Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009br) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, the species occurs in disjunct populations across two states and therefore a specific program of actions needs to be coordinated across jurisdictional boundaries. The Alpine She-oak skink faces ongoing and potential threats of loss and degradation of habitat, wildfire, predation, weeds and habitat reduction due to climate change, combined with a restricted geographic distribution which is considered precarious for its survival (07/12/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzq) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (88) (07/12/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:New South Wales Murray Biodiversity Management Plan (Murray Catchment Management Authority (Murray CMA), 2012) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement for the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Clemann, N., 2003) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
Scientific name Cyclodomorphus praealtus [64721]
Family Scincidae:Squamata:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Shea, 1995
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Cyclodomorphus praealtus

Common name: Alpine She-oak Skink

Other common name: Alpine She-Oak Slender Bluetongue

The species is conventionally accepted as Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Shea 1995). Its previous scientific names include Tiliqua casuarinae and Cyclodomorphus casuarinae (TSSC 2009bq).

The Alpine She-oak Skink is a medium-sized scincid lizard with a snout vent length up to 126 mm (Clemann 2007, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq) with smooth, overlapping scales and four distinct but short limbs, each with five fingers or toes. The tail is relatively short compared to species from coastal areas (Green & Osborne 1994). Dorsal colouration is olive green to reddish-brown, with dark edges to scales that form broken, wavy stripes and occasionally irregular, narrow bands (Wilson & Swan 2008). The ventral surface is usually orange to reddish (TSSC 2009bq).

The Alpine She-oak Skink is endemic to NSW and Victoria. It is restricted to locations above 1500 m in the Australian Alps from Omeo Plain in the south to Kiandra in the north (Swan et al. 2004). It is located within the North East Victoria and Southern Rivers NSW Natural Resource Management Regions and the Australian Alps Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia Bioregion (TSSC 2009bq).

The maximum area of potential habitat for the Alpine She-oak Skink has been estimated to be no more than 440 km² (ERIN 2009), in sub-alpine and alpine grasslands above 1500 m in the Australian Alps from the Omeo Plain in the south, to Kiandra in the north (Swan et al. 2004), although much of this area is not considered suitable habitat for the species. The species has specific habitat requirements, occurring in alpine grasslands across its range, and in alpine heathland and alpine grassy heathland in Victoria. These habitats generally have a disjunct occurrence and are within a matrix of other alpine and sub-alpine habitats in which the Alpine She-oak Skink is not known to occur. Within some known locations of occurrence, the species' distribution is further fragmented by ski resort buildings and/or groomed ski slopes, roads and tracks. Given its narrow habitat requirements it has a limited capacity for dispersal. There are limited data with which to estimate the area of occupancy, however, due to the species' specific habitat requirements, it is probably less than 100 km² (TSSC 2009bq).

The species distribution is severely fragmented as all known populations are isolated. These sites are separated by distances that exceed the presumed dispersal capacity of the species. Koumoundouros (2008) suggests that the three Victorian populations should be considered a discrete Evolutionarily Significant Unit compared to the NSW population. Koumoundouros and colleagues (2009) further showed that each of the four known populations are limited to specific 'sky islands' and that there is no current inter-population gene flow.

Brief field surveys in recent years have targeted the Alpine She-oak Skink (Heinze 1997; Schulz et al. 1995; Schulz & Mansergh 1997). Placing metal plates on the ground to attract the species has been trialed as a survey and monitoring method (Heinze 1997; Schulz et al. 1995), however success has been limited (D. Heinze n.d., pers. comm., cited in Clemann 2003). The Atlas of Victorian Wildlife database has 29 records of the species collected between 1971 and 2003 (Clemann 2003).

There are insufficient data to determine historic or current population trends for the Alpine She-oak Skink. No reliable data are available with which to estimate the total population size. The Alpine She-oak Skink is known from approximately 10 populations in Victoria and NSW. Monitoring of the species in Victoria suggests that local abundance can be highly variable, with variations perhaps related to factors that have not yet been quantified, such as habitat quality, grazing and fire history, and predation pressure (TSSC 2009bq).

The Alpine She-oak Skink may have experienced a decline and this decline may continue due to current and potential threats. However, there are no quantitative data to confirm this (TSSC 2009bq).

In Victoria, the Alpine She-oak Skink has only been recorded from alpine tussock grasslands, alpine heathland and alpine grassy heathland, usually above the tree line, although it does occur in grassy areas of very sparse Snow Gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora). In NSW, the species has only been observed in tussock grassland within the Kosciuszko region (Hunter 2009, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq).

The species is not known to use heathlands, bogs, woodland and herbfields in the Kosciuszko region in NSW (Hunter 2009, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq). The species has not been observed in boulder fields or rocky outcrops despite considerable survey and research undertaken in Kosciuszko National Park (Hunter 2009, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq) and in Victorian alpine regions (Clemann 2008, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq). The Alpine She-oak Skink has a limited capacity for dispersal (Koumoundouros et al. 2009).

The topography in areas of known occurrence ranges from flat plains to rolling alpine hills and because of the cold climate, the species usually selects sunny aspects (TSSC 2009bq).

It is viviparous, producing up to five young per litter in late summer (Wells 2007). A study of preserved museum specimens (Shea 1995) recorded that pregnant females collected between early November and early March contained between two and nine embryos (TSSC 2009bq).

The diet of the Alpine She-oak Skink comprises mainly molluscs and arthropods, however small lizards and snakes, such as the White-lipped Snake (Drysdalia coronoides), are occasionally consumed (Clemann 2003; Shea 1988).

This species is predominantly diurnal, but may be active after dark on warm nights (Clemann 2003).

The main current threats to the Alpine She-oak Skink are loss and degradation of habitat, wildfire and predation. Climate change and weeds are potential threats. Construction of dams is a past threat.

Wildfire
Wildfire is a current threat with direct loss of individuals and habitat loss and further degradation of habitat through subsequent vegetation succession. The species is known to retract from areas that have recently been burnt (Hunter 2006, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq). Wildfire has the potential to eliminate the species if it occurs frequently enough (Green 2008, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq; Fitzgerald 2009, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq) and exacerbate habitat fragmentation (Fitzgerald 2009, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq).

Degradation of habitat
Historically, large tracts of habitat have been lost as alpine resort villages have been constructed and expanded. Construction of dams has destroyed habitat that was almost certainly occupied by the species. Concurrent development of infrastructure such as roads, tracks and ski runs have also destroyed and fragmented habitat. Development of ski runs may have a greater than expected effect on habitat for Alpine She-oak Skinks, as it is more favourable to build ski runs in large, continuous grassy areas that provide a uniform surface. These large grassy areas are the optimal habitat of the Alpine She-oak Skink. This loss of habitat has reduced the area of occupancy of this species and probably isolated some populations (TSSC 2009bq).

Various other activities have led to a degradation of the species' habitat, including grazing and trampling by cattle, feral horses, deer and pigs and grooming of ski runs. This degradation of habitat can extirpate the species from an area, or it can subdivide formerly continuous populations. The removal of grazing from alpine national parks has been beneficial to this species (TSSC 2009bq).

Predation
Predation by Rats (Rattus rattus), Foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Cats (Felis catus) and Wild Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) is a current threat. These exotic predators are now present in alpine areas. The impact of predation on the Alpine She-oak Skink has not been quantified, however, it is reasonable to assume that these predators have a negative influence on the species, including direct loss of individuals (TSSC 2009bq).

Weed invasion
A potential threat to the Alpine She-oak Skink is the invasion of Orange Hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum). Orange Hawkweed has invaded parts of Kosciuszko National Park, and has the capacity to spread and dominate in sub-alpine grassland areas (Williams & Holland 2007). If not effectively controlled, this invasive weed has the capacity to greatly reduce the extent of suitable habitat for the Alpine She-oak Skink in Kosciuszko National Park (Hunter 2009, pers. comm., cited in TSSC 2009bq).

Climate change
Species in alpine areas are especially adapted to a limited suite of climatic conditions, and fauna, such as the Alpine She-oak Skink, depend upon specific vegetation structure. Changes to climate, and vegetation change as a response to climate change, are likely to have a distinct and negative impact on alpine biota, including the Alpine She-oak Skink (TSSC 2009bq).

Changes in vegetation structure, as a response to climate change, will include upslope migration of shrubs and heaths currently found at lower elevations, consequently overtaking tussock grassland which the species depends on. Furthermore, as it already occurs on an alpine plateau, this species will have little scope for upslope migration in response to a warming climate. It is suspected that upslope migration of tussock grasslands will not occur or not be at a rate fast enough to provide habitat for the Alpine She-oak Skink at higher altitudes, due to nutrient poor skeletal soils which are not be able to support vegetation such as tussock grasses. Any impacts of climate change on the Alpine She-oak Skink will affect this species across its geographic range (TSSC 2009bq).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan Decision
A recovery plan for the Alpine She-oak Skink is considered necessary as the species occurs in disjunct populations across two states and therefore a specific program of actions needs to be coordinated across jurisdictional boundaries. The Alpine She-oak Skink faces ongoing and potential threats of loss and degradation of habitat, wildfire, predation, weeds and habitat reduction due to climate change, combined with a restricted geographic distribution which is considered precarious for its survival.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (TSSC 2009br) outlines the following research priorities:

  • Design and implement a monitoring program to determine population size and fluctuations or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
  • Conduct surveys to more precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
  • Undertake further research on the species' biology; specifically breeding information, breeding habitat and natural mortality.
  • Determine whether a captive breeding program to establish captive founder populations would be appropriate.
  • Quantitatively assess known or suspected threats (such as construction of roads and tracks, slashing of ski runs, etc.), relative to the amount of remaining habitat.

In addition, the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (TSSC 2009br) outlines the following priority actions:

  • Survey known habitats to identify key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Ensure infrastructure or development activities involving substrate or vegetation disturbance in areas where the Alpine She-oak Skink occurs do not adversely impact on known populations.
  • Protect populations of the species through the development of conservation agreements and/or covenants.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control of weeds within the species range, in particular Orange Hawkweed.
  • Develop and implement a stock management plan for the area in which the Alpine She-oak Skink occurs.
  • Where appropriate, manage total grazing pressure at important/significant sites through exclusion fencing or other barriers.
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of Feral Horses (Equus caballus), Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), Fallow Deer (Dama dama), Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolour) and Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the region. Implement the Kosciuszko National Park Final Horse Management Plan (NSW DECC 2008g).
  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control and eradication of Black Rats, Foxes, Cats and Wild Dogs in the region. Implement the NSW threat abatement plan - Predation by the red fox (NSW NPWS 2001). Implement the Wild Dog Policy (NSW DEC 2005d). Implement the Commonwealth threat abatement plan - Predation by European red fox (DEWHA 2008adf). Implement the Commonwealth threat abatement plan - Predation by feral cats (DEWHA 2008adg).
  • Where appropriate provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or operation maps.
  • Raise awareness of the Alpine She-oak Skink within the local community.
  • Frequently engage with private landholders and land managers responsible for the land on which populations occur, particularly alpine resorts, and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.

The Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement for the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Clemann 2003) outlines the following research and survey actions:

  • Conduct surveys to accurately determine the species' distribution and habitat requirements within the Alpine National Park and adjacent alpine resorts. These surveys should extend beyond the known limits of the distribution of the species.
  • Develop best practise survey and monitoring techniques for the Alpine She-oak Skink. In areas where rock-rolling cannot be conducted (i.e., no rocks exist), pit-fall trapping should be trialled.
  • Estimate the size of populations within the three broad localities from which the species has been recorded.
  • Develop and implement a program to monitor population fluctuations. After the distribution and abundance of the species has been determined, monitoring should be conducted each year.
  • Assess the impact on the species of predation by exotic predators such as Cats and Foxes. This may be achieved through the analysis of predator scats and stomach contents.
  • Investigate further the impact of cattle and Wild Horse grazing and trampling on the habitat of the species.
  • Investigate the ecological relationships between the Alpine She-oak Skink, its dietary items and fire, preferably in conjunction with a broader investigation of fire ecology, and the species' response to habitat succession following fire.

In addition, the Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement for the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Clemann 2003) outlines the following site management and habitat protection recommendations:

  • Manage areas within the Alpine National Park where the Alpine She-oak Skink occurs for protection of the species' habitat. Identify such areas within the Alpine National Park Management Plan.
  • If the species is found to occur in State forest, sites will be protected by appropriate zoning and prescriptions.
  • Control fire around the areas within which the species has been recorded. No fuel reduction or habitat management burns should occur until the effects of these activities on the Alpine She-oak Skink are known.
  • Avoid track works, ski run development, construction activities and any other forms of ground layer disturbance around known Alpine She-oak Skink habitat. In particular, slashing of native vegetation for ski trails should cease in the vicinity of areas known to contain the species.
  • Where the impact of trampling by cattle and/or Wild Horses is found to be affecting populations of Alpine She-oak Skink, implement actions, in liaison with affected parties (e.g., cattle graziers), to mitigate this impact. Such actions may include fencing of habitat, lowering of cattle stocking rates, or encouraging graziers to ensure that stock avoid the habitat of the species.

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (TSSC 2009br) and the Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement for the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Clemann 2003) provide brief biological overviews and management recommendations.

In addition, the following management documents are available:

  • The Kosciuszko National Park Final Horse Management Plan (NSW DECC 2008g)
  • The Predation by the Red Fox Threat Abatement Plan (NSW NPWS 2001)
  • The Wild Dog Policy (NSW DEC 2005d)
  • The Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (AGDEH 2005p)
  • The Threat Abatement Plan for predation by the European red fox (DEWHA 2008adf)
  • The Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (DEWHA 2008adg).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hieracium aurantiacum (Orange Hawkweed, Hawkweed) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Commercial and Industrial Areas:Recreational, commercial and industrial development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009bq) [Listing Advice].

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005p). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig.html.

Clemann, N. (2003). Flora & Fauna Guarantee Action Statement for the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus. [Online]. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/1C1EF1BCEA4A1722CA2570ED0004F245/$File/113+Alpine+She-oak+Skink+2001.pdf. [Accessed: 08-Oct-2009].

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzp). Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/cats08.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008zzq). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/foxes08.html.

Environmental Resources Information Network (ERIN) (2009). Mapping data. Canberra, ACT: Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.

Green, K. & W. Osborne (1994). Wildlife of the Australian Snow Country. NSW: Reed Books.

Heinze, D. (1997). Notes on a new survey technique in locating the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus in the Mount Hotham area, Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 114 (4):176-177.

Koumoundouros T., J. Sumner, N. Clemann & D. Stuart-Fox (2009). Current genetic isolation and fragmentation contrasts with historical connectivity in an alpine lizard (Cyclodomorphus praealtus) threatened by climate change. Biological Conservation. 142:992-1002.

Koumoundouros, T. (2008). Population genetics of Cyclodomorphus praealtus. Hons. Thesis. Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne.

New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2001). Predation by the Red Fox Threat Abatement Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/RedfoxApproved.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2008g). Kosciuszko National Park Final Horse Management Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/KNPHorseManagementPlanFinal08.pdf. [Accessed: 08-Oct-2009].

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005d). Wild Dog Policy. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/pestsweeds/WildDogPolicy.pdf. [Accessed: 08-Oct-2009].

Schulz, M. & I. Mansergh (1997). New location for the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus in Victoria. Victorian Naturalist. 114 (4):178-179.

Schulz, M., J. Alexander & I. Mansergh (1995). Notes on the Alpine She-oak Skink Cyclodomorphus praealtus in the Mt Hotham area, alpine Victoria with a description of a potential new survey technique. Victorian Naturalist. 112 (5):219-220.

Shea, G. (1995). A taxonomic revision of the Cyclodomorphus cauarinae complex (Squamata: Scincidae). Records of the Australian Museum. 47:83-115.

Shea, G.M. (1988). On the diet of the She-oak Skink, Cyclodomorphus casuarinae. Herpetofauna. 18 (1):7-8.

Swan, G., G. Shea & R. Sadlier (2004). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of New South Wales. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009bq). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64721-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009br). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Cyclodomorphus praealtus (Alpine She-oak Skink). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64721-conservation-advice.pdf.

Well, R.W (2007). Some Taxonomic and Nomenclatural Considerations on the Class Reptilia in Australia. The genus Cyclodomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 with a New Interpretation of the Cyclodomorphus branchialis species-group. Australian Biodiversity Record. 4.

Williams, N.S.G. & K.D. Holland (2007). The ecology and invasion of hawkweeds (Hieracium species) in Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly. 22(2):76-80.

Wilson, S. & G. Swan (2008). Reptiles of Australia. 2nd Edition. New Jersey, USA: Princeton Field Guides.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Cyclodomorphus praealtus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 04:16:09 +1000.