Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Zieria lasiocaulis
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Zieria lasiocaulis (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002g) [Recovery Plan] as Zieria lasiocaulis.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria lasiocaulis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria lasiocaulis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Willi Willi Zieria - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005nl) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Zieria lasiocaulis
Scientific name Zieria lasiocaulis [64547]
Family Rutaceae:Sapindales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author J.A.Armstrong
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Systematic Botany 15(3): 382, fig. 72, 73, map fig. 74 (2002).
Other names Zieria lasiocaulis J.A.Armstrong ms. [67427]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

A tall shrub or small tree to 6 m high (Harden 1991; Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002g) with conspicuous white flowers c. 6 mm in diameter (Armstrong 2002).

Within the Mt Banda Banda population, there is considerable variation in leaflet dimensions, with the largest leaflets produced by plants growing in the shadiest environments (Armstrong 2002).

Restricted to the headwaters of the Wilson River, about 44 km north-west of Wauchope, in the mid-north coast region of NSW (Harden 1991; Armstrong 2002).

The species is known from nine locations within an area of about 20 sq. km in Willi Willi NP (formerly Mt Boss SF), north-west of Port Macquarie (Harden 1991; Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002g). There are three main populations namely on the southern escarpment of Mt Banda Banda (1 km north-east of the Banda Banda Negrohead Beech Reserve), on the Main Range, and at North Wilson (1.5 km north of the Wilson R. Primitive Reserve) (Armstrong 2002).

It is estimated that the total number of individual plants is 20 000 - 25 000, with the largest population of about 20 000 plants occurring over about 1 ha on the summit and southern ridge of Marowin Mountain (NSW NPWS 2002g).

There are no historical records for Z. lasiocaulis outside the current range, suggesting that it has evolved and persisted with a naturally very restricted distribution (NSW NPWS 2002g).

Z. lasiocaulis is similar in appearance to the more widespread Z. arborescens subsp. arborescens and Z. southwellii, but can be distinguished by the pubescence, primarily of long simple hairs, on young growth (NSW NPWS 2002g).

The species is commonly found in deep volcanic soil amongst boulders of porphyritic rhyolite, in exposed situations on rocky escarpments and occasionally in clearings along the margins of rainforest (Harden 1991; Armstrong 2002) The ridge where most populations occur is characterised by steep slopes with several cliff lines. Many populations occur on roadsides or in areas where logging has disturbed the soil. (NSW NPWS 2002g).

Z. lasiocaulis can attain a height of up to 6 m where found growing in clearings, but more commonly, the taxon occurs as shrubby regrowth (2-3 m in height) in clear-felled areas along roadsides, or is found growing as an understorey shrub along the margins of closed Nothofagus forests, in association with Eucalyptus pilularis, E. notabilis and Acacia obtusifolia (Armstrong 2002).

Species commonly associated with Z. lasiocaulis as cited in NSW NPWS (2002g) are:

Vegetation typeLocationCommon species
Cool Temperate RainforestLoop RdNothofagus moorei
Ceratopetalum apetalum
Orites excelsa
Tasmannia insipida
Blechnum wattsii
Lomandra spicata
Tall Open ForestMt Banda BandaEucalyptus oreades
E. campanulata
Callicoma serratifolia
Elaeocarpus reticulatus
Blechnum wattsii
Drymophila moorei
Tall Open ForestMarowin Mtn, Banda Trail, N Wilson RdEucalyptus campanulata
E. laevopinea
Acacia elata
Callicoma serratifolia
Banksia integrifolia
ssp. monticola
Goodenia ovata
Hibbertia dentata
Warm Temperate Rainforest GrowthMain Ra. RdAcacia melanoxylon
Ceratopetalum
Callicoma serratifolia
Orites excelsa
Ozothamnus diosmifolius
Gonocarpus oreophilus
Warm Temperate RainforestSE of Marowin Mtn summitDoryphora sassafras
Callicoma serratifolia
Nothofagus moorei
Ceratopetalum apetalum
Cyathea leighhardtiana
Lomandra spicata
Parsonsia purpurascens
Blechnum carilagineum

Flowers are borne from late autumn to spring (Harden 1991) in May-Sept., with fruiting specimens observed in Jan. (Armstrong 2002).

Flowers are bisexual, and the pollinators are most probably pollen- and nectar-seeking beetles (Armstrong 2002). Small native bees and several species of beetle were observed on flowers at the Marowin Mountain population (P. Gilmour pers obs in NSW NPWS 2002g). Young plants at this site, which germinated following a fire in January 1994, were flowering profusely when surveyed in November 1998 (A. Marshall pers. comm. in NSW NPWS 2002g).

The species is generally considered to be an obligate seeder (regenerating from seed only) (Armstrong 2002). Although Z. lasiocaulis apparently does not reproduce vegetatively, a few shoots arising from the base of old plants of the species were seen at one location (P. Gilmour pers obs. in NSW NPWS 2002g).

Seeds are released explosively from the mature fruit, and possess an ant-attracting elaiosome which may result in short distance dispersal by ants (Armstrong 2002 & Smith 1989 in NSW NPWS 2002g).

A number of different germination and recruitment strategies were observed in the field, all of which appear to have resulted from some form of disturbance. Many populations occur on roadsides or in areas where logging has disturbed the soil. The largest population on Marowin Mountain is in a recently burnt area (NSW NPWS 2002g). A smaller population was observed in an area that had been burnt 12 to 18 months before inspection (P. Gilmour pers comm in NSW NPWS 2002g).

An interesting aspect of the Marowin Mountain site is the fact that small seedlings and young plants are present almost five years after the fire event. This may indicate that the 1994 fire did not stimulate the entire seed-bank to germinate, and that some seed was able to delay germination. Such a strategy would maximise the possibility of recruitment after fire. While Armstrong (2002) suggests that Zieria species generally have short seed viability, such field observations suggest that Z. lasiocaulis has a persistent soil seed-bank (NSW NPWS 2002g).

Plants of Z. lasiocaulis are probably killed by fire (Armstrong 2002), although if basal shoots can occur, it is possible that individuals could survive low intensity fires. Germination of seed may be stimulated by appropriate fire regimes and natural disturbances such as wind throw of trees, and soil slip or erosion (NSW NPWS 2002g).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].
Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified Recovery plan for Zieria formosa, Zieria buxijugum and Zieria parrisiae (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 2002f) [Recovery Plan].

Armstrong, J.A. (2002). Zieria (Rutaceae): a systematic and evolutionary study. Australian Systematic Botany. 15:277-463.

Copeland, L. (2000). Personal Communication.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (2002g). Recovery Plan for Zieria lasiocaulis. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/z-lasiocaulis/index.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Zieria lasiocaulis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 14:10:02 +1000.