In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gippsland Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis subsp. mediana) Grassy Woodland and Associated Native Grassland (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adv) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Kohout, M. & F, Coates, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Prasophyllum correctum |
|Reference||Novon. 4(2): 106, fig. 1 (1994).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Prasophyllum correctum
Common name: Gaping Leek-orchid
Historically, there has been some confusion as to the correct scientific name of the Gaping Leek-orchid, and the correct distribution of the species (Kohout & Coates 2010). Prasophyllum correctum was originally described as Prasophyllum chasmogamum (Jones 1991b), although the latter is now accepted as a synonym of P. pyriforme (CHAH 2010). Prior to 2003, Prasophyllum correctum included the Tasmanian endemic the Golfer's Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum incorrectum). The latter is now accepted as a separate species, and P. correctum has been redefined as a Victorian endemic (Jones 2003; Orthia et al. 2003).
The Gaping Leek-orchid is a deciduous, tuberous terrestrial herb with a flowering stem that grows to 15–47 cm (with an average of 32.5 cm) in height. The species has a single, hollow, terete (cylindrical, but slightly tapering) leaf that grows to 11–40 cm in length, and 0.5–4.5 mm in width. The flowering stem emerges from a split in the leaf, which grows approximately 1 cm from the ground. The species produces 5–27 yellow-green flowers, some with pale brown stripes, which are arranged in an open spike. The labellum (lip) is ovate, with a short basal claw, is recurved at right angles near the centre and grows to 5 mm in length. The dorsal sepal and petals are approximately 8 mm in length, slender and widely spreading; and the lateral sepals are long, erect with incurved margins and grow to 10 mm in length. The callus is channelled, raised, fleshy, broad at the base and extends almost to the apex of the labellum. Pollina can be seen hanging from the rostellum (small beak-like projection) by a thread of tissue (Kohout & Coates 2010; Hoey & Lunt 2003).
This species is known only from two populations in the Gippsland Plain Natural Region of eastern Victoria (Conn 1993; Jones 2003; Kohout & Coates 2010; Hoey & Lunt 2003). The two small Victorian populations are located beside the Melbourne to Bairnsdale railway line, about 4 km east-north-east of Munro and about 5 km east-north-east of Fernbank respectively (Coates et al. 1999; Jones 2003).
The previous distribution and abundance of the Gaping Leek-orchid is not known, but a substantial decline in both range and abundance can be inferred based on the almost complete loss of habitat in which the species occurs (Kohout & Coates 2010). The Central Gippsland Plains Grasslands were once extensive between Rosedale, Stratford and Sale (Craigie & Moorees 2003). However, these habitats have declined (mainly due to clearance for agriculture) to less than 1% of their former distribution of about 1200 km², and are now confined to less than 1 km². This habitat includes a regularly burnt railway reserve, a few roadsides, and cemeteries (Lunt 1992 cited in Hoey & Lunt 2003; Lunt et al. 1998 cited in Kohout & Coates 2010).
The Gaping Leek-orchid has been propagated from seed at the Adelaide Herbarium (Bates pers. comm. cited in Hoey & Lunt 2003), but it is not known if it can be re-established successfully in its former habitat, or if established plants could replace themselves naturally. An attempt to propagate the species from seed at the Royal Botanic Gardens failed. There are very few plants available for seed collection, although each plant produces numerous seeds (Hoey & Lunt 2003).
Coates and colleagues (2006) analysed census data for the largest population (124 individuals) of the Gaping Leek-orchid between 1992 and 2003.
The orchid population at Munro Rail Reserve was monitored every spring between 1992 and 2006. In addition, monthly data were collected between May and November each year between 1995 and 1998. Each plant was assigned a unique number and could be identified via two methods. Firstly, a stainless steel pin 15 cm long and hooked at one end was pushed into the ground 2 cm west of each plant to assist re-detection in later years. Secondly, a 350 m transect was established through the longest axis of the population and a set of coordinates for each plant was determined (Coates & Duncan 2007).
During each annual visit, previously identified plants were revisited and the site was actively searched for new plants. The life state of each identified plant was recorded. Individuals that were not observed may have been either alive but in an unobservable state (ie. dormant) or dead. No vegetative plants were recorded in the first year. However, since 1992, non-flowering plants have been tagged and added to the population count. Any uncertain identities were verified in later years after plants flowered (Coates & Duncan 2007).
Both known populations of Gaping Leek-orchid have been monitored since 1992 (Coates et al. 1999; Jones 2003). In 2010, the population at Munro was known to contain 132 tagged individuals (although up to 70 of these may be dormant in any year) and covered an area of just 20 m x 30 m. Fewer than 15 plants are known from Lindenow South (Kohout & Coates 2010).
Since monitoring began, there has been a decline in the number of plants that have emerged above ground each year at the Munro Rail Reserve (Coates & Duncan 2007). Emergence patterns of plants was found to be mainly determined by fire frequency, with fires having the ability to suppress less competitive orchid species. No consistent correlation was found between rainfall and number of flowering plants, vegetative plants, total emergent plants or plant size (Coates & Duncan 2007).
Recovery, extrapolated from a small but steady increase in leaf width despite dry conditions, has been noted for the species since the last burn in 2003. This recovery is noted despite a general continued decline in the number of flowering plants. In addition, monitoring has shown that flowering plants are more likely to return to a flowering state in the following year rather than a vegetative or dormant state. Flowering plants were found to be least likely to die, and flowering caused no future reproductive costs to the plant. Population growth rate was negative during the monitoring period. This was most likely affected by dormant and vegetative plants returning to dormancy in subsequent years during the monitoring period (Coates & Duncan 2007).
The Gaping Leek-orchid occurs in the Central Gippsland Plains Grassland community, the Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis) Grassy Woodland community and the She-oak (Allocasuarina littoralis) Grassy Woodlands community (Kohout & Coates 2010; Hoey & Lunt 2003). The first two communities are both listed as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Kohout & Coates 2010). The orchid's habitat is also listed under the EPBC Act as the Critically Endangered Gippsland Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis subsp. mediana) Grassy Woodland and Associated Native Grassland (TSSC 2008adv).
Dominant grasses where the Gaping Leek-orchid occur include Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra) and Poa clelandii, with a diverse assemblage of inter-tussock species including Yellow Buttons (Chrysocephalum apiculatum), Common Billy-buttons (Craspedia variabilis), Milkmaids (Burchardia umbellata), Bulbine Lily (Bulbine bulbosa), Scaly Buttons (Leptorhynchos squamatus), Chocolate Lily (Dichopogon strictus), Twining Fringe-lily (Thysanotus patersonii), Blue Grass-lily (Caesia calliantha) and Spiny-headed Mat-rush (Lomandra longifolia). Shrubs are predominantly Grey Parrot-pea (Dillwynia cinerascens), Woolly Grevillea (Grevillea lanigera) and Common Riceflower (Pimelea humilis). Associated orchid taxa include Purple Diuris (Diuris punctata), Blotched Diuris (Diuris sp. aff. dendrobioides), Small Snake Orchid (Diuris chryseopsis), Tiger Orchid (Diuris sulphurea), Common Onion Orchid (Microtis unifolia), Brown Beaks (Lyperanthus suaveolens) and the Slender Sun Orchid (Thelymitra pauciflora) (Kohout & Coates 2010; Hoey & Lunt 2003).
The species grows in freely draining sandy loam soils derived from alluvium or brown clay loam, and at 20–50 m above sea level (Coates et al. 1999; Jones 2003; Kohout & Coates 2010). No correlation was found between population performance and rainfall which strongly indicates that the recent drought is unlikely to be the primary cause of population decline (Coates & Duncan 2007).
Flowering for the Gaping Leek-orchid occurs in October and November (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Jones 2003). Plants rarely flower annually over prolonged periods, usually going into dormancy or sterility intermittently for up to five years at a time. Reproduction is predominantly from seed, which is ripe and dispersed four to six weeks after flowering. The species is summer-dormant, with leaves emerging between mid-April and mid-June. Flowering stems emerge in October (around the third week) and flowering (in the form of approximately 10–20 greenish flowers) is complete by November, at which time the leaf begins to senesce. Seed capsules develop in pollinated individuals, and mature throughout November and early December for dispersal following soon after. At this stage, the species survives the summer in a dormant, subterranean tuber form. Most plants produce a single replacement tuber each year, but occasionally (observed in approximately 9% of plants at Victorian sites) two tubers are formed giving rise to clonal plants. Generally, individuals do not appear annually, but remain below ground for one or two years. Occasionally, the Gaping Leek-orchid has been known to stay in underground tuber form for up to seven years. Detection of plants is therefore an issue. Longevity of individual plants is difficult to measure due to the intermittent periods of dormancy or sterility (Coates et al. 1999; Kohout & Coates 2010).
The flowers are fragrant (Jones 1991b, 2003) and therefore the Gaping Leek-orchid is most likely insect-pollinated. Many Prasophyllum species are visited by a wide range of insects, such as small native bees and wasps seeking nectar, and do not have specific insect pollinators. However, it is thought that the Gaping Leek-orchid is a nectar-rewarding orchid pollinated by native wasps (Coates & Duncan 2007). Seed viability, as monitored in 1999, varied from 40–80% (Huynh 1999). Recruitment is predominantly by seedling establishment, and is rarely from vegetative reproduction by tuber division. Seed germination relies on the presence of a suitable mycorrhizal fungi. Two fungal isolates (Basidiomycetes) were cultured from Gaping Leek-orchid plants at Munro, which were closely matched (>98%) with a fungus isolated from the Nodding Greenhood (Pterostylis nutans), suggesting that these two orchid genera share similar mycorrhizal fungi (Clements 1981 cited in Kohout & Coates 2010; Huynh 1999). Both isolates germinated fresh Gaping Leek-orchid seed under laboratory conditions (Huynh 1999).
Age at reproductive maturity and plant longevity are still unknown for the Gaping Leek-orchid. In addition, seedling recruitment is difficult to observe, with plants potentially returning to a sterile state (resembling very young plants) after flowering the previous year. As a result, the correlation of life history phases with plant age is impossible (Kohout & Coates 2010).
Dormancy and Mortality
During a study undertaken by Coates and colleagues (2006), in 75% of dormancy events, Gaping Leek-orchid plants remained in that state for one to two years before emerging in subsequent years. The other 25% of dormancy events were for three to five years. In addition, 36% (44) of the total (124) recorded plants died in the 12 year monitoring period. However, this may be an overestimate, as it includes 30 individuals that did not re-emerge in the last four years of the monitoring period. These plants may have since re-emerged (Coates et al. 2006).
Flowering and Emergence Variability
Coates and colleagues (2006) found that the there was a high annual variability in the flowering and emergence of the Gaping Leek-orchid, a phenomena that largely remains unexplained. While direct correlations were not found, plant emergence was inversely related to rainfall in the previous autumn and winter, while biomass accumulation of dominant grasses was positively related to annual rainfall. From these results, it appears that the Gaping Leek-orchid's emergence is reduced by high rainfall due to competition from nearby dominant grasses (Coates et al. 2006).
Coates and colleagues (2006) found a frequent fire regime (around every three years) significantly reduced dormancy periods of the Gaping Leek-orchid. The beneficial effects of frequent fires, as with low rainfall, on the species are both a reduction in dormancy (and possibly mortality), and an increase in the proportion of plants moving to a reproductive state (Coates et al. 2006).
Generally the Gaping Leek-orchid can be recognised by its yellow-green flowers and strong scent, as well as the fact that its callus is wrinkled and its labellum is broad at the base, and tapers to a long apex (Jones 2006).
The Gaping Leek-orchid has been confused with the Tawny Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum fuscum) but the latter species is distinguishable by its broader perianth parts, less widely expanded flowers, a labellum callus plate that is most prominent past the bend and shorter column appendages (Bates 1994c).
Two other taxa which may also be confused with this species include the Plains Leek-orchid (P. occidentale), with crenulate labellum margins and joined lateral sepals, and the P. constrictum complex, with flowers not widely expanding, labellum callus most prominent past the bend and partly joined lateral sepals (Bates 1994c).
The Gaping Leek-orchid is also closely related to the Graceful Leek-orchid (P. pyriforme) but can be distinguished by its generally less robust habit and the fact that it has fewer, less congested, primarily yellowish green, more widely opening flowers. In addition, the latter has a channelled, very thick labellum callus that extends almost to the labellum apex (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995).
The major cause of the decline of the Gaping Leek-orchid is almost certainly habitat destruction (Kohout & Coates 2010). Other threats to the Gaping Leek-orchid include the invasion of sites by pasture grasses, grazing, burrowing and digging by introduced herbivores including the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), damage caused by livestock droving, drift from fertiliser spraying on nearby farmland, herbicide spraying, competition from native grasses and opportunistic indigenous shrubs, illicit collection, inappropriate fire regimes, human and vehicle disturbance, railway maintenance work and poor natural seed set (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Coates et al. 1999).
Competition From Native and Introduced Plants
Competition from native and introduced plants (grasses and shrubs) poses the greatest risk to the Gaping Leek-orchid. Historically, inappropriate fire regimes or fire exclusion may have lead to a decline in the Gaping Leek-orchid, and other threatened species such as the Purple Diuris. Reduction of competition, via regular burning, maintains openness of habitat and inhibits establishment of invasive, woody species. Frequent burning also reduces the biomass of dominant grasses, which allows establishment opportunities for the Gaping Leek-orchid, and generally increasing native plant diversity. The grassland along the Munro railway line is the most important grassland remnant in the region, and grass biomass at the site has been estimated to accumulate at an average of 2.8–4.6 t/ha two years after fire. As such, maintaining a frequent burning regime for the Gaping Leek-orchid at the site will benefit the entire Munro community (Coates & Duncan 2007; Kohout & Coates 2010; Lunt 1994, 1997).
Regular burning will also reduce the dormancy periods of the Gaping Leek-orchid and improve the population growth rate. Proportions of reproductive adults have been shown to be at the highest when burning frequency is at least every three years. Fire intervals that are greater than this are associated with a decline in both emergence and reproduction in the Gaping Leek-orchid (Coates et al. 2006; Coates & Duncan 2007).
Sufficient burning regimes (at least every three years) would also help control the encroachment of several native shrubs and trees. She-Oak, White Kunzea (Kunzea ambigua) and Woolly Grevillea (Grevillea lanigera) encroachment is a potential threat at the Munro site (Kohout & Coates 2010).
While it is currently only a minor problem, the potential threat of weed invasion at Gaping Leek-orchid sites is high. This threat is increased with extensive soil disturbance, as sites are surrounded by agricultural land. Currently, there is some localised invasion of annual grasses such as Aira and Briza spp., especially at the Lindenow South site (Kohout & Coates 2010).
Grazing and Disturbance
A moderate threat at both sites of the Gaping Leek-orchid, is grazing by the Rabbit, the Hare (Lepus capensis), and possibly the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). This grazing significantly reduces flowering of plants, especially after the first two seasons following fire. Birds are thought to have removed mature seed capsules from Gaping Leek-orchid plants, while grazing by invertebrates is also known to occur at the sites (Kohout & Coates 2010).
The Rabbit is also known to disturb the Gaping Leek-orchid by digging, which leads to bare ground, allowing weed establishment. This is a serious threat at the Munro site, and a more moderate threat at the Lindenow South site (Kohout & Coates 2010).
Human disturbance, via trampling (visiting naturalists), soil compaction and vehicle and machinery movement, is also a potential threat at both sites of the Gaping Leek-orchid (Kohout & Coates 2010).
Previous Conservation Measures
Prior to the National Recovery Plan (Kohout & Coates 2010), there was a considerable conservation effort undertaken for the Gaping Leek-orchid, including research (on the biology and ecology of the species) and on-ground management of species habitat. The following is list of conservation measures undertaken prior to the Recovery Plan (Kohout & Coates 2010; Hoey & Lunt 2003).
- Listing of the species and the ecological community within which it occurs as Threatened under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1998.
- Neighbouring landowners, the Wellington Shire and the Country Fire Authority were advised of the sites' significance.
- Annual monitoring of sites since 1992. In addition, plants were permanently marked in 1992 with any new plants detected also being marked.
- Fencing of the Munro site, in 1992, and the Lindenow South site, in 1994, to increase protection of the species and its habitat.
- Periodic burning of both sites to reduce biomass accumulation, particularly of dominant grasses, and promote flowering of the Gaping Leek-orchid and other associated grassland species.
- Slashing to control invasive shrubs and removal of shading trees.
- Rabbit control.
- Research including experimental burning and assessment of post-fire grazing, and estimating population fecundity and potential for hand pollination and seed burial trials to assess the potential for direct seeding as a means of promoting seedling recruitment.
- Isolation and identification of the mycorrhizal fungus and assessment of seed viability.
- Searches along the Traralgon to Stratford rail line for the species.
- Funding from the Australian Government and Australian Flora Foundation to assist with research projects.
- Participation by the Bairnsdale and District Field Naturalists Club and La Trobe University, as well as the Victorian Government, in conservation work.
- A pamphlet and poster describing the significance of the rail line vegetation between Traralgon and Bairnsdale for distribution to railway stations.
- Some in-situ conservation measures, such as caging individual plants and artificial cross-pollination (Coates et al. 1999; Jeanes 2001 pers. comm.).
National Recovery Plan
The National Recovery Plan (Kohout & Coates 2010) identified an overall objective to minimise the probability of extinction of the Gaping Leek-orchid in the wild and to increase the probability of populations becoming self-sustaining in the long term. The document also identified the following specific objectives for the recovery of the Gaping Leek-orchid.
- Promote population fecundity and recruitment.
- Protect plants from threats.
- Measure population trends against recovery actions.
- Establish an ex-situ population.
- Increase plant numbers through restocking.
- Build community support for conservation.
The criteria for assessing the success of these objectives are:
- Improved knowledge of the importance of fire and drought on population growth rate and dynamics, incorporated in a comprehensive biological and ecological knowledge base.
- A measurable decrease in grazing pressure, and damage to the sites and plant communities resulting from threatening processes.
- A measurable decrease in dormancy rates and an increase in seedling recruitment in both populations,
- Successful establishment of an ex-situ collection consisting of 100 plants to be held in cultivation.
See the National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Kohout & Coates 2010) for details of management practices.
In addition to the National Recovery Plan (Kohout & Coates 2010), there is an Action Statement (Hoey & Lunt 2003) produced by the Victorian Government outlining intended management actions for the Gaping Leek-orchid. These include survey and monitoring, research, propagation, liaison, tree removal, grazing, fire management, vegetation corridor maintenance and critical habitat recognition conservation measures. See the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 57-Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Hoey & Lunt 2003) for details of management activities.
Coates and Duncan (2007) summarise reports and publications that have addressed threat and site management (Coates et al. 2006 and Coates 1997, 1999, 2001 cited in Coates and Duncan 2007; Lunt 1994; Lunt 1997; Lunt et al. 2005); population genetics (Orthia et al. 2003); seed viability and germination (Huynh 1999; Huynh & Coates 1999); extraction, culture and identification of the fungal symbiont (Huynh 1999; Huynh & Coates 1999); pollination and self-compatibility (Coates et al. 1999); and the potential to increase seedling recruitment at one site using direct seeding methods (Coates et al. 1999).
Management documents for the Gaping Leek-orchid can be found at the start of this profile. Other documents relevant to the species include:
- Population dynamics and management of Prasophyllum correctum (Gaping leek-orchid) at Munro Rail Reserve 1992-2006 (Coates & Duncan 2007).
- Draft Recovery Plan 2000-2002 Prasophyllum correctum D.L. Jones (Gaping Leek-orchid) (Coates et al. 1999).
- Action Statement No. 182. Central Gippsland Plains Grassland, Forest Red Gum Grassy Woodland, Northern Plains Grassland, South Gippsland Plains Grassland, Western (Basalt) Plains Grassland (Craigie & Moorees 2003).
- Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gippsland Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis subsp. mediana) Grassy Woodland and Associated Native Grassland (TSSC 2008adv).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Prasophyllum correctum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sc) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Habitat loss/conversion/quality decline/degradation||Prasophyllum correctum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sc) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Kohout, M. & F, Coates, 2010) [Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking||National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Kohout, M. & F, Coates, 2010) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Lepus capensis (Brown Hare)||National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Kohout, M. & F, Coates, 2010) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||
Prasophyllum correctum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sc) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum (Kohout, M. & F, Coates, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by exotic pasture species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Predation/competition by introduced species||Prasophyllum correctum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006sc) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Habitat degradation caused by shrub thickening|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Allocasuarina littoralis (Black Sheoak)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Grevillea lanigera (Woolly Grevillea)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Kunzea ambigua (White Kunzea, Tick-bush)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Fertiliser drift|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift|
|Pollution:Household Sewage and Urban Waste Water:Pollution (chemicals, sewage) due to urban and agricultural run-off|
Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes (1995). The Orchids of Victoria. Carlton: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press.
Bates R.J. (1994c). Orchidaceae: 22. Prasophyllum. In: Flora of Victoria. 2:869-886. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Coates, E., I. Lunt & H. Wapstra (1999). Draft Recovery Plan 2000-2003 Prasophyllum correctum (Gaping leek-orchid). Unpublished report to Environment Australia. Bundoora, Victoria: La Trobe University.
Coates, F. & M. Duncan (2007). Population dynamics and management of Prasophyllum correctum (Gaping leek-orchid) at Munro Rail Reserve 1992-2006. Victoria: Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment.
Coates, F., I.D. Lunt & R.L. Tremblay (2006). Effects of disturbance on population dynamics of the threatened orchid Prasophyllum correctum and implications for grassland management in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation. 129:59-69.
Conn, B.J. (1993). Natural Regions and Vegetation of Victoria. In: Foreman, D.B. and N.G. Walsh, eds. Flora of Victoria: Volume One. Page(s) 79-153. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Craigie, V. & A. Moorrees (2003). Central Gippsland Plains Grassland, Forest Red Gum Grassy Woodland, Northern Plains Grassland, South Gippsland Plains Grassland & Western (Basalt) Plains Grassland. Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement No. 182. [Online]. Melbourne: Biodiversity and Natural Resource Division, Department of Sustainability & Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/E8DE47BBCA88B00DCA2570ED001BFCCE/$File/182+five+lowland+temperate+grassland+and+grassy+woodland+communities+2003.pdf. [Accessed: 26-May-2008].
Hoey, J. & I. Lunt (2003). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 57-Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.
Huynh, T. (1999). In vitro propagation of the endangered Gaping Leek Orchid, Prasophyllum correctum. Hons. Thesis. Melbourne: RMIT University.
Huynh, T. & F. Coates (1999). Propagation and seed viability of the endangered orchid Prasophyllum correctum D.L. Jones (Gaping Leek-orchid). Final report to the Australian Flora Foundation. Project 97/98-14. Sydney, Australian Flora Foundation.
Jeanes, J. (2001). Personal communication.
Jones, D.L. (1988). Native Orchids of Australia. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Reed.
Jones, D.L. (1991b). New Taxa of Australian Orchidaceae. Australian Orchid Research. 2. Essendon: Australian Orchid Foundation.
Jones, D.L. (2003). A revisionary treatment of four species of Prasophyllum R.Br. (Orchidaceae) loosely related to P. correctum D.L.Jones. Muelleria. 18:99-109.
Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.
Kohout, M. & F, Coates (2010). National Recovery Plan for the Gaping Leek-orchid Prasophyllum correctum. [Online]. Melbourne, Victoria: DSE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/prasophyllum-correctum.html.
Lunt, I.D. (1994). Variation in flower production of nine grassland species with time since fire, and implications for grassland management and restoration. Pacific Conservation Biology. 1:359-366.
Lunt, I.D. (1997). Effects of long-term vegetation management on remnant grassy forests and anthropogenic native grasslands in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation. 81:287-297.
Lunt, I.D., F. Coates & P. Spooner (2005). Grassland indicator species predict flowering of endangered Gaping Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum correctum D.L. Jones). Ecological Management and Restoration. 6:69-70.
Orthia, L.A., R.C. Garrick & E.A. James (2003). Genetic comparison between Victorian and Tasmanian populations of Prasophyllum correctum D.L.Jones (Orchidaceae) suggests separate species. Muelleria. 18:79-88.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008adv). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Gippsland Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis subsp. mediana) Grassy Woodland and Associated Native Grassland. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/communities/pubs/73-conservation-advice.pdf.
Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006a). Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: DPIWE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tasmanian-orchid.html.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prasophyllum correctum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 05:16:09 +1000.