Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725)
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agd) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725).
 
Scientific name Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) [64539]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author SA Herbarium
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Pterostylis sp. aff. nana (Hale) [75796]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Hale Dwarf Greenhood, Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725), under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

South Australia: Listed as Vulnerable under the name Pterostylis sp. Veined Leaf (R.J. Bates 59781) under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Scientific name: Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725)

Common name: Hale Dwarf Greenhood

Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) is conventionally accepted by the Australian Plants Census and includes the species Pterostylis sp. Veined Leaf (Bates 59781) (CHAH 2010). Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) is also synonymous with Pterostylis aff. nana (State Herbarium of South Australia 2007a), although this inclusion is not on the Australian Plants Census (CHAH 2010). Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) was previously included in Pterostylis nana, Linguella nana or Pterostylis 'Hale' and Linguella veined leaf (Bates 2009).

There are similar species in south-west Western Australia and Victoria, although Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) only occurs in South Australia (Bates 2009).

The Hale Dwarf Greenhood, is a small herb with a flattened basal rosette of leaves growing to 4 cm across, and a short flowering stem growing to 10 cm in height. The rosette is formed from 3–6 blue-green or grey leaves to 15 mm long, which are heavily veined, arrow-shaped (sagittate) and rigid. The flowering stem is slender with 1–2 stem bracts. The flower is solitary and green and brown in colour. The erect hood is green, growing to 15 mm in length, and becomes rusty as the flower ages. The apex of the hood is thrust forward, coming to a short point. The lateral sepals are erect and divergent, the free points growing to 10 mm in length, often with indistinct brownish clubs. The labellum grows up to 4 mm long, is ovate and red-brown and greenish-white in colour (Bates 2007).

Plants tend to exist as small, discrete, clonal colonies (Bates 2007).

The Hale Dwarf Greenhood is endemic to South Australia and occurs on the Eyre Peninsula, Southern Lofty Ranges and the Murraylands (SA DEH 2008c). The species is patchily distributed in the southern agricultural regions, and may be more common in mallee areas (SA DEH 2008c). Herbarium records indicate that the taxon occurs: in Hale Conservation Park (CP) east of Adelaide; in Messant CP and Ferries-McDonald CP in the Murraylands; and on Eyre Peninsula at Carappee Hill CP, Point Bolingbroke, Rudall CP, Carpie Puntha, Bascombe Well CP and Hambidge Wilderness Area (ADHERB 2008 cited in TSSC 2008agd). This species occurs within the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges, and Eyre Peninsula Natural Resource Management regions (TSSC 2008agd).

The species was previously only known from a single population at Hale CP, but is now considered more widespread than original collections had suggested (Bickerton 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008agd). At Hale CP, the species has an area of occupancy of 0.5 m² (Bickerton 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008agd).

The total population size of the Hale Dwarf Greenhood is unknown (TSSC 2008agd). At Hale CP approximately 50–100 plants occupy an area of about 0.5 m² (Bickerton 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008agd). Ferries-McDonald CP, near Murray Bridge, has recorded 70 and 200 plants (TSSC 2008agd). Molecular studies indicate that plants at Hale CP and Ferries-McDonald CP are clonal, and little genetic variation is found among plants within the Carappee Hill population (Bickerton 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008agd).

The Hale Dwarf Greenhood has been located in Hale CP, Ferries-McDonald CP, Carappee Hill CP, Messant CP, Rudall CP, Bascombe Well CP and Hambidge Wilderness Area (ADHERB 2008 cited in TSSC 2008agd). Although small, the Hale CP population is reasonably secure (SA DEH 2008c).

Hale Dwarf Greenhood is broadly described as occurring in mallee on Eyre Peninsula and the Murraylands, and in heathy woodland in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Specific location descriptions include (SA DEH 2008c; Willson & Bignall 2009):

  • In mallee shrubland on loose white sands under Ridge-fruited Mallee (Eucalyptus incrassata) and Broombush (Melaleuca uncinata) (Bates 2009), for example at Carappee Hill CP and Ferries-McDonald CP.
  • In heathy woodland areas in the ranges on shallow gravels on ridge tops in association with Long-leaved Box (Eucalyptus goniocalyx) and Oyster Bay Pine (Callitris rhomboides) (SA DEH 2008c), for example at Hale CP.

The Hale Dwarf Greenhood flowers from August–September and usually occurs as small, discrete, clonal colonies (SA DEH 2008c). The species exhibits features of a relict species, including its distinctive features, few widespread locations and few seed capsules set (Bates 2009).

The Hale Dwarf Greenhood is easily reconised by the veined, bluish, ground hugging leaves and red tints on flowers (Bates 2009).

The main threats to Hale Dwarf Greenhood include: grazing by feral Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (Environment Australia 1999c), weed invasion and trampling (the 'Hale' population occurs near a walking track) (Bickerton 2008 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2008agd; ANRA 2007 cited in TSSC 2008agd). Populations are highly fragmented, and are possibly remnants of a historically more widespread distribution.

Attempts to locate plants in 2008 at a previously reported location failed to detect this species. There was evidence of plant dieback caused by a disease other than Phytophthora sp. in the area (Quarmby pers. comm. 2009 cited in SA DEH 2008c).

Drought and climate change could potentially affect this species (Bates pers. comm. cited in SA DEH 2008c). Due to the low genetic variability within these populations, plants may not be able to respond adequately to changes in environmental conditions, or to introduced pests and diseases (TSSC 2008agd).

Commonwealth Conservation Advice

Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008agd) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds, trampling and fire. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.

Regional Recovery Plan for Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges

The Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson & Bignall 2009) includes the Hale Dwarf Greenhood. This plan addresses threat management in the context of broad vegetation groups (Willson & Bignall 2009). The Hale Dwarf Greenhood is included in the Heathy Woodland vegetation group, which is a vegetation community that is identified as a high priority for recovery (Willson & Bignall 2009). This high priority rating means that conservation investment may be targeted at the Heathy Woodland group (rather than lower priority groups within the area of the regional recovery plan) (Willson & Bignall 2009).

The plan generally addresses key threats to a range of endangered species in the region, such as: weed invasion, inappropriate fire management regimes, impacts of recreational activities and browsing of herbivorous animals (Willson & Bignall 2009). There are no specific measures to address threats to the Hale Dwarf Greenhood, but, as it occurs in the high priority Heathy Woodland vegetation group, actions to recover this area should benefit the orchid (Willson & Bignall 2009).

Management documents relevant to the Hale Dwarf Greenhood can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agd) [Conservation Advice].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agd) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agd) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agd) [Conservation Advice].

Bates, R. (2009). South Australian Native Orchids. Compact Disc. Adelaide: Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J., ed. (2007). South Australian native orchids. Electronic version, October 2007. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2008c). Pterostylis sp. Hale (R. Bates 21725). Willson, A. & J. Bignall, eds. Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Threatened Species Profile. Adelaide, SA: DEH.

State Herbarium of South Australia (2007a). Census of South Australian vascular plants, algae and fungi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/census.html.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008agd). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/64539-conservation-advice.pdf.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterostylis sp. Hale (R.Bates 21725) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 2 Aug 2014 01:56:10 +1000.