Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Eucalyptus canobolensis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008pc) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010au) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Eucalyptus rubida subsp. canobolensis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Eucalyptus canobolensis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (98) (13/07/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010h) [Legislative Instrument] as Eucalyptus canobolensis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Silver-Leaf Candlebark - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005dp) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list) as Eucalyptus canobolensis
Scientific name Eucalyptus canobolensis [64896]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (L.A.S.Johnson & K.D.Hill) J.T.Hunter
Infraspecies author  
Reference Hunter, J.T., (1998) Eucalyptus canobolensis (Myrtaceae), a new combination for a former subspecies of Eucalyptus rubida. Telopea 8(1): 157 [comb. et stat. nov.]
Other names Eucalyptus rubida subsp. canobolensis [56178]
Eucalyptus rubida canobolensis [67340]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Eucalyptus canobolensis

Common name: Silver-leaf Candlebark

Other names: Mt Canobolas Candlebark

Originally described by Hill and Johnson (1991) as Eucalyptus rubida subsp. canobolensis and subsequently elevated to E. canobolensis by Hunter (1998a). This change was based on E. canobolensis' square juvenile stems and larger adult leaves, juvenile leaves, bud and fruits (Hunter 1998a).

The Silver-leaf Candlebark is a small spreading tree, 8–12 m in height, with smooth bark growing to the base of the tree that sheds in ribbons. Juvenile leaves are opposite, rounded and grey-green in colour. Adult leaves are lance-shaped, between 10–18 cm long by 1.5–3.5 cm wide and dull green or grey-green in colour. The flower heads occur in threes, with a distinctly flattened stalk. Buds are egg-shaped, 5–9 mm long, and fruit is cup-shaped, 5–9 mm long by 6–8 mm in diameter (NSW DECW 2005dp). The branches, leaves and buds of the species are strongly glaucous with a white waxy coating when young (Hill & Johnson 1991).

The Silver-leaf Candlebark's flowering period is January–March. Seed is dispersed locally by wind or gravity and there is no dormancy mechanism (NSW DECCW 2005dp).

General distribution

The Silver-leaf Candlebark is restricted to the Mt Canobolas State Recreation Area (SRA), approximately 14 km south-west of Orange, New South Wales (NSW) (NSW DECCW 2005dp). The species occurs within the Central West Natural Resource Management Region.

Extent of occurrence

The Silver-leaf Candlebark is restricted to the Mount Canobolas SRA boundary, which is the accepted extent of occurrence. Therefore, the species has an estimated extent of occurrence of 16.7 km² (NSW NPWS 2003a).

The population size of the Silver-leaf Candlebark, with mixed aged stands comprising seedlings, juveniles and adults, is estimated to be over 60 000 individuals (Hunter 1998a; NSW DECCW 2005dp). However, this was estimated from the extrapolation of population counts from two 25 m x 25 m quadrats and potentially contains error (NSW SC 2004, cited in TSSC 2010au).

The Silver-leaf Candlebark is restricted to the Mt Canobolas SRA (NSW DECCW 2005dp).

The Silver-leaf Candlebark is predominately found at 1100–1300 m altitude, but can occur down to 1000 m and above 1300 m (NSW DECCW 2005dp). The topography where it occurs ranges from undulating low hills to steep hills (NSW DECCW 2005dp). Soils consist of shallow skeletal sands, loams on steep slopes and outcrops of basalt and volcanic trachytic (NSW DECCW 2005dp). Annual rainfall in the Canobolas region is 950 mm with occasional winter snowfalls on the Mt Canobolas summit (Hunter 2002).

The Silver-leaf Candlebark occurs in Southern Tableland Wet Sclerophyll Forest, which is a subalpine woodland vegetation community (NSW DECCW, 2005dp). Associated plant species include:

  • overstorey species: Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora), Mountain Gum (E. dalrympleana), Ribbon Gum (E. viminalis) and Broad-leaved Peppermint (E. dives) (Hunter 1998a)
  • understorey species: Grey Tussock Grass (Poa sieberiana), Drooping Cassinia (Cassinia arcuata), Australian Sheep's Burr (Acaena ovina), Mountain Pennywort (Hydrocotyle algida) and Dwarf Skullcap (Scutellaria humilis) (Hunter 1998a).

The Silver-leaf Candlebark flowers in January–March (Brooker & Kleinig 1999), with seed dispersed by wind or gravity (NSW DECCW 2005dp).

Past threats

The development of Pinus radiata plantations has caused considerable reduction in the distribution of the Silver-leafed Candlebark (NSW SC 2004, cited in TSSC 2010au). However, no data is available to quantify this reduction (NSW SC 2004, cited in TSSC 2010au).

Current threats

Threats to the Silver-leaf Candlebark identified by the NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW 2005dp) include:

  • Blackberry (Rubus species complex) infestations, which impede regeneration.
  • Invasion of Pinus radiata seedlings from adjacent state forests.
  • Forestry operations, which impinge on populations and potential germination in Glenwood State Forest (SF) and Canobolas SF.
  • Fire management that allows for repeated wildfires or burns which may limit recruitment and cause localised extinction.
  • Global warming and associated climate change (likely to result in a contraction to higher altitudes and possibly extinction in the wild).

Threats to the Silver-leaf Candlebark identified in the Australian Natural Resources Atlas (ANRA 2009a) biodiversity assessment include:

  • changed hydrology
  • feral animals
  • grazing pressures
  • increased fragmentation and loss of remnants.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water recovery actions

The NSW DECCW (2005dp) identifies the following recovery actions to assist in recovery of the Silver-leaf Candlebark:

  • Implement a fire management strategy that limits regular burns and encourages mosaic burns.
  • Create a buffer between Mt Canobolas SRA and the forest operations that occur on adjacent state forests.
  • Restrict public access to some areas to reduce movement of weed propagules.
  • Eradicate and control Blackberry and Pinus radiata seedlings on Mt Canobolas SRA.
  • Monitor population demographics.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee recovery actions

The Threatened Species Scientific Committee has identified the following recovery actions (TSSC 2008pc):

Research priorities

  • Precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.

Habitat loss, disturbance and modification

  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Identify populations of high conservation priority.
  • Manage threats to areas of vegetation that contain populations of Silver-leaf Candlebark.
  • Ensure chemicals or other mechanisms, used to eradicate weeds, do not have a significant adverse impact on Silver-leaf Candlebark.
  • Ensure road widening and maintenance activities (or other infrastructure or development activities involving substrate or vegetation disturbance), in areas where Silver-leaf Candlebark occurs, do not adversely affect known populations.

Fire

  • Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state rural fire services, and seek inclusion of mitigation measures (reduced frequency and mosaic pattern) in bush fire risk management plans, risk register, operation maps and the Threatened Species Hazard Reduction List.

Conservation information

  • Raise awareness of Silver-leaf Candlebark within the local community.

Enable recovery of additional sites and/or populations

  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

Management documents for the Silver-leaf Candlebark include:

  • Priority Action Statement for Eucalyptus canobolensis (NSW DECCW 2005dp).
  • Mount Canobolas State Conservation Area Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2003a).
  • Blackberry, Rubus fruticosus: Best Practice Management Guide #5 (Bruzzese et al. 2000).
  • Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (TSSC 2008pc).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008pc) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010au) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008pc) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010au) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Eucalyptus canobolensis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006iq) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008pc) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine, Wilding Pine) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008pc) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010au) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008pc) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010au) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Eucalyptus canobolensis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006iq) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010au) [Listing Advice].

Australian Natural Resources Atlas (ANRA) (2009a). Biodiversity Assessment - South Eastern Highlands. Species at risk and the Threatening Process. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/nsw/ibra-seh-species-threats.html.

Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (1999). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 1, South-eastern Australia. Hawthorn, Victoria: Bloomings Books.

Bruzzese, E., F. Mahr & I. Faithful (2000). Blackberry, Rubus fruticosus: Best Practice Management Guide: #5. Adelaide, South Australia: CRC for Weed Management Systems.

Hill, K.D. & L.A.S. Johnson (1991). Systematic studies in the eucalypts - 3. New taxa in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). Telopea. 4(2):223-267.

Hunter, J.T. (1998a). Eucalyptus canobolensis (Myrtaceae). Telopea. 8(1):157-158.

Hunter, J.T. (2002). Vegetation and floristics of the Mount Canobolas State Recreation Area, Orange, New South Wales. Cunninghamia. 7(3):501-526.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005dp). Silver-Leaf Candlebark - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10290.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003a). Mount Canobolas State Conservation Area - Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/parkmanagement/MountCanobolasScaMgmtplan.htm.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008pc). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64896-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010au). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus canobolensis (Silver-Leaf Candlebark). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64896-listing-advice.pdf.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus canobolensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 20 Sep 2014 16:12:41 +1000.