Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Grevillea elongata
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan] as Grevillea elongata.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea elongata.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea elongata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Grevillea elongata
Scientific name Grevillea elongata [64578]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author P.M.Olde & N.R.Marriott
Infraspecies author  
Reference The Grevillea Book 1 (1994) 175.
Other names Grevillea elongata P.Olde ms. [67413]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of Ironstone Grevillea, Grevillea elongata, under Australian and State/Territory Government legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 as Declared Rare Flora in 1996 and ranked as Endangered.

Scientific name: Grevillea elongata

Common name: Ironstone Grevillea

The Ironstone Grevillea is a tall upright shrub which grows to 2 m high by 2.5 m wide. It has white to cream flowers in October (Makinson 2000b; Olde & Marriott 1995; Phillimore et al. 1999) and grows on gravelly clay, sandy clay, and sand on road verges, swamps and creek banks (Western Australian Herbarium 2007).

The Ironstone Grevillea is restricted to the Ruabon-Busselton area of Western Australia, in the Whicher Range (Brown et al. 1998; Olde & Marriott 1995; Phillimore et al. 1999), approximately 200 km south southwest of Perth.

It occurs in the South West Natural Resource Management Region.

The extent of occurrence is calculated to be 22.06 km². The extent of occurrence was calculated by drawing a boundary around all the known subpopulations to create a polygon. The computer program Arcview GIS and a dataset taken from the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conversation's (DEC) Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area of the polygon. There is no data to indicate a decline or future change in extent of occurrence of this restricted species, however the species is restricted to ironstone soils which have a very restricted distribution, as 90% have been cleared (DEC 2007a).

The area of occupancy of this species is approximately 1 374 966.6 m² or 1.37 km². This has been estimated from field monitoring of the 12 subpopulations for which area of occupancy has been recorded. For the seven subpopulations for which area of occupancy was not recorded, an average was used (DEC 2007a). There is no data to indicate a past or future decline in the area of occupancy, however, the species is confined to ironstone soils which have a very restricted distribution, as 90% have been cleared (DEC 2007a).

The Ironstone Grevillea is known from eight locations (DEC 2007a).

There are no translocated populations (DEC 2007a).

Species distribution is highly restricted (DEC 2007a). However, there is an outlier subpopulation, which if confirmed may suggest that the distribution has been fragmented.

The first collection of Ironstone Grevillea, housed at the Western Australian Herbarium, was made in 1950 by R. Royce.

Subpopulation 8 is currently known only from a Herbarium specimen collected on 22 September 1983. The specimen was determined (in September 1999) by P.M. Olde who formally described this species. The location is not described exactly and only approximate geographical coordinates are given. A targeted survey to relocate the species at this location has been proposed under the current Interim Recovery Plan (Stack & English 2003d).

In 1999, extensive survey work was undertaken by the Central Forest Threatened Flora and Communities Team and as a result the Ironstone Grevillea was downlisted, in Western Australia, from Critically Endangered to Endangered (DEC 2007a).

The known subpopulations have been surveyed opportunistically by DEC staff (DEC 2007a).


Subpopulation Survey History Number of Plants Recorded Area
1a 16/10/1995

27/06/1997
200

100
200 000m² (includes 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e)
1b 16/10/1995
27/06/1997
200
Not recorded
See 1a
Not recorded
1c 16/10/1995
23/10/1997
160
100s (includes 1d)
See 1a
Not recorded
1d 16/10/1995
23/10/1997
160
see 1c
See 1a
Not recorded
1e 16/10/1995
02/01/1998
19/08/1999
18/02/2003
100
100
100
100s
See 1a
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
2a 19/10/1995

27/06/1997
22/04/2004
100+ (includes 2b)

100 (includes 2b)
350+ (includes 2b)
15 0000m² (includes 2b)
Not recorded
Not recorded
2b 19/10/1995
27/06/1997
22/04/2004
See 2a
includes 2a
see 2a
See 2a
Not recorded
Not recorded
2c 27/06/1997 100 Not recorded
3a 16/12/1994
19/10/1995
29/08/1997
15/05/1998
09/05/2001
10/01/2002
30
40
60 (includes 3b)
60
50+ (includes 3b)
40+ (includes 3b)
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3b 19/10/1995
29/08/1997
09/05/2001
10/01/2002
40
see 3a
see 3a
see 3a
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
3c 15/02/2002 20 30 000m²
4 29/08/1997
08/07/1996
08/07/1997
44
44
44
Not recorded
450m²
Not recorded
5 27/06/1997
10/09/1997
100s
3
Not recorded
Not recorded
6a 10/11/1997
27/05/1999
02/08/1999
02/08/2000
13/11/2001
3
7
11
16
400+ (includes 6b, 6c)
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
17 000m² (includes 6b, 6c)
6b 21/11/1997
01/01/1998
02/08/1999
03/08/1999
13/11/2001
160
160
97
97
see 6a
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
See 6a
6c 03/02/1998
02/08/1999
03/08/1999
13/11/2001
40
25
25
see 6a
Not recorded
Not recorded
Not recorded
See 6a
7a   Not recorded Not recorded
7b   Not recorded Not recorded
8 22/09/1983 Not recorded Not recorded
(DEC 2007a)

The total population size for this species is estimated to be approximately 1 257 mature plants. This is an estimated count from the most recent population monitoring (DEC 2007a).

The species is known from eight locations, some of which have been split into subpopulations. Subpopulation distinctions are based upon differences in land tenure and management, as well as location.

The population trend for the entire species appears to be stable.

The species is a disturbance specialist, so it is likely that plants appear after a disturbance event and then wane in response to competition for nutrients and other resources (DEC 2007a).


No cross-breeding has been recorded for this species (DEC 2007a).

Subpopulations 1a, 7a, 7b and 8 are located in nature reserves which are managed for the conservation of flora and fauna. Only subpopulation 7a and 7b are managed specifically for Ironstone Grevillea. The remaining subpopulations are located on either shire road reserves, rail reserve, state forest, unvested drainage reserves or private property (DEC 2007a).

This species is found on poorly drained soils ranging from red brown loam sand or gravelly clay over ironstone, through to light brown sandy clay or grey sand. It occurs in scrubby heath often beside creeks, with Corymbia calophylla, Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea, Calothamnus aff. quadrifidus, Viminea juncea and Pericalymma ellipticum.

The Ironstone Grevillea is confined to an area of seasonally wet flat, red brown loam sand over ironstone habitat, of which 90% has been cleared (Brown et al. 1998; Olde & Marriott 1995; Phillimore et al. 1999). This habitat was probably originally highly restricted and has been depleted by land clearing (Williams et al. 2001).

It is restricted to the Ruabon-Busselton area. The climate for this area is characterised by cold and wet winters, with an annual rainfall of 800-1 000 mm. The summers are cool to warm and dry (Olde & Marriott 1995).

Subpopulation 1 is located within the 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' Threatened Ecological Community (TEC) which is Critically Endangered in Western Australia, and Endangered under the EPBC Act (Stack & English 2003d).

This species also occurs with Petrophile latericola and Grevillea maccutcheonii (both listed as Critically Endangered in Western Australia and as Endangered under the EPBC Act (Stack & English 2003d)). It is also associated with EPBC Act listed Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa (Endangered) (DEC 2007a).

Subpopulations 2a and 2b occur with EPBC Act listed Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea (Vulnerable) and Chamelaucium roycei ms (Vulnerable) (DEC 2007a).

Very little is known about the biology of the species. Seed is probably dehisced (split open) soon after maturity; this is typical for grevilleas. Longevity of the seed is unknown, as is the plant's life span. The Ironstone Grevillea regenerates from seed after fire (Olde & Marriott 1995; Stack & English 2003d).

Ironstone Grevillea seedlings have germinated within a second rotation on a pine plantation (Population 6), but it does not occur on the fire breaks. Subpopulations 6b and 6c occur adjacent to native bushland, however, only three plants have germinated within the bush area, and these occur along the track edge of the pine plantation. It appears therefore, that the species responds well to substantial soil disturbance and that seed is long lived (Stack & English 2003d).

The Ironstone Grevillea flowers from October to December and regenerates from seed after fire. Many small beetles have been seen on the flowers and the species is believed to be insect-pollinated (Makinson 2000b; Olde & Marriott 1995).

This species has a distinctively long unit conflorescence (group of two or more arrangements of flowers) 2-5.5 cm long (equalled among related species only occasionally, notably in G. xiphoidea which has more loosely revolute leaf margins, smaller floral bracts less than or equal to 1 mm, and smooth fruits). The Ironstone Grevillea also has larger floral bracts and shorter pedicels than any similar or closely related species (bracts 2.8-3.4 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, glabrous except for ciliate margins, persistent almost to anthesis; pedicels 2.2-3.2 mm long) (Makinson 2000b). It was once thought to be a form of kerosene bush (G. paniculata) which has leaves channeled on the upper surface, smaller floral bracts (1 mm long), a globose conflorescence with shorter floral rachis (5 mm long), longer pedicels and deeply wrinkled fruits (Olde & Marriott 1995).

The Ironstone Grevillea is best surveyed during its flowering period from September to November (Stack & English 2003d), however it is readily identifiable when not flowering (DEC 2007a).

The main threats to the Ironstone Grevillea are weed competition, fire, road, rail and firebreak maintenance activities, disease, pine plantation activities, mining, grazing and chemical drift (Stack & English 2003d).

In the past, land clearing may have been a threat to this species throughout its range, although this may not be so for the current locations.

The following table is a summary of the current condition and the state of the threats affecting each of the subpopulations:


Subpopulation Number Current Condition Past Present Potential future
1a   Road maintenance activities Weed competition Road maintenance activities
1b     Weed competition Railway maintenance activities
1c     Weed competition  
1d     Weed competition  
1e Healthy Powerline construction Weed competition, grazing (rabbits on seedlings)  
2a Healthy Fire Weed competition, poor regeneration as a result of lack of fire Road maintenance activities
2b Healthy   Weed competition, poor regeneration as a result of lack of fire Railway maintenance activities
2c     Weed competition  
2d     Weed competition Railway maintenance activities
3a Healthy   Weed competition Road maintenance activities
3b Healthy   Weed competition Drain maintenance activities
3c Healthy      
4     Weed competition Road maintenance activities
5 Poor   Lack of regeneration, weed competition (grasses), light grazing  
6a Moderate-poor     Road maintenance activities
6b Moderate-poor   Competition with pines Plantation activities
6c Moderate-poor   Competition with pines Plantation activities
7a Moderate-poor   Weed competition, grazing, disease (PC present)  
7b Healthy   Weed competition, grazing, disease (PC present)  
8        
(DEC 2007a)

Weed competition is a serious threat to Subpopulations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Subpopulations 3 and 4 are very narrow linear subpopulations immediately adjacent to cleared paddocks, and are already badly weed infested. They are threatened by both grasses and broadleaved weeds. Subpopulation 2 is a broader linear subpopulation, invaded mostly by Watsonia, with fewer grasses. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the easy ignition of high fuel loads, which are produced annually by many grass weed species (DEC 2007a).

Fire could adversely affect the viability of all subpopulations, as seeds of the Ironstone Grevillea probably germinate following fire. If this is the case, the soil seed bank would rapidly be depleted if fires recurred before regenerating or juvenile plants reached maturity and replenished the soil seed bank. However, it is likely that occasional fires are needed for reproduction of this species (DEC 2007a).

Road, rail and firebreak maintenance activities threaten plants and habitat at all road verge and rail reserve subpopulations of the Ironstone Grevillea. These include actions such as grading the road verge, constructing drainage channels and mowing the roadside vegetation to improve visibility. These disturbance events also often encourage weed invasion (DEC 2007a).

Dieback disease is a moderate threat to all subpopulations. Phytophthora cinnamomi causes the roots of infected plants to rot and results in death through drought stress. Ironstone Grevillea has proved positive to infection from Phytophthora cinnamoni (dieback) in the field, but is not susceptible under laboratory conditions. It may be able to resist the disease when healthy but succumbs when under stress in the field (Phillimore et al. 1999). Subpopulations 6a, b and c occur in harsh environments within a pine plantation and on seasonally waterlogged ironstone soils, and most of the habitat is severely affected by dieback disease. However, the Ironstone Grevillea appears to respond well to other forms of significant soil disturbance (DEC 2007a; Williams et al. 2001).

Plantation activities impact on subpopulation 6b and 6c. Activities that may threaten this subpopulation include fertiliser application, firebreak maintenance, tree harvesting and site preparation. In addition, competition for light, soil moisture and growing space will increase as the pine plantation matures (DEC 2007a).

Habitat loss and degradation caused by mining is not currently a direct threat to subpopulations of the Ironstone Grevillea. However, minerals sands exploration and activity continues to occur in the region and may pose risk to subpopulations in the future. Subpopulations 1c and 1d occur on private property owned by a mining company, however, the subpopulations are currently managed for conservation (DEC 2007a).

Grazing by rabbits, kangaroos or stock has impacted on many Ironstone Grevillea subpopulations. In addition to grazing, rabbits also impact on subpopulations by encouraging invasion of weeds through soil digging, addition of nutrients to soil, and introduction of weed seeds. The high level of palatable weeds near these subpopulations attracts herbivorous animals, which are often unselective in their grazing (DEC 2007a).

Chemical drift from herbicide and fertiliser applications from nearby farmland may affect the species' growth and survival (Stack & English 2003d).

The Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM, now DEC) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 (Stack & English 2003d) describes the following existing and proposed recovery actions:

Existing recovery actions

Busselton Shire and Westrail have been notified about subpopulations of the Ironstone Grevillea that occur on lands that they manage, and adjacent landowners have also been informed of the locations of the subpopulations. These notifications detailed the Declared Rare status of the species and the associated legal obligations (Stack & English 2003d).

Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at all road and rail reserve subpopulations, and subpopulation 6 in the pine plantation. The markers alert people working in the vicinity to the presence of DRF, and the need to avoid work that may damage vegetation in the area. Awareness of the significance of these markers is being promoted to relevant bodies such as Shires, Main Roads WA (MRWA) and Westrail. To this end, posters, dashboard stickers and can holders have been produced and distributed. These illustrate DRF markers and inform of their purpose. The location of subpopulation 6 has also been incorporated onto plantation maps by the Forest Products Commission (Stack & English 2003d).

Subpopulation 7a was fenced in 1996 and the site purchased in 1999. This property also contains another Critically Endangered plant (in Western Australia), Grevillea maccutcheonii. An additional area of approximately 25 hectares was purchased by the Department with assistance from Environment Australia in 1999. This fenced area contains subpopulation 1e of Ironstone Grevillea as well as an occurrence of the 'Southern Ironstone' community (Stack & English 2003d).

Approximately 1 800 seeds have been collected and stored in the Department's Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC). The TFSC tests the viability of the seed initially, after one year in storage and again after five years. The initial germination rate ranged from 50% to 85%, and after one year in storage was 36% (A. Cochrane unpublished data as cited in Stack & English 2003d). The germinants produced through viability testing have been provided to the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) for propagation (Stack & English 2003d).

The BGPA currently have 40 plants of Ironstone Grevillea from four clones, three of which were from seedling stock. The species generally does acceptably well from cuttings, with strike rates ranging from 33% to 73% (A. Shade pers comm. as cited in Stack & English 2003d).

Weed control research has been conducted at subpopulation 2 by the Department's Science Division. Two experimental treatments were examined; weed control in isolation, and weed control combined with disturbance (Stack & English 2003d).

Control of Bridal Creeper, a noxious weed, was undertaken near subpopulation 3 in 1998 (Stack & English 2003d).

Subpopulations 1a to 1e, 2a to 2d and 7a have previously been sprayed with phosphite to combat Phytophthora infection. Treatment is likely to be continued on a biannual basis (Stack & English 2003d).

The removal of pine trees to a distance of 10 m around the perimeter of subpopulations 6a and 6b commenced in 1999, reducing the competition for soil nutrients, water and sunlight. The subpopulations were then treated with phosphate to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. Monitoring suggests that this is already having a positive effect in the areas cleared (Stack & English 2003d).

A fire response strategy has been prepared and incorporated into the Blackwood District's Fire Control Working Plan (Stack & English 2003d).

Staff from the Department's Blackwood District regularly monitor all subpopulations of this species (Stack & English 2003d).

Future recovery actions

The following future recovery actions for the Ironstone Grevillea as stated in the Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack & English 2003d) will be monitored by the Western Australian DEC through the South West Region Threatened Flora Recovery Team (SWRTFRT).

Coordination
The SWRTFRT will coordinate recovery actions for the Ironstone Grevillea and other Declared Rare flora in the region.

Map critical habitat
It is a requirement of the EPBC Act that spatial data relating to critical habitat be determined. The areas described have not yet been mapped and that will be done under this action. If any additional subpopulations are located, then critical habitat will also be determined and mapped for these locations.

Undertake weed control
Weeds are a serious threat to subpopulations 1, 2, 3 and 4, which are located on road, rail and drain reserves; subpopulation 5, located on private land, and subpopulation 1e which is on recently purchased land. Control will be by hand weeding or localised application of herbicide during the appropriate season to minimise the effect of herbicide on the species and the surrounding native vegetation. All applications of weed control will be followed by a report on the method, timing and success of the treatment, and the effect on Ironstone Grevillea and associated native plant species.

Implement fire response strategy
Fire appears to kill adult plants of the species and regeneration is likely to be largely from seed. Frequent fire may prevent the accumulation of sufficient soil stored seed to allow regeneration of the subpopulations. Fire should therefore be prevented from occurring in the area of subpopulations, except where it is being used experimentally as a recovery tool. A fire response strategy has been developed for this species, and incorporated into the Blackwood District's Fire Control Working Plan. Other fire fighting agencies will be informed of appropriate responses to fire threatening these sites. Firebreaks will continue to be maintained.

Cull pines
Subpopulation 6 occurs within a Pinus radiata plantation that was established in 1993. Many of the plants are experiencing stress or death possibly as a result of competition with the pines. Phytophthora cinnamomi has also been positively identified at subpopulations 6a and 6b. These subpopulations are at risk from further plantation activities including fertiliser application, thinning and harvesting. Pines up to a distance of 10 metres surrounding each subpopulation will be culled to reduce competition with Ironstone Grevillea plants. Regeneration will be monitored.

Maintain disease hygiene
Dieback hygiene will be practiced for activities such as installation and maintenance of firebreaks and walking into the subpopulations in wet soil conditions. The impact and spread of the disease will also be monitored and the need for disease control assessed.

Continue Phytophthora control
It is known that Phytophthora cinnamomi occurs within subpopulations of the Ironstone Grevillea. Research conducted between 1992 and 1997 indicates that phosphite application is a very effective tool in controlling the impact of dieback disease in a wide range of species (Murray 1997 as cited in Stack & English 2003d). Monitoring of disease status is ongoing, and where dieback is found to be active, selective (hand spraying) or broad-scale treatment with phosphite will be undertaken to provide some protection to the habitat, and to Ironstone Grevilleas. The impact of phosphite application on this species and its habitat will continue to be monitored, and this will also indicate the requirement for follow-up treatment.

Liaise with land managers
Staff from the Department's Blackwood District will continue to liaise with managers and owners of land on which subpopulations of the Ironstone Grevillea occur, and with managers of adjacent land. This will help prevent accidental damage or destruction of the plants.

Monitor subpopulations
Annual monitoring of factors such as habitat degradation (including weed invasion, plant diseases such as Phytophthora cinnamomi and salinity), subpopulation stability (expansion or decline), pollination activity, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation is essential.

Conduct further surveys
Volunteers from the local community, wildflower societies, naturalist clubs and other community-based groups will be encouraged to undertake surveys of Ironstone Grevilleas. Surveys will also be conducted opportunistically by Departmental staff, particularly during the species' flowering period (September to November).

Collect seed and cutting material
Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against extinction if wild subpopulations are lost. Such collections are also needed to propagate plants for translocations. A small quantity of seed has been collected and stored in the Threatened Flora Seed Centre. Additional seed will be collected when possible. Cuttings will also be collected to enhance the living collection of genetic material at the Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA). This will be monitored by DEC and BGPA through the SWRTFRT.

Investigate the need for a translocation
The feasibility and benefits of conducting an experimental translocation on this species will be investigated, with the intention of examining variables that may be affecting the success of other ironstone species being translocated (Brachysema papilio, Darwinia sp. Williamson, Grevillea maccutcheonii, Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis and Petrophile latericola). Variables examined will include comparison of cuttings and seedlings as a source of propagation material, age of translocates, and watering regimes.

Obtain biological and ecological information
Improved knowledge of the biology and ecology of the Ironstone Grevillea will provide a better scientific basis for its management in the wild. An understanding of the following is particularly necessary for effective management:

  • Soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various disturbances (including fire), competition, rainfall and grazing in germination and recruitment.
  • The pollination biology of the species.
  • The reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species.
  • The subpopulation genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable subpopulation size.
  • The impact of dieback disease and control techniques on Ironstone Grevillea and its habitat.

Promote awareness
The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of wild subpopulations of this species will be promoted to the community through poster displays and the local print and electronic media. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will also be encouraged (Stack & English 2003d).

Species taxonomy was described by Olde, P.M. and N.R. Marriott (1995) The Grevillea Book: Volume 2 pp142-143.

The Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 and the Declared rare and poorly known flora in the Central Forest Region, Wildlife Management program No. 33 provide guides to threat abatement and management for the Ironstone Grevillea (Stack & English 2003d; Williams et al. 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of railway tracks Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & English, V., 2003d) [Recovery Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Department of Environment and Conservation (WA) (DEC) (2007a). Records held in the DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Western Australia, Department of Environment and Conservation.

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

Makinson, R.O. (2000b). Proteaceae 2 - Grevillea. In: Flora of Australia. 17A:1-524. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.

Olde, P.M. & N.R. Marriott (1995). The Grevillea Book; Volume 2. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.

Phillimore, R., Stack, G. & English, V. (1999). Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 54 1999-2002. [Online]. WA CALM. Perth: Conservation & Land Management. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/flora/gre_elo_irp131update.pdf.

Stack, G. & English, V. (2003d). Ironstone Grevillea (Grevillea elongata) Interim Recovery Plan No. 131 2003-2008. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/g-elongata/index.html.

Western Australian Herbarium (2007). FloraBase: The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/. [Accessed: 05-Apr-2007].

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea elongata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 17:35:26 +1000.