In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora inopina (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ap) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Angophora inopina |
|Reference||Hill, K.D. (1997) New species in Angophora and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) from New South Wales. Telopea 7(2): 97 [tax. nov.]|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Angophora inopina
Common name: Charmhaven Apple
The Charmhaven Apple is closely related to the Rough-barked Apple (Angophora floribunda) and is morphologically very similar (HWR Ecological 2002). The two species are separated in the Flora of New South Wales (Harden 2000) only by petiole length. Many specimens in the Karuah area are hybrids of the Charmhaven Apple and the Rough-barked Apple (Gunninah Environmental Consultants 2000). In some cases, specimens that have the attributes of the Charmhaven Apple can be found growing beside specimens that have the characteristics of the Rough-barked Apple (HWR Ecological 2002).
The Charmhaven Apple is a small tree that can grow to 8 m in height, and is often multi-stemmed. The bark is grey to grey-brown, persistent throughout and consists of short fibres (Hill 1997a). The flowers are creamy white (Benson & McDougall 1998).
This species is endemic to the Central Coast region of New South Wales. The known northern limit is near Karuah where a disjunct population occurs; to the south populations extend from Toronto to Charmhaven with the main populations occurring between Morisset and Charmhaven (NSW OEH 2013k). It has also been recorded near Bulahdelah (Winning pers. obs. in HWR Ecological 2002) and at Gwandalan (EPBC 2008/4419).
Populations are known at Charmhaven, Vales Point and Doyalson (Benson & McDougall 1998).The largest and most intact stands occur in the Wyong and Lake Macquarie local government areas. Approximately 1250 ha of occupied habitat has been mapped in the Wyong-Southern Lake Macquarie area (NSW OEH 2013k).
The known distribution of the species covers an area which is being rapidly developed through urbanisation (NSW Scientific Committee 1998a).
This species occurs on deep, white, sandy loam to clay-loam soils on sandstone with some gravelly laterite. This type of substrate is low in nutrients and is periodically water-logged (Benson & McDougall 1998).
This species is locally frequent in open, dry sclerophyll woodland of Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus haemastoma) and Red Bloodwood (Corymbia gummifera) with some Brown Stringybark (Eucalyptus capitellata) and a dense, shrubby understorey (Hill 1997a), including Dwarf Banksia (Banksia oblongifolia), Mountain Devil (Lambertia formosa) and Finger Hakea (Hakea dactyloides) (Benson & McDougall 1998). Other associated trees are Smooth-barked Apple (Angophora costata) and Sydney Peppermint (Eucalyptus piperita) (Tierney 2004).
The Charmhaven Apple flowers from mid-December to mid-January, and is probably insect-pollinated (Benson & McDougall 1998). Flowering is generally poor and sporadic (TSSC 2008ap).
This species produces lignotubers (swellings at the bases of stems just under the soil surface). While this promotes vegetative growth following disturbance, it may suppress the production of fruits and seeds necessary for the recruitment of new individuals to a population (TSSC 2008ap; NSW OEH 2013k).
In response to fire, this species will resprout from the lignotuber, and from epicormic buds (Benson & McDougall 1998). Seedling establishment was observed at burnt sites, but not at unburnt sites (Tierney 2004).
Habitat loss and fragmentation
Habitat loss and fragmentation, resulting particularly from residential and industrial developments, as well as agricultural developments (NSW OEH 2013k).
Water table alteration
Changes to the water table and hydrological processes due to residential and industrial developments and mining subsidence (TSSC 2008ap; NSW OEH 2013k).
While individual plants are believed to sprout from lignotubers and, therefore, regenerate following fire, a very frequent fire regime may prevent recruitment of new individuals to the population. In addition, fire appears to postpone (not induce) flowering in this species, and consequently seed production is low or absent in seasons following fire (NSW OEH 2013k).
Habitat degradation is mostly caused by grazing and trampling by animals, illegal waste disposal and competition from grassy weeds, in particular Whisky Grass (Andropogon virginicus) (TSSC 2008k, NSW OEH 2008ab).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Angophora inopina in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bu) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora inopina (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ap) [Conservation Advice].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora inopina (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ap) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Andropogon virginicus (Whisky Grass, Broomsedge)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora inopina (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ap) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Angophora inopina in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bu) [Internet].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Angophora inopina in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006bu) [Internet].|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Species Stresses (suggest Reproductive Resilience?):Indirect Species Effects:Reduction of genetic intergrity of a species due to hybridisation|
Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1998). Ecology of Sydney plant species: Part 6 Dicotyledon family Myrtaceae. Cunninghamia. 5(4):809-987. Sydney: NSW Royal Botanic Gardens.
EPBC 2008/4419 (2008). Referral documentation-Residential Development, The Southern Estates -Gwandalan, Nords Wharf, Catherine Hill, Lake Maquarie, NSW. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/epbc/epbc_ap.pl?name=current_referral_detail&proposal_id=4419.
Gunninah Environmental Consultants (2000). Proposed upgrade of Pacific Highway at Karuah. Presentations report, additional investigations, western interchange route option - flora and fauna assessment report. Prepared for NSW Roads & Traffic Authority.
Harden, G.J. (ed.) (2000). Flora of New South Wales, Volume One. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Hill, K.D. (1997a). New species in Angophora and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) from New South Wales. Telopea. 7(2):97-109. Sydney, National Herbarium of New South Wales.
HWR Ecological (2002). Ecological assessment for proposed highway service centre north of Karuah. Report to GWH Building Pty Ltd.
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2013k). Charmhaven Apple - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspeciesapp/profile.aspx?id=10053.
NSW Scientific Committee (1998a). Angophora inopina (a tree) - vulnerable species listing. [Online]. NSW National Parks Wildlife Service, Hurstville NSW. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/determinations/AngophoraInopinaVulSpListing.htm.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008ap). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Angophora inopina. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64832-conservation-advice.pdf.
Tierney, D.A. (2004). Towards an understanding of population change for the long-lived resprouting tree Angophora inopina (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany. 52:31-38. CSIRO, Australia.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Angophora inopina in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 24 Sep 2014 07:03:57 +1000.