Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan] as Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis
Scientific name Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis [64528]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author Keighery
Reference Keighery, G.J. (1997) A new subspecies of Lambertia echinata (Proteaceae). Nuytsia 11(2): 283 [tax. nov.]
Other names Lambertia echinata subsp. septentrionale ms. [67460]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/17734

Scientific name: Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis

Common name: Western Prickly Honeysuckle

Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis is conventionally accepted (CHAH 2010). It was previously known as L. e. subsp. septentrionale ms (Keighery, 1997). Population genetic studies suggest that, given the extreme genetic distance between Lambertia echinata subsp. echinata and the other two subspecies, it may warrant species status (Obbens & Coates 1997; Stack & Brown 2003a).

The Western Prickly Honeysuckle is a prickly, non-lignotuberous shrub that grows up to three metres high with many branches at the base and a few long, erect floral branches (Brown et al. 1998; Keighery 1997; Western Australian Herbarium 2007). It has yellow flowers which are crowded at the ends of branchlets from October to December (Brown et al. 1998). There are two types of leaves, vegetative and floral. The vegetative leaves are narrow and pointed, whereas the floral leaves are smaller and may be entire or have three to five lobes (Brown et al. 1998).

The Western Prickly Honeysuckle is found in southern ironstone communities at the base of the Whicher Range near Busselton, Western Australia (Brown et al. 1998; Keighery 1997; Obbens & Coates 1997; Stack et al. 1999).

The Western Prickly Honeysuckle's extent of occurrence is approximately 5.75 km². There are no data to indicate a decline or future change in extent of occurrence of this restricted species (WA DEC 2007).

The area of occupancy for the Western Prickly Honeysuckle is approximately 0.2 km² according to on-ground area of occupancy estimates for subpopulation 1. There are no data to indicate a decline or future change in area of occupancy (WA DEC 2007).

Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis was first found by B. Keighery and N. Gibson in October 1992 during survey work for the Swan Coastal Plain survey (Gibson et al. 1994). Approximately 400 plants were then propagated and translocated to two other localities at the base of the Whicher Range, approximately five kilometres from the original population (Stack et al. 1999; WA DEC 2007).

Despite the scope of the Swan Coastal Plain survey (Gibson et al. 1994), which covered large areas in the Busselton region where this subspecies might be expected, no other plants were located until 2002 when subpopulation 1c was discovered.

In 2007, the total population size for the Western Prickly Honeysuckle was estimated to be 114 mature plants (including surviving translocated plants) (WA DEC 2007). The following table presents population information for the subspecies (Stack & Brown 2003a; WA DEC 2007):

Subpopulation Location Tenure Survey history Number of plants  Condition (2007) Past threats
Present threats
Potential threats
1a Whicher Range State Forest 1992
19/10/1995
08/07/1996
22/10/1997
02/12/1997
29/07/1998
01/01/2000
05/12/2000
03/01/2002
26/08/2002
26/04/2005
2007
7
7
7
12
20 (1a + 1b)
4
21
3
12
14
50 (1a + 1c?)
4
Very poor Land-clearing, fire, mineral exploration and mining (2004) Phytophthora cinnamomi, weeds, insect damage Fire, lack of recruitment
1b Whicher Range State Forest 01/01/2000 1 (dead) Moderate Land-clearing, fire, mineral exploration and mining (2004) Phytophthora cinnamomi, hydrological changes (waterlogging and salinity) caused by mining, weeds, insect damage Fire, lack of recruitment
1c Whicher Range State Forest 15/04/2002
19/04/2002
26/08/2002
70+
70
70+
  Land-clearing, fire, mineral exploration and mining (2004) Phytophthora cinnamomi, hydrological changes (waterlogging and salinity) caused by mining, weeds, insect damage Fire, lack of recruitment
1t Whicher Range State Forest 2000
2001
19 (planting)
0
Poor   Dieback disease, weeds, poor establishment Fire
2t Whicher Range State Forest 07/1998
12/1998
1999
2000
11 (planting)
11
4
0
Poor   Dieback disease, weeds, poor establishment Fire
3t Whicher Range Nature Reserve 2000
06/01/2001
2007
129 (planting)
11 (planting)
20
    Dieback disease, weeds, poor establishment Fire
4t Whicher Range Nature Reserve 2000
06/01/2001
2007
50 (planting)
168 (planting)
20
    Dieback disease, weeds, poor establishment Fire

Subpopulations 3t and 4t have been translocated into nature reserves which fall within the Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation formal conservation reserve system and are managed for the conservation of flora and fauna and, specifically, for the Western Prickly Honeysuckle (WA DEC 2007).

Western Prickly Honeysuckle is found on shallow soils over sheet ironstone (Brown et al. 1998; Keighery 1997; Obbens & Coates 1997; Stack et al. 1999) and white sandy soils over laterite (WA DEC 2007). It occurs on flats to foothills and grows in winter-wet rich scrub heath/shrubland (Brown et al. 1998; Stack et al. 1999) with sedges and scattered Banksia (Banksia spp.) and Marri (Corymbia calophylla) (Brown et al. 1998).

The ecological community in which it is found (Shrublands on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones) is a listed endangered (EPBC Act) ecological community (Stack et al. 1999). Much of the species diversity in this ironstone community comes from annuals and geophytes. Native species in the community include Kunzea aff. micrantha, Pericalymma ellipticum, Hakea sp. Williamson, Hemiandra pungens, Golden Spray (Viminaria juncea), Hakea varia, Loxocarya magna, and the herbs Aphelia cyperoides and Pointed Centrolepis (Centrolepis aristata) (Gibson et al. 1994). Six listed threatened taxa are found in the ironstone community in the vicinity of this taxon; Butterfly-leaved Gastrolobium (Gastrolobium papilio), Laterite Petrophile (Petrophile latericola), Abba Bell (Darwinia whicherensis), Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa), Royce's Waxflower (Chamelaucium sp. C Coast Plain (R.D.Royce 4872)) and Whicher Range Dryandra (B. squarrosa subsp. argillacea) (Stack et al. 1999).

The Western Prickly Honeysuckle flowers from October to December (Brown et al. 1998). It is expected that the taxon is killed by fire, as it has no lignotuber. Seedlings have been recorded three years following fire, which suggests the subspecies is an obligate seeder (Stack et al. 1999). The seed of the subspecies is released from the two flat follicles as soon as it is ripe and germination rates are highest when the seed is fresh (Fox et al. 1987 cited in Stack & Brown 2003a).

The Western Prickly Honeysuckle is a many branched shrub that grows to three metres tall. It is distinguished by its attractive, yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers (WA CALM 1998). Lambertia echinata subsp. echinata differs from the Western Prickly Honeysuckle in having pink-red flowers borne on short branchlets within the body of the plant. Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina differs in that all vegetative and floral leaves have three to five rigid points whereas the Western Prickly Honeysuckle's leaves are variable (Obbens & Coates 1997; Stack & Brown 2003a).

Detectability of this species would be optimum during its flowering season from October to December. Any additional survey should be focused on the known populations and remnant vegetation in similar soil and vegetation types (WA DEC 2007).

Threats to the Western Prickly Honeysuckle include (Stack & Brown 2003a):

  • Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback
  • hydrological change associated with mining activity
  • insect damage
  • too frequent and too infrequent fire
  • weeds.

Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback is a serious threat to the Western Prickly Honeysuckle. The disease has been located 300 metres to the south of subpopulation 1 near the access road and serious infections are located some distance upslope (Obbens & Coates 1997). There have also been deaths of Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa) near the Western Prickly Honeysuckle, which are likely to have been caused by canker (probably Armillaria luteobubalina) (Stack et al. 1999).

The species' habitat is likely to suffer degradation and hydrological changes as a result of mining activity in the area. Mineral sand exploration and extraction leases exist over the area of State Forest in which this subspecies occurs (i.e. at subpopulation 1) (Brown et al. 1998; Stack et al. 1999). A mineral sands mine exists within 70 metres of the ironstone ecological community in which Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis occurs. As the adjacent mine site was being dewatered to enable mining in early March 2004, an artificial recharge system was established to maintain the groundwater level and prevent plant deaths. At the end of summer in 2004, there was noticeable stress in the ironstone community and this was possibly attributable to drought or hydrological change. The vegetation at this site then appeared to recover soon after rains. In early 2005 the adjacent mine pit was completely backfilled and there was a rapid response in water levels. In February 2005, there was evidence of major stress in an area measuring about 100 metres by 60 metres, in proximity to subpopulation 1a. By May 2005, many of the plants that had previously appeared to be dead or highly stressed were re-shooting (English 1999 cited in Stack & Brown 2003a). Subpopulation 1b has not shown signs of stress from the disturbance event, as it occurs approximately 150 metres from the affected area (WA DEC 2007).

Borer and other insect damage has been observed on the branches of some plants, however, at this stage the threat this represents to the long term survival of the subspecies is unknown (Stack & Brown 2003a). There is also evidence that grasshopper damage destroyed 95% of seedlings germinated in a trial at Oates road in 2005 (WA DEC 2007).

The Western Prickly Honeysuckle Interim Recovery Plan (Stack & Brown 2003a) lists undertaken recovery actions, which include:

  • Negotiations with the mine operator in install a water recharge system.
  • Purchasing of private property for rehabilitation with ironstone species'.
  • Seed collection, propogation trials and translocation efforts.
  • Disease hygiene measures and phosphite applications.
  • Fencing, weed control and monitoring of populations.

Although its been shown that phosphite does not effectively treat dieback in the Western Prickly Honeysuckle, the treatment is effective at suppressing disease extension and generally promoting healthy habitat (Shearer et al. 2007).

Management documents relevant to the Western Prickly Honeysuckle can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to habitat hydrology Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G. & Brown, A., 2003a) [Recovery Plan].
Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English, 1999) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

English, V. (2005). Ironstone Community Recovering. WATSNU - WA Threatened Species Newsletter. 12 (1). Perth, Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001m). Threat Abatement Plan for Dieback Caused by the Root-rot Fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Gibson, N., B.J. Keighery, G.J. Keighery, A.H. Burbidge & M.N. Lyons (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission. Prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).

Keighery, G.J. (1997). A new subspecies of Lambertia echinata (Proteaceae). Nuytsia. 11(2):283-284.

Obbens, F.J. & D.J. Coates (1997). Conservation biology and management of endangered Lambertia species. CALM, Bentley.

Shearer, B.L., C.E. Crane, S. Barrett & A. Cochrane (2007). Phytophthora cinnamomi invasion, a major threatening process to flora diversity conservation in the South-West Botanical Province of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany. 55(3):225-238.

Stack, G. & Brown, A. (2003a). Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/l-echinata/index.html.

Stack, G., R. Evans & V. English (1999). Western Prickly Honeysuckle (Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis), Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. [Online]. WA CALM. CALM, Wanneroo. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/l-e-occidentalis/index.html.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (1998). Western Prickly Honeysuckle Information Sheet.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

Western Australian Herbarium (2007). FloraBase: The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/. [Accessed: 05-Apr-2007].

Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Lambertia echinata subsp. occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 23:55:53 +1000.