In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Drakaea isolata|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aci) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea isolata.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom. inval..
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (101) (12/04/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010j) [Legislative Instrument] as Drakaea isolata.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Drakaea isolata |
|Species author||Hopper & A.P.Br.|
|Reference||Hopper, S.D. & Brown, A.P. (2007) A revision of Australia's hammer orchids (Drakaea: Orchidaceae), with some field data on species-specific sexually deceived wasp pollinators. Australian Systematic Botany 20: 273-275, Figs 3, 19, 20 [tax. nov.]|
Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom. inval. 
Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown ms. 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Drakaea isolata
Common name: Lonely Hammer-orchid
The Lonely Hammer-orchid has a prostrate leaf and a thin flower stalk up to 30 cm high. Its characteristic leaf is single, dull green, heart-shaped, shortly hairy and 1–2 cm in diameter. Flowers are single, 2–3 cm long and 3–4 mm wide with a prominent labellum with distinctive warts and trichomes (hairs) (Brundrett 2011b).
The Lonely Hammer-orchid is known from one location near Lake Chinocup near Pingrup in the southern Wheatbelt, Western Australia. The population occurs in Chinocup Nature Reserve, unallocated Crown land and a road reserve over a total area of 10 ha (Brundrett 2011b; Phillimore et al. 2000).
The Lonely Hammer-orchid consists of 300 mature individuals at a single location in groups of 1–50 leaves (Brundrett 2011b). Fifty percent of plants occur in six main clumps. Of five clumps, where photo monitoring has been undertaken (in 2003, 2004 and 2007), three sites had abundance increases and two had declines (Brundrett 2011b). Surveys of the population are listed below (Brundrett 2011b):
|Year||Total plants||Flowering plants|
The Lonely Hammer-orchid grows with the Broad-billed Duck Orchid (Paracaleana triens), Red Beaks (Pyrorchis nigricans) and Shirt Orchid (Thelymitra campanulata) among low shrubs and Mallee eucalypts in patches of bare white, sandy clay soil on a slight rise above a large salt lake (Brown et al. 1998; Hoffman & Brown 1992).
The Lonely Hammer-orchid flowers in September to early October (Brown et al. 1998). Pollination rates can be high, but only limited amounts of seed are produced. The primary means of reproduction is clonal division (Brundrett 2011b).
The Lonely Hammer-orchid is similar to the Late Hammer-orchid (Drakaea confluens), but the former has smaller flowers that are generally more uniform in colour and an earlier flowering period (Hoffman & Brown 1998).
The Lonely Hammer-orchid is threatened by road and track maintenance, airborne dust, changes to hypersaline groundwater hydrology and inappropriate fire regimes (Phillimore et al. 2000). Grazing affects flowers, but rarely the leaf (Brundrett 2011b).
The Wheatbelt Orchid Rescue project is a Lowtterywest funded collaboration between Western Australia Native Orchid Study and Conservation Group, School of Plant Biology University of Western Australia, the Friends of Kings Park and the Department of Environment and Conservation (Brundrett 2011b). The project aims to conserve the rarest orchids in the wheatbelt through surveying and monitoring to contribute to site management prescriptions (Brundrett 2011b).
This project has implemented recommendations identified in the Ballerina orchid (Caladenia melanema) Interim Recovery Plan (Phillimore et al. 2000). Actions that have been implemented include intensive surveys of the core habitat zone, and photographs and GPS recording of all plants in 2007 (Brundrett 2011b). Future recovery actions, in addition to the existing recovery plan (Phillimore et al. 2000), should include (Brundrett 2011b):
- standardised photo monitoring
- translocation of plants to a site with low salinity risk
- fencing of clumps.
Management documents relevant to the Lonely Hammer-orchid are at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom. inval. in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ht) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aci) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aci) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom.inval. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aci) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Drakaea isolata Hopper & A.P.Brown nom. inval. in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ht) [Internet].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Brundrett, M. (2011b). Population Size and Vital Statistics Data for the Lonely Hammer Orchid (Drakaea isolata). Wheatbelt Orchid Rescue Project Final Report 5. University of Western Australia.
Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1992). Orchids of South-west Australia 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.
Hoffman, N. & A. Brown (1998). Orchids of South-west Australia Rev. 2nd edn. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press.
Phillimore, R., G. Stack & A. Brown (2000). Lonely Hammer orchid (Drakaea isolata MS) Interim Recovery Plan 2000-2003. [Online]. Interim Recovery Plan. No. 81. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/flora/dra_iso_irp81.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Drakaea isolata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 11 Jul 2014 21:49:59 +1000.