Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Euphrasia fragosa
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia fragosa (Shy Eyebright, Southport Eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ax) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Tasmanian lowland Euphrasia species Flora Recovery Plan (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIPWE), 2011g) [Recovery Plan] as Euphrasia fragosa.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Euphrasia fragosa.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/10/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001c) [Legislative Instrument] as Euphrasia fragosa.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Listing Statement - Shy eyebright, Euphrasia fragosa W.R.Barker 1996 (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2001c) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Euphrasia fragosa (Shy Eyebright, Southport Eyebright): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014cq) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list) as Euphrasia fragosa
Scientific name Euphrasia fragosa [64901]
Family Scrophulariaceae:Scrophulariales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author W.R.Barker
Infraspecies author  
Reference Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 17: 217, fig. 1 (1996).
Other names Euphrasia sp. 2 (Southport) [24568]
Euphrasia sp. Southport (W.M.Curtis 5/12/58) [56737]
Euphrasia sp. (W.M. Curtis, 5/12/88; Southport) [67245]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Shy Eyebright is a short-lived perennial herb, around 25 cm high with small blue-mauve-purple flowers (Barker 1996; Threatened Species Unit 1997). The flowers have the appearance of only being half open (Threatened Species Unit 1997).

This species is known from either side of D'Entrecasteaux Channel, in SE Tas. (Barker 1996). The species was collected only three times, in 1855, 1856 and 1958, until rediscovered in the late 1980s (Collier 1990).

The three known populations are up to 11 km apart and occupy a total area of less than 1 ha (Threatened Species Unit 1997):
1. The largest population occurs at Southport in two patches near Rossel Point. The Southport population was estimated to have 150 individuals in 1995 but increased to 400 in 1996, following the unusually wet spring and summer, though the range did not increase (Potts 1997 in Threatened Species Unit 1997).
2. The population on Labillardiere Peninsula, Bruny I. is restricted to patches in a 1.25 km stretch of 4WD track over Mt Bleak. Less than 50 plants were located at Labillardiere Peninsula in 1988 and 1995 (Collier 1990; Potts 1997 in Threatened Species Unit 1997) but increased to 270 in 1996, following the unusually wet spring and summer, though the range did not increase (Potts 1997 in Threatened Species Unit 1997).
3. A very small population is found in the Southport Lagoon Wildlife Sanctuary. Numbers dropped from 15 [timeframe not noted] to only a few plants by 1997 (Threatened Species Unit 1997).

The transient nature of populations makes the estimation of population sizes difficult. The two largest populations (at Southport and Labillardiere Peninsula) are relatively persistent, maintained through disturbance associated with rough grazing or 4WD and animal tracks (Potts 1997 in Threatened Species Unit 1997). Populations recorded from the Cape Bruny area (Labillardiere Peninsula) in the early 1990s could not be relocated in 1995, but are likely to reappear after fire (Potts 1997 in Threatened Species Unit 1997).

Populations are reserved in South Bruny NP and Southport Lagoon Wildlife Sanctuary (Threatened Species Unit 1997).

Euphrasia fragosa was formerly known as Euphrasia sp. Southport (Barker 1996).

The species is found in open sites with small herbs and fine grasses, disturbed by proximity to vehicle or animal tracks (Barker 1996). Potential habitat has been described as heathy, grassy or sedgy open woodland areas, often at forest margins, particularly if recently burnt, rough grazed or transected by 4WD tracks (Threatened Species Unit 1997).

The habitat at the three known locations is described as:
(1) Rossel Point near Southport - found along 4WD or cattle tracks in very open eucalypt woodland with an open heathy/grassy understorey (Barker 1996; Threatened Species Unit 1997).
(2) Labillardiere Peninsula, Bruny I. - in open woodland adjoining the dense heathy/sedgey edges of a 4WD track (Barker 1996; Threatened Species Unit 1997).
(3) Southport Lagoon Wildlife Sanctuary - in frequently burnt grassy/heathy woodland (Threatened Species Unit 1997).

Populations of Euphrasia species are transient. The persistence of populations is reliant upon the successful recruitment of seedlings. Patches of open ground are required for germination, and adequate moisture levels are required for seedling survival. Seed production is copious and the soil seed bank probably survives for decades. Profuse germination occurs after fire (Potts 1999).

Euphrasia species are non-host specific semi-parasites. The growth rate and reproductive output is reduced in the absence of hosts (Potts 1999).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plans for Threatened Tasmanian Lowland Euphrasia Species - 1997-2001 (Potts, W.C., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Listing Statement No. 6 - Euphrasia fragosa W R Barker, Shy Eyebright (Threatened Species Unit, 1997) [Information Sheet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia fragosa (Shy Eyebright, Southport Eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ax) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plans for Threatened Tasmanian Lowland Euphrasia Species - 1997-2001 (Potts, W.C., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Listing Statement No. 6 - Euphrasia fragosa W R Barker, Shy Eyebright (Threatened Species Unit, 1997) [Information Sheet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia fragosa (Shy Eyebright, Southport Eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ax) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Recovery Plans for Threatened Tasmanian Lowland Euphrasia Species - 1997-2001 (Potts, W.C., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Euphrasia fragosa (Shy Eyebright, Southport Eyebright) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ax) [Listing Advice].

Barker, W.R. (1996). Taxonomic studies in Euphrasia L. (Scrophulariaceae). VII. A new species and a widely disjunct population from south-eastern Tasmania. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 17.

Collier, P A (1990). Rare Taxa in the genus Euphrasia L. from Lowland South-Eastern Tasmania. The Tasmanian Naturalist. 103:1-5.

Commonwealth of Australia (1999e). Tasmanian Regional Forests Agreements. [Online]. Available from: http://www.rfa.gov.au/rfa/tas/raa/envher/volumes1-4/ai_euphr.html.

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.

Potts, W.C. (1999). Recovery Plans for Threatened Tasmanian Lowland Euphrasia Species - 1997-2001. [Online]. TAS DPIWE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/tas-euphrasia/index.html.

Threatened Species Unit (1997). Listing Statement No. 6 - Euphrasia fragosa W R Barker, Shy Eyebright. Dept Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Tas. Dept Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Tas.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Euphrasia fragosa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 25 Jul 2014 19:57:21 +1000.