In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macrozamia plurinervia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ry) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Macrozamia machinii |
|Species author||P.I.Forst. & D.L.Jones|
|Reference||Jones, D.L. & Forster, P.I., (1994) Seven new species of Macrozamia section Parazamia (Miq.) Miq. (Zamiaceae section Parazamia) from Queensland. Austrobaileya 4(2): 276-278, figs 4, 8A, 9A, 10C. [tax. nov.]).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Hill (1998) included Macrozamia machinii with M. plurinervia, which occurs between Inverell and Tenterfield in northern New South Wales. The Queensland Herbarium does not accept this synonymy (Queensland Herbarium 2013) and, for the purpose of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, M. machinii is treated as endemic to Queensland. Sharma and colleagues (2004) showed that although species in the M. plurinervia group are closely related, morphological characters reinforce the separation of M. machinii.
The distribution of Macrozamia machinii and M. plurinervia do not overlap and they grow in different habitats, with M. plurinervia occurring in hilly country with large granite outcrops prominent and gravelly loam soil, whereas M. machinii grows in flat plains and breakaways on deep sandy soils (Jones & Forster 1994). Also, M. machinii has thicker leaflets that are dull green on both surfaces (grey-green to glaucous in M. plurinervia), smaller cones and smaller, oblong to ovoid seeds (broadly ovoid to oblong ellipsoid in M. plurinervia) (Jones & Forster 1994).
Macrozamia machinii occurs on the Darling Downs in Queensland between Texas and Wondul Range National Park (ALA 2013). When described, there were eight populations near Inglewood (Jones & Forster 1994). Three of the sites are in state forests, while the remaining sites are on leasehold land (Qld DNR 2000).
Most Macrozamia machinii populations occur in deep sandy soils in flat areas of open forest dominated by Angophora leiocarpa, Allocasuarina inophloa, White Cypress-pine (Callitris glaucophylla), Budgeroo (Lysicarpus angustifolius) and Crowded-leaf Wattle (Acacia conferta) (Jones & Forster 1994; Hill 1999a). However, one population occurs on a red lateritic ridge with Black Cypress-pine (Callitris endlicheri), Tumbledown Ironbark (Eucalyptus panda) and Western Yellow Stringybark (E. apothalassica). The species is found at 320-460 m above sea level (Jones & Forster 1994).
Macrozamia machinii cones mature in September to December and seeds ripen February to April (Jones & Forster 1994). Beetles are thought to effect cross-pollination between individuals (Qld DNR 2000). Populations show little obvious recruitment, perhaps because the putative pollinators are not present (Forster 2004b).
Fires in some populations between July and September have often been followed by massive cone and seed production two years later (Forster 2004b).
Possible threatening processes to Macrozamia machinii include (Qld DNR 2000):
- inappropriate legal collection
- illegal collection (seedlings and mature plants) for horticulture
- disturbance of habitat (by timber harvesting)
- destruction of habitat (by clearing)
- inappropriate fire regimes
- deliberate killing by poisoning (it's targeted because leaves and fruit are poisonous to domestic stock if ingested).
Macrozamia spp. in the Darling Downs is likely to contract and move upslope as a result of climate change (Laidlaw & Forster 2012). Habitat fragmentation and the species restriction to smaller refugia in this area limits the potential for natural migration in response to climate changes (Laidlaw & Forster 2012).
In 1999, 67 mature individuals (mostly female) were illegally removed from the type locality on crown land (Forster 2004b).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Macrozamia machinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oc) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macrozamia plurinervia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ry) [Conservation Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest||Macrozamia machinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oc) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection||Macrozamia machinii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006oc) [Internet].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macrozamia plurinervia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ry) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macrozamia plurinervia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ry) [Conservation Advice].|
Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) (2013). Atlas of Living Australia. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ala.org.au/.
Forster, P.I. (2004b). The cycads of Queensland - diversity and conservation. Palms and Cycads. 82:4-28.
Hill, K.D. (1998a). Cycadophyta. In: Flora of Australia. 48:597-661. Melbourne: CSIRO.
Hill, K.D. (1999a). New discoveries in the Australian cycads. In: Chen, C.J., ed. Biology and Conservation of Cycads - Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cycad Biology. Page(s) 75-86. Beijing, International Academic Publishers.
Jones, D.L. & Forster, P.I. (1994). Seven new species of Macrozamia section Parazamia (Miq.) Miq. (Zamiaceae section Parazamia) from Queensland. Austrobaileya. 4(2):269-288.
Laidlaw, M.J. & P.I. Forster (2012). Climate Predictions Accelerate Decline for Threatened Macrozamia Cycads from Queensland, Australia. Biology. 1(3):880-94.
Queensland Department of Natural Resources (Qld DNR) (2000). Species Management Manual. Forest and Fauna Conservation and Ecology Section, Queensland Department of Natural Resouces.
Queensland Herbarium (2013). Census of the Queensland Flora 2013. [Online]. Queensland Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts: Brisbane. https://data.qld.gov.au/dataset/census-of-the-queensland-flora-2013.
Sharma, I.K., D.L. Jones & P.I. Forster (2004). Genetic differentiation and phenetic relatedness among seven species of the Macrozamia plurinervia complex (Zamiaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 32(3):313-27.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008ry). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Macrozamia plurinervia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/55409-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macrozamia machinii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:53:26 +1000.