Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata (Long-leaved Daviesia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008h) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata [64883]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Benth.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Crisp, M.D. (1995) Contributions Toward a Revision of Daviesia (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). III. A Synopsis of the Genus. Australian Systematic Botany 8(6): 1190, figs 13a-c [autonym]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/14529

The current conservation status of the Long-leaved Daviesia, Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora on the Wildlife Conservation (Rare Flora) Notice 2008 (2) under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata

Common name: Long-leaved Daviesia

Long-leaved Daviesia is a dense, hairless shrub or undershrub with ascending angular stems of 75 cm or more. The leaves are alternate, the lowest sometimes oblong-cuneate. Other leaves are linear or linear-oblong, obtuse with a short callous point, to 5–25 cm long, thickly coriaceous (that is, with a tough and pliable texture) and obscurely veined. These leaves are also narrowed at the base, but without stipular teeth bracts; not so long as the flower, but probably enlarging after flowering (Crisp 1995). The flowers are orange and red (Brown et al. 1998; Williams et al. 2001).

Long-leaved Daviesia is known from seven locations on the Swan Coastal Plain, in the Busselton area near Carbunup, approximately 200 km south-south-west of Perth, Western Australia. It occurs in the South West Natural Resource Management Region (WA DEC 2007). The subspecies distribution is considered to be fragmented with considerable distance between populations (WA DEC 2007).

The extent of occurrence is estimated at 1442 km². A dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation's Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area of occurrence. There is no data to indicate trends in extent of occurrence for this subspecies (WA DEC 2007).

The area of occupancy for this subspecies is approximately 0.035 km² (or approximately 3.56 hectares) based on averages of populations 1, 2 and 5. There is no data to indicate trends in the area of occupancy for this subspecies (WA DEC 2007).

Long-leaved Daviesia was first collected by Drummond in 1844 (type collection) but was not seen again until collected by Gardner in 1940. Further collections were made by Royce in 1953 and Crisp in 1979, after which the subspecies was not seen again until 1992, when it was found during the Floristic Survey of the Swan Coastal Plain (WA DEC 2007). The known subpopulations have since been opportunistically surveyed by Department of Environment and Conservation staff (WA DEC 2007).

The following table displays population numbers (WA DEC 2007):

Subpopulation Survey History Number of Plants Recorded Area
1 14/02/1995
17/10/1995
14/02/1995
17/10/1995
17/09/1996
18/11/1996
20/02/1997
22/01/1998
19/12/2003
60+
30
60
Collection only
50+
100
Collection only
100
100+




3000 m²
2 25/10/1953
06/12/1992
12/12/1995
15/11/1996
05/1997
23/12/1997
23/01/1998
03/02/2000
Collection only
Collection only
13
12
Collection only
11
10
0



400 m²
3a 15/01/1996
15/11/1996
13/01/1997
11/09/1997
23/01/1998
30/01/2002
600
600
600
600
Collection only
600
 
3b 26/08/1997
11/09/1997
250
200
 
3c 11/09/1997
26/08/1997
3
3
 
3d 11/09/1997
26/08/1997
7
7
 
4 07/11/1992
23/04/1997
30/01/2002
Collection only
2
4
 
5 17/03/1998
16/04/1998
17/06/1999
29/10/1999
1000
1000
1000
Not recorded



10 000 m²
6 10/12/2002
12/2005
20/02/2007
3
3
2
 
7 27/09/2002
27/10/2003
8
100
 

In 2007, the total population size for this subspecies was estimated to be approximately 1016 mature plants (WA DEC 2007). The subspecies is known from populations at seven locations, one of which has been split into subpopulations. Subpopulations are defined by differences in land tenure and management, as well as location. The population trend for the entire species appears to be one of decline.

Known populations are healthy and not immediately threatened. However, this subspecies is an obligate seeder (germinating following fire) and subpopulations are affected by altered fire regimes (WA DEC 2007). Population numbers decrease after resprouting as seedlings compete for light, moisture and resources (WA DEC 2007).

As this subspecies is listed as vulnerable under the EPBC Act, all known populations and their habitat are considered necessary for the species' long-term survival (WA DEC 2007).

Only population 4 occurs in a nature reserve which is managed for conservation of flora and fauna, although not specifically for the management of Long-leaved Daviesia. The remaining subpopulations occur in state forest, with the exception of subpopulations 1 and 2 which occur in shire reserves (WA DEC 2007).

Occurs on grey sandy loam soils in low forest over heath with Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), Dryandra squarrosa, Round-fruited Banksia (Banksia sphaerocarpa), Jug-flower (Adenanthos obovatus), Blueboy (Stirlingia latifolia), Allocasuarina spp. and Xanthorrhoea spp. (Brown et al. 1998; Williams et al. 2001).

Subpopulations 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d occur within the 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain ironstones' which is an ecological community listed as endangered under the EPBC Act. These ironstone soils are highly restricted in distribution (Meissner & English 2005) and are listed as 'Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone (Busselton Area) (Southern Ironstone Association)' in Western Australia. At these locations, Long-leaved Daviesia is also associated with other EPBC Act listed threatened flora including Broad-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium modestum) and Whicher Range Dryandra (Banksia squarrosa subsp. argillacea), listed as vulnerable, Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa, listed as Endangered, and Ironstone Brachyscias (Brachyscias verecundus), listed as critically endangered (WA DEC 2007).

Long-leaved Daviesia flowers from December to February (Brown et al. 1998) and is a disturbance opportunist, which regenerates after fire (WA DEC 2007).

Long-leaved Daviesia is best detected when in flower (WA DEC 2007). Long-leaved Daviesia is a dense sub-shrub with reasonably conspicuous yellow-orange flowers (WA DEC 2007). It differs from Daviesia elongata subsp. implexa in having flat, straight phyllodes and linear-elliptic bracts that are 3 mm or longer in flower and enlarge to 1 cm or more in fruit (Crisp 1995).

The following table presents threats to Long-leaved Daviesia (WA DEC 2007):

Subpopulation Number Current Condition Past Present Potential Future
1 Healthy     Firebreak maintenance, roadworks, fire, weeds
2 Poor Phytophthora cinnamomi, roadworks, drainage works Phytophthora cinnamomi  
3a Healthy     Recreational activities, roadworks
3b Healthy Burning    
3c Moderate Senescence    
3d Healthy      
4 Unknown   Senescence/poor regeneration  
5 Healthy Logging operations   Firebreak maintenance, roadworks, logging operations, Phytophthora cinnamomi
6 Poor Prescribed burn Poor regeneration Poor regeneration
7 Healthy Dieback   Mining

Long-leaved Daviesia has a restricted distribution as a result of specific ecological requirements, which has probably been further reduced by extensive clearing in the region. Weed infestation does not appear to be a significant threat to any of the known subpopulations (WA DEC 2007).

Subpopulation 1 is subject to pressure associated with frequent burning and potential weed invasion as a result of its proximity to human infrastructure and development. Subpopulation 2 was destroyed in 1996 by road grading. The subpopulation never recovered from this and is now considered locally extinct (WA DEC 2007).

Several species within the genus Daviesia are considered susceptible to dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. While Phytophthora dieback is recorded as occurring in state forest in the vicinity of all populations, the subspecies does not yet appear to be affected by the pathogen (Brown et al. 1998). Subpopulation 6 was burnt in a prescribed burn on 19 December 2005. By February 2007, one of the plants had regenerated, one did not recover from the burn and the controlled site (that was unburnt) was in poor condition, with no seedlings evident (WA DEC 2007).

Logging operations took place in the area of subpopulation 5 in 2000, however the plants were not affected. Butler Block has since been scheduled for listing as a national park and no further logging will take place (WA DEC 2007).

The taxon appears to be most vulnerable to stochasitic events associated with small, isolated populations (WA DEC 2007).

The following management actions were proposed for Long-leaved Daviesia in 1998 (WA DEC 2007) and by Williams and colleagues (2001):

  • Study of the life history of Long-leaved Daviesia with a focus on its susceptibility to dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi and implement appropriate hygiene measures.
  • Determine this subspecies persistence following fire events and implement an appropriate fire management strategy.
  • Liaise with the Shire of Busselton to appropriately manage subpopulations on road verges and townsite reserves.
  • Implement management strategies aimed at maintaining and improving the integrity of the habitat containing Long-leaved Daviesia subpopulations located in state forest.
  • Raise awareness with the local community to assist in locating new subpopulations.
  • Collect and store germplasm material.

Recovery actions are described in Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region (Williams et al. 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata (Long-leaved Daviesia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008h) [Conservation Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006go) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata (Long-leaved Daviesia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008h) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata (Long-leaved Daviesia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008h) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata (Long-leaved Daviesia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008h) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata (Long-leaved Daviesia) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008h) [Conservation Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Crisp, M.D. (1995). Contributions Toward a Revision of Daviesia (Fabaceae: Mirbelieae). III. A Synopsis of the Genus. Australian Systematic Botany. 8(6).

Meissner, R. & V. English (2005). Shrubland association on southern swan coastal plain ironstone (Busselton area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim Recovery Plan No. 215 2005-2010. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Daviesia elongata subsp. elongata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 05:05:57 +1000.