
Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora was described by Makinson (2000b) and included in the Grevillea linearifolia complex. However, this complex is taxonomically difficult and many of the species recognised are very narrowly defined and somewhat flexible in their description (ASGAP 2005).
McGillivray treated this subspecies as Grevillea linearifolia f. 'd' (Narrower-leaved Sydney form) (McGillivray & Makinson 1993). Olde and Marriott (1995) treated this subspecies as Grevillea parviflora 'Typical form'.
The Small-flower Grevillea is a spindly shrub that can vary from a low spreading to erect shape, growing up to 1.5–2 m high. It suckers readily from rhizomes, although individuals sometimes have single stems. The rhizome can easily be seen below the soil surface. Leaves are crowded, erect to ascending, narrow, mostly 2–3.5 cm long, to 1.3 mm wide with the lower surface silky-hairy and a shortly pointed apex. Leaf margins are curved back or rolled completely under. The flowers are spider-like and clustered in groups of 6–12. They are small and white or pinkish, with rusty-brown hairs that can become red with age. The fruiting capsule is 8–10 mm long and has 1–2 seeds (NSW NPWS 2002h, NSW OEH 2013o)
The Small-flower Grevillea is endemic to NSW and occurs sporadically throughout the Sydney Basin. There are at least 21 known populations, of which, three are thought to be extinct and several need to be confirmed (NSW NPWS 2002g). In more urbanised areas closer to Sydney, the isolation of populations is likely to be increasing and perhaps reflected in the smaller population sizes in these areas (NSW NPWS 2002h). The subspecies is known from:
- sizeable populations around Picton, Wedderburn, Appin and Bargo (and possibly further south to the Moss Vale area), where the species is associated with the Nepean and Georges Rivers (NSW OEH 2013o)
- sizeable populations in the Hunter Valley in the Cessnock - Kurri Kurri area (particularly Werakata NP), with a northern limit of Heddon Greta in the Lower Hunter Valley (NSW OEH 2013o)
- Putty to Wyong on the Central Coast
- the western shores of Lake Macquarie on the Central Coast at Dooralong, Cooranbong and Awaba (Makinson 2008 pers. comm.; NSW NPWS 2002g)
- near Liverpool, where small populations occur at Kemps Creek and Voyager Point (NSW NPWS 2002h)
- west of Prospect to Woronora Plateau (this population is now extinct) (James et al. 1999).
The extent of occurrence of the Small-flower Grevillea is estimated at 6590 km² and its area of occupancy is estimated at 55 km². These estimates are based on Australian Virtual Herbarium data of low reliability, as recent ground-truthing at all populations has not occurred (Australian National Herbarium 2008).
A field survey was carried out by Bell (2004) in Werakata National Park between December 2000 and February 2001. Seventeen full floristic plots were completed and combined with existing plot data, resulting in 21 sites in which Small-flower Grevillea was found (Bell 2004).
In 2001–05, vegetation mapping and surveys were undertaken for the Branxton Freeway Link (Acacia EP 2007). Biosis Research updated the mapping to incorporate the results of targeted flora surveys and selected ground-truthing and threatened species and endangered ecological communities that have been gazetted since 2001. Acacia Environmental Planning (2007) concluded that Small-flower Grevillea was present at the Branxton Freeway Link site.
In 2004, Maunsell Australia commissioned Environmental Appraisal & Planning Pty Ltd (O'Brien 2004) to undertake an environmental impact assessment for the proposed advanced waste treatment facility at Elizabeth Drive, Kemps Creek within the Penrith Local Government Area (LGA). No Small-flower Grevillea plants were found on the site (O'Brien 2004).
In 2006, Ecovision Consulting were employed to undertake flora surveys in the Cessnock LGA between Cessnock and Kurri Kurri for mining development. A combination of sampling methods was used both systematic and opportunistic with a minimum of three survey methods at the site. There were 94 plants of Small-flower Grevillea identified within the site with 49 plants on roadside verges that were planned for development (Ecovision Consulting 2006).
In 2007, Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd conducted a survey within the Wyong Employment Zone. Within the study area, specimens currently broadly attributable to Small-flower Grevillea were widespread in the southern and south-western parts of the Warnervale Business Park. Population estimates are of least 300–500 plants being present. A second smaller population occurrs to the immediate north of the study area in Precinct 14, off Kiar Ridge Road (Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd 2007).
In 2008, Anne Clements and associates conducted a threatened species survey within the North Cooranbong Residential Precinct. Within this area a total of 2952 plants of the Small-flower Grevillea were recorded from 319 quadrats. A plant was defined as any stem or group of stems separated by less than 0.1 m (Clements et al. 2008).
The exact number of mature reproducing plants of the Small-flower Grevillea is uncertain. Due to its suckering nature it is often difficult to determine the number of plants at a site. Sucker stems often occur in patches close to the parent plant (NSW NPWS 2002h). Population estimates can be a reflection of the number of suckers rather than individual plants, so populations may be smaller than previously thought (NSW NPWS 2002g), but given its wide distribution and habitat requirements it may be more common than current surveys indicate (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Population size varies, but are mostly small (less than 20 plants) to medium size (50–100 plants) with few large populations (greater than 200 plants). The largest known population occurs north of Bargo with an estimated 2000 or more plants (NSW NPWS 2002g). Sites of particular significance for Small-flower Grevillea would include any population with greater than 50 plants; a population with a varied age structure including active recruitment of seedlings; and an area of intact habitat away from high disturbance areas (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Known populations of the Small-flower Grevillea include:
|Locality||Land Tenure||Number of Plants||Reference|
|Appin, Wollondilly LGA||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Picton, Wollondilly LGA||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Bargo, Bargo Rd, Wollondilly LGA||Approximately 2000||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Wirrimbirra, Bargo, Wollondilly LGA||Reserve (conservation status of this area is uncertain)||50||NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Kemps Creek, Liverpool LGA||Reserve||1||NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Voyager Point, Liverpool LGA||Small||NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Tahmoor, Wollondilly LGA||Private land||Extinct|
|Thirlmere, Wollondilly LGA||Private land||Extinct|
|Prospect LGA||Private Land||Extinct||James and colleagues (1999)|
|Upper Georges River, Liverpool LGA||Large|
|Wedderburn, Campbelltown LGA||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Maldon, Wollondilly LGA||Wildlife Refuge, but may not provide permanent reservation)||NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Sydney Water||Schedule 1 Special Area||At least 2||SCA (2007)|
|Moss Vale, Wingecaribee LGA||To be confirmed||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Kurri Kurri, Cessnock LGA||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Heddon Greta, Cessnock LGA||NSW OEH (2013o)|
|Dooralong, Wyong LGA||NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Cooranbong, Freemans Drive Macquarie LGA||2952 plants at one site||Clements and colleagues (2008), NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Awaba, Lake Macquarie LGA||NSW NPWS (2002h)|
|Wyong to Putty, Wyong LGA||300-500 plants at one site||Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd (2007)|
|Werakata National Park (Kitchener area)||National Park||Substantial numbers||Bell (2004), NSW NPWS (2002g)|
|Cessnock LGA||Widespread, at least 94||Ecovision Consulting (2006)|
|West Wallsend, Lake Macquarie LGA|
The Small-flower Grevillea occurs on ridge crests, upper slopes or flat plains in both low-lying areas between 30–65 m above sea level (particularly in the Lower Hunter Valley and Lake Macquarie) and on higher topography between 200–300 m above sea level south of Sydney (NSW NPWS 2002g). Annual rainfall across the subspecies' range is between 800–1000 mm (Benson & McDougall 2000).
The subspecies can occur in exposed slightly disturbed sites close to roads and tracks (NSW OEH 2013o). It occurs in sandy or light clay soils, usually over thin shales often with lateritic ironstone gravels which are often infertile and poorly drained. Soils are mostly derived from Tertiary sands or alluvium and from the Mittagong Formation with alternating bands of shale and fine grained sandstones (NSW OEH 2013o).
The Small-flower Grevillea occurs in a range of vegetation types from heath and scrubby woodland to open forest (NSW OEH 2013o). Canopy species vary between communities but are species that generally favour soils with a strong lateritic influence (NSW NPWS 2002h). At sites with a stronger sandstone influence, Sweet Wattle (Acacia suaveolens), Narrow-leaved Stringybark (Eucalytpus oblonga), Sydney Peppermint (E. piperita), Hard-leaved Scribbly Gum (E. racemosa), Grevillea diffusa, G. mucronulata and Pine-leaved Geebung (Persoonia pinifolia) are found (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea occurs in Kurri Sand Swamp Woodland. Associated species include Swamp Wattle (Acacia elongata), Narrow-leaved Apple (Angophora bakeri), Three-awn Spear-grass (Aristida vagans, Dillwynia parvifolia, Brown's Lovegrass (Eragrostis brownii), Red Ironbark (Eucalyptus fibrosa), Earp's Gum (E. parramattensis subsp. decadens), Mountain Grey Grevillea (Grevillea montana) and Thyme Honeymyrtle (Melaleuca thymifolia) (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea also occurs in open forest of Spotted Gum (Corymbia maculata) - Smooth-barked Apple (Angophora costata) at Dooralong, Sydney Sandstone Ridgetop Woodland at Wedderburn and Castlereagh Ironbark Woodland at Kemps Creek (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Although the Small-flower Grevillea occurs in a range of vegetation associations, several understorey species have been recorded at a number of sites, including Black Sheoak (Allocasuarina littoralis), Hairpin Banksia (Banksia spinulosa), Gorse Bitter-pea (Daviesia ulicifolia), Wiry Panic (Entolasia stricta), Brown's Lovegrass (Eragrostis brownii), White Kunzea (Kunzea ambigua), Woolly Tea-tree (Leptospermum trinervium), Pricklyleaf Paperbark (Melaleuca nodosa), Granny's Bonnet (Pimelea linifolia) and Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra) (NSW NPWS 2002g). Small-flower Grevillea has been recorded growing with several threatened species including Bynoe's Wattle (Acacia bynoeana) at Heddon Greta, the Bargo Geebung (Persoonia bargoensis) south of Appin and at Bargo, and Earp's Gum (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Small-flower Grevillea is associated within the following ecological communities that are listed under the EPBC Act and similar communities listed under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW): Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest (Endangered), White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland (Critically Endangered) and Turpentine-Ironbark Forest (Critically Endangered).
Very little is known about the life cycle of Small-flower Grevillea (NSW NPWS 2002h). It flowers in April, May and between July and December (NSW OEH 2013o). Flowers are insect pollinated and one to two seeds are produced (Benson & McDougall 2000) but have limited seed dispersal, probably of less than 2 m (NSW NPWS 2002h).
After fire or other disturbance, plants are capable of suckering or regenerating from rootstock (NSW OEH 2013o). After fire, recruitment from seed is uncommon (Benson & McDougall 2000). Sucker stems usually occur in patches close to the parent plant (NSW NPWS 2002h). Individuals can live to 25–60 years (Keith pers. comm. cited in Benson & McDougall 2000).
Small-flower Grevillea can be inconspicuous and similar in appearance to other Grevillea species that grow in similar habitat including, G. diffusa and Mountain Grey Grevillea (G. montana) (NSW NPWS 2002h). Identifying features of Small-flower Grevillea include the reddish stems, the light green leaves, often with a silvery sheen on the flower surface, and the small white to pale pinkish flowers (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Grevillea parviflora subsp. supplicans can be distinguished from Small-flower Grevillea by its spreading branches, and the branchlets which are held to one side with the leaves held skyward. Grevillea parviflora subsp. supplicans is restricted to north-west of Sydney in the Berrilee and Maroota areas whereas Small-flower Grevillea occurs south-west of Sydney (Makinson 2000b; NSW NPWS 2002g; Olde & Marriott 1995).
It can also be confused with G. patulifolia which differs in its stout, sharply angular and prominently ribbed branchlets, its broader more rigid leaves and the sessile regular flower heads (Olde & Marriott 1995).
Small-flower Grevillea differs from G. micrantha by the bearded inner perianth surface, the leaves with looser, angularly refracted margins, the upper surface often punctated with faintly granular veins and the more or less one-sided flowering heads (Olde & Marriott 1995).
Small-flower Grevillea is best surveyed during the main flowering period between July and December when it is easier to identify by its flowers. It is also reported to flower in April and May (NSW NPWS 2002h). Murray and Bell (2001) state that flowering specimens can be examined and identified with confidence. Leaf samples and general habit are also important to record when surveying. Surveys should target flat to gently sloping land within areas with both a shale and sandstone influence. At higher altitudes the location of Shale/Sandstone Transition forest can be an indicator for the species (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Habitat loss and degradation
The Small-flower Grevillea is threatened by habitat loss and degradation caused by urban development, road maintenance and mining. These activities variously result in overshading, altered hydrology, increased grazing pressure, mowing, the dumping of fill and rubbish, and increased levels of soil nutrients (NSW NPWS 2002h; NSW OEH 2013o). Several sites near Prospect, Tahmoor and Thirlmere have been developed and nearby areas have been degraded (NSW NPWS 2002g). Isolation of populations is likely to result in reduced gene flow and low genetic diversity which may affect the long-term viability of the species.
The Small-flower Grevillea is also threatened by habitat loss and degradation caused by road widening, linear (road, power and gas) maintenance works and vehicular traffic. Maintenance activities such as regular mowing or slashing can impact the species. Any activity or development that impacts the accumulation of seed in the soil seedbank, seed germination or seedling recruitment will reduce numbers due to limited seed dispersal of the species (NSW NPWS 2002g, 2002h; NSW OEH 2013o).
Weedy species such as Blady Grass (Imperata cylindrica) and the Tick Bush (Kunzea ambigua) can reduce available habitat for the Small-flower Grevillea. The Tick Bush is known to be an aggressive early coloniser of bare sites and has large seedling recruitment in disturbed areas. It is considered a threat at several sites populated by Small-flower Grevillea, including at a wildlife refuge at Maldon (NSW NPWS 2002h).
Recruitment and disturbance frequency
Although most populations are relatively large as a result of suckering, the health, long-term viability and genetic diversity of populations is dependent on adequate seedling recruitment (NSW NPWS 2002h). Large populations may have low genetic diversity despite their size (NSW NPWS 2002g).
Known populations of Small-flower Grevillea appear to have low levels of seedling recruitment. Too frequent fire can deplete the soil seedbank and cause localised extinction. Too infrequent fire may result in poor levels of seed germination and increase the density of the shrub layer (NSW NPWS 2002g). Germination from the seedbank does occur after fire but field observations suggest it is uncommon.
The NSW Government (NSW DECC 2005q; NSW NPWS 2002g; NSW OEH 2013o) has identified a number of actions that may assist the recovery of the Small-flower Grevillea:
- Liaise with land managers to encourage the preparation of site management plans and the implementation of appropriate threat abatement measures particularly in fire management, bush regeneration, roadside management, weed control, fencing and signage.
- Mark known sites and potential habitat onto maps used for planning maintenance work.
- Ensure that personnel planning and undertaking road maintenance are able to identify the species and are aware of its habitat.
- Mark and fence off sites during development/road maintenance activities.
- Determine an appropriate fire regime and reinstate an appropriate fire regime (either restrict fire or undertake ecological burns as required).
- Ensure that this subspecies is considered in planning matters on land that contains or may contain populations.
- Undertake weed (including Tick Bush) control using methods that will not impact on populations (avoid spraying in the vicinity of the plants and either hand pull weeds or cut and paint them).
- Ensure populations and their habitat are protected.
- Conduct searches in potential habitat for new populations.
- Investigate the species seed viability, germination, dormancy, longevity and genetic variation
The Fire Management Strategy Plan (NSW NPWS 2006) for Werakata National Park recommends a fire prescription with a 8-15 year fire interval and that avoids the use of machinery in areas of known populations. The prescription aims to minimise frequent fire and encourage recruitment.
Management documents relevant to the Small-flower Grevillea are at the start of the profile. Other relevant plans include the Central Coast Hunter Range Werakata National Park Fire Management Strategy (Type 2) (NSW NPWS 2006) and the Special Areas Strategic Plan of Management 2007 (SCA 2007).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ku) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ku) [Internet].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ku) [Internet].|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008bx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Acacia Environmental Planning Pty Ltd (Acacia EP) (2007). F3 Freeway to Branxton link. Modification to the Approved Project Environmental Assessment. [Online]. NSW: Roads and Traffic Authority. Available from: http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/constructionmaintenance/downloads/hunter/f3_branxton/f3_branxton_mod-ea_01_0307.pdf. [Accessed: 01-May-2008].
Australian National Herbarium (2008). Australian Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/.
Australian Society for Growing Australian Plants (ASGAP) (2005). Grevillea Study Group. Newsletter No. 72. [Online]. Penshurst NSW. Available from: http://asgap.org.au/ASGAP/grev72.pdf. [Accessed: 05-May-2008].
Bell, S.A.J. (2004). Vegetation of Werakata National Park, Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Cunninghamia. 8(3):331-347.
Benson, D. & L. McDougall (2000). Ecology of Sydney plant species: part 7b Dicotyledon families Proteaceae to Rubiaceae. Cunninghamia. 6(4):1016-1202.
Clements, A.M., J. Rodd & P. Juniper (2008). Threatened species surveys in January and February 2008: North Cooranbong. [Online]. Prepared for Johnson Property Group Pty Limited, Sydney, NSW. Available from: http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/asp/pdf/07_0147_ea_nc_appendixbiv_threatenedspeciessurvey_pp1_24.pdf.
Ecovision Consulting (2006). Ecological Impact Assessment, Proposed Recovery of Carbonaceous Materials and Site Rehabilitation of former coal mines at Neath, Aberdare East and Richmond Main East. [Online]. Environmental Assessment Report, Chitter and Tailings Reclamation Project. Available from: http://www.hunterenviro.com.au/www/323/1001127/displayarticle/1001238.html.
Forest Fauna Surveys Pty Ltd (2007). Threatened Species Impact Assessment Wyong Employment Zone. [Online]. Available from: http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/assessingdev/pdf/sss/wez_floraandfauna_report_pt5.pdf. [Accessed: 21-May-2008].
James, T., L. McDougall & D.H. Benson (1999). Rare Bushland Plants of Western Sydney - 2nd edition. Sydney, NSW: Royal Botanic Gardens.
Makinson, R.O. (2000b). Proteaceae 2 - Grevillea. In: Flora of Australia. 17A:1-524. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.
Makinson, R.O. (2008). Personal Communication.
McGillivray, D.J. & R.O. Makinson (1993). Grevillea, Proteaceae. Victoria: Melbourne University Press.
Murray, M. & S. Bell (2001). Lake Macquarie City Council Flora and Fauna Survey Guidelines. [Online]. Eastcoast Flora Survey. Available from: http://www.lakemac.com.au/downloads/I_FloraFaunaSurveyGuidelines.pdf.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005q). Small-flower Grevillea-Priority actions. [Online]. Available from: http://threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/pas_profile.aspx?id=10373. [Accessed: 10-Apr-2009].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002g). Threatened Species Information Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora. [Online]. Hurtsville, NSW: Threatened Species Unit. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/TSprofileGrevilleaParvifloraSspParviflora.pdf.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002h). Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines, Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora. [Online]. Hurstville, NSW: Threatened Species Unit. Available from: http://www2.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/Gparviflora_eia_0802.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Apr-2008].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006). Central Coast Hunter Range Werakata National Park Fire Management Strategy (Type 2), Central Coast Hunter Range Region, Gosford, NSW. [Online]. Available from: http://www3.environment.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/WerakataFMS_Oct06.pdf. [Accessed: 15-May-2008].
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2013o). Small-flower Grevillea-profile Threatened species Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=10373.
O'Brien, D. (2004). Flora, Fauna & Ecological Assessment For The Proposed Advanced Waste Treatment Facility, Elizabeth Drive, Kemps Creek, Penrith Local Government Area. [Online]. Environmental Assessment for the Advanced Waste Treatment facility development at Elizabeth Drive, for SITA Environmental Solutions. Sydney NSW: Maunsell Australia Pty Ltd. Available from: http://www.sita.com.au/media/18532/appendix%20b%20flora%20and%20fauna%20small.pdf.
Olde, P.M. & N.R. Marriott (1995). The Grevillea Book; Volume 2. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.
Sydney Catchment Authority (SCA) (2007). Special Areas Strategic Plan of Management 2007. Prepared for Sydney Catchment Authority and Department of Environment and Conservation by Sydney Catchment Authority. [Online]. Available from: http://www.sca.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/4830/SASPoM07.pdf. [Accessed: 09-May-2008].
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea parviflora subsp. parviflora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 08:39:15 +1000.