Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Grevillea maccutcheonii
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan] as Grevillea maccutcheonii.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea maccutcheonii.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (11/04/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007f) [Legislative Instrument] as Grevillea maccutcheonii.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Grevillea maccutcheonii
Scientific name Grevillea maccutcheonii [64522]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Keighery & Cranfield
Infraspecies author  
Reference Nuytsia 11(1):33 (1996)
Other names Grevillea maccutcheonii Keighery & Cranfield ms. [67415]
Grevillea mccutcheonii [68273]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/17112

The current conservation status of McCutcheon's Grevillea, Grevillea maccutcheonii, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Grevillea maccutcheonii

Common name: McCutcheon's Grevillea

McCutcheon's Grevillea is a dense, spreading tall shrub which grows to 2 m tall and 3 m wide. It has attractive large red flowers and distinctive, flattened three-lobed leaves that encircle the stem. Flowering has been recorded between May and December, peaking in July to November (Stack et al. 2003; Western Australian Herbarium n.d.).

McCutcheon's Grevillea is known only from a single location near the base of the Whicher Range, south east of Busselton, in Western Australia. This area is on the interface between the Swan Coastal Plain and the Whicher Scarp (Brown et al. 1998; Keighery & Cranfield 1996).

The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy of this species are approximately 240 m² or 0.0024 km². This has been approximated from field monitoring of the population by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC 2007). There is no data to indicate a decline in the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy of this highly restricted species. However, it was probably originally found in a tall mixed shrubland and the extent of occurrence would have exceeded the area that it is now known to occur in (Stack et al. 2003). There is no data to indicate future declines in extent of occurrence. However, as it is a highly restricted species which only occurs in one known location, a single disturbance event could destroy the entire population in the wild (WA DEC 2007).

A translocation was undertaken in 2000 with about 300 plants propagated by the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) from seed and cuttings.

The Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA) currently holds 15 plants of McCutcheon's Grevillea representing five clones. The species has been extremely variable in its propagation success rate, with strike rates ranging from 0% to 100%. This may be due in part to time of year and quality of collected material but no consistency has yet been determined (A. Shade pers. comm., cited in Stack et al. 2003). Plants are also cultivated in the National Botanic Garden of Wales (Ammaford News 2013).

Stack and colleagues (2003) note that apart from plants in the BGPA and several private native gardens, McCutcheon's Grevillea is not known to be in cultivation. However, its compact habit, beautiful foliage, colourful flowers and extended flowering period would make it an attractive native plant for the nursery trade.

The species' distribution is highly restricted, though not severely fragmented (WA DEC 2007).

The type specimen for McCutcheon's Grevillea was collected in November 1993, however, this species was first collected prior to 1992. Despite comprehensive surveys in the area conducted between 1992 and 1994 by DEC staff (Gibson et al. 1994) and floristic records for the area dating back to the turn of the century, the site of the original collection is the only known location of the species (Stack et al. 2003).

The known subpopulations have been surveyed opportunistically by DEC staff (Table 1).

Table 1. Survey history of McCutcheon's Grevillea (WA DEC 2007).

Subpopulation Land
Tenure
Survey History Number of
Plants Recorded
Area
1a Shire Road
Reserve
14/12/1994
25/04/1996
09/07/1996
30/10/1996
26/12/1997
15/05/1998
26/02/1998
25/01/2000
19/05/2000
03/04/2001
08/08/2005
March 2007

2
2
2
2
3
3
10
14
10 (19 seedlings)
7 (24 seedlings)
7 (21 seedlings)









Not recorded
240m²
Not recorded
1b Nature
Reserve
30/03/1993
02/09/1994
03/12/1999
26/05/2000
19/06/2000
03/04/2001

0
0


13 (20 seedlings)





Not recorded
1t Nature
Reserve
June 2000
24/08/2000
November 2000
July 2001
December 2001
May 2002
November 2002
November 2006
292 (translocated)
66 survived
20 survived
147 (translocated)
54 survived


170
 
2t Nature
Reserve
2000
July 2001
November 2006
48 (translocated)
21 (translocated)
29
 
t = Translocated populations

The total population size for this species is estimated to be approximately seven mature plants. This is an estimated count from population monitoring (WA DEC 2007). There are additional plants in the translocated subpopulations, however these have not yet proved to be independently viable (capable of reproducing unassisted), so they should be regarded as surviving within a 'nursery' situation (WA DEC 2007).

The species' population is split into four subpopulations (1a, 1b, 1t and 2t), which are defined by differences in land tenure and management, as well as location. Subpopulations 1a and 1b occur naturally whereas 1t and 2t are made up of translocated plants.

In 1993, McCutcheon's Grevillea was known from 27 plants, five on a road verge (subpopulation 1a) and 22 on the adjoining private property (subpopulation 1b). During a survey of the population in September 1994 none of the plants were located on the private property site and the area was being grazed by cattle. The cattle were removed and the land purchased by the then Department of Conservation and Land Management in 1999.

Road grading activities in 1995 reduced the population, at subpopulation 1a, to four mature plants. Sixteen seedlings germinated during 1996–1997, ten of these had survived in 1999. In 1999 there were a total of 14 plants and four seedlings at subpopulation 1a (Phillimore & Papenfus 1999) and by 2003 there were 13 mature plants and 20 seedlings (Stack et al. 2003).

By June 2005 there were 24 seedlings located at subpopulation 1a, and seven mature plants. During 2004–2005, there were eight to ten new seedlings and an approximate loss of five to six plants due to road maintenance, traffic and natural events (WA DEC 2007).

McCutcheon's Grevillea is a disturbance opportunist, and while the known wild subpopulation fluctuates in size from time to time, it is largely stable. Although the road grading is putting the subpopulation at some risk, it is also generating disturbance which promotes seedling germination. These seedlings are moved from the shoulder of the road to avoid being damaged or destroyed by road traffic (WA DEC 2007).

The life span of McCutcheon's Grevillea is unknown but flowering has been noted to occur on plants grown from cuttings within approximately two years (Stack et al. 2003), and seedlings flower within three years (WA DEC 2007).

Given that this species is known from only two natural locations (subpopulations 1a and 1b), it is considered that all known habitat for the single known and translocated populations are essential for its survival (WA DEC 2007). The wild subpopulations are particularly important as they represent the only known instance in which this species occurs naturally, as well as being a source of plants for translocation in the future.

Subpopulation 1b, 1t and 2t all occur in nature reserves which are managed by DEC for the conservation of flora and fauna and specifically for the management of McCutcheon's Grevillea (WA DEC 2007).

McCutcheon's Grevillea occurs in perched wetlands known as the Abba Wet Ironstone Flats, on shallow red sandy clay soils over ironstone. The species grows on seasonally inundated sites on shallow soils over laterite and clay. Associated species are a tall shrubland of Calothamnus quadrifidus, Dryandra sp., Hakea aff. varia, Viminaria juncea over low shrubs and sedges (Keighery & Cranfield 1996).

McCutcheon's Grevillea grows on shallow red brown clay associated with the highly restricted southern ironstone formations found at the base of the Whicher Range (Stack et al. 2003).


McCutcheon's Grevillea is located within the Shrublands on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones community, which is listed as Critically Endangered in Western Australia (English 1999c) and Endangered under the EPBC Act.

It is also associated with two other EPBC Act listed threatened flora: Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa (Endangered) and Dryandra squarrosa subsp. argillacea (Vulnerable) (WA DEC 2007).

McCutcheon's Grevillea flowers between May and December, peaking in July to November (Stack et al. 2003). Mature fruits have been found in April and May (Keighery & Cranfield 1996; Makinson 2000b; Phillimore & Papenfus 1999).

The flowers were visited by honeyeaters in November 1993 (Keighery & Cranfield 1996). The species regenerates apparently from seed only (Makinson 2000b). It is a disturbance opportunist and seedlings have germinated on the road reserve in grader spoil (Stack et al. 2003).

McCutcheon's Grevillea is a large shrub up to 2 m tall with attractive red flowers (Stack et al. 2003).

This species differs from Grevillea manglesioides and two other related taxa (G. diversifolia and G. papillosa) in having panduriform, rigid, stem-clasping leaves and larger flowers (pistil 20–24 mm long versus 6–11 mm in all other members of the species complex). McCutcheon's Grevillea also has glabrous vegetative and floral parts, with the exception of the margins of the floral bracts (Keighery & Cranfield 1996).

Surveys are best conducted when the species is in flower, however it can be identified without flowers (WA DEC 2007).

McCutcheon's Grevillea has specific habitat requirements and is naturally geographically restricted to the ironstone soils near Busselton. This soil type has been massively impacted by vegetation clearing in the past. Tille and Lantzke (1990c) mapped the southern ironstone soils in the Busselton area and the original extent of the community can be derived from this. There are about 1200 ha of the soil type, of which about 90 ha remain uncleared. This represents a loss of over 90% of the area of a plant community that was originally highly restricted in distribution (Meissner & English 2005).

Other threats as outlined in Table 2, include its vulnerability as an extremely restricted population, possible introduction of dieback disease associated with Phytophthora infection, fire, degraded habitat, poor survival of seedlings, weed invasion, chemical drift and accidental damage during roadworks (Environment Australia 2001b; Phillimore & Papenfus 1999).

Table 2. Past, current and potential future threats to McCutcheon's Grevillea subpopulations (WA DEC 2007).

Subpopulation Number Current Condition Past Present Potential Future
1a Healthy Grazing and compaction from cattle being moved along the road between paddocks from surrounding farms, land clearing Weed invasion, degraded habitat Phytophthora spp. dieback, road maintenance activities, competition, fire
1b Moderate Grazing (cattle), land clearing Weed competition, degraded habitat, strong winds, Road maintenance activities, competition, fire Phytophthora sp. dieback
1t     Weed competition (Guildford grass), degraded habitat, strong winds, Phytophthora dieback Grazing (rabbits), disease, fire, chemical drift
2t     Degraded habitat Weed competition, grazing, disease, fire, chemical drift, center pivots from adjoining farm

Stack and colleagues (2003) describe the following threats to McCutcheon's Grevillea:

Weed invasion and competition is a major threat to both natural and translocated subpopulations. Weeds suppress early plant growth by competing for soil moisture, nutrients and light. They also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard due to the high fuel loads that are produced annually by many grass weed species. Subpopulation 1a is on a narrow linear road reserve that has little buffering, and is severely affected by weed invasion from adjacent cleared land. The translocated subpopulations are being planted into areas previously cleared for agriculture and are presently being rehabilitated.

Grazing by rabbits has impacted on McCutcheon's Grevillea subpopulation 1t. In addition to direct grazing, rabbits also encourage invasion of weeds through soil digging, addition of nutrients to soil, and introduction of weed seeds. The high level of palatable weeds in the area of subpopulations and in adjacent farming properties attract herbivorous animals, which are often unselective in their grazing.

Disease is a serious threat to Subpopulation 1t. Phytophthora cinnamomi is a plant pathogen that causes root rot which results in the plant dying of drought stress. McCutcheon's Grevillea has been found to be moderately susceptible to dieback caused by P. cinnamomi (C. Crane, pers. comm. cited in Stack et al. 2003). Recently, a number of plant deaths have occurred at subpopulations 1a and 1b and testing has shown that a new strain of Phytophthora (closely related to Phytophthora inundata) may be responsible. Testing is continuing and more sampling is underway to confirm the presence of this new strain and the potential impacts it may have (WA DEC 2007).

Fire affects the viability of the known subpopulations as seeds of McCutcheon's Grevillea are likely to germinate following fire. If this is the case, the soil seed bank would rapidly be depleted if fires recurred before regenerating or juvenile plants reached maturity and replenished the soil seed bank. Fires also generally stimulate the germination of weeds which have infested the habitat of the natural subpopulation.

Degraded habitat represents a threat to all subpopulations. The lack of associated native vegetation makes it more likely that pollinators will be infrequent or absent. In addition, the lack of available habitat for recruitment is of concern.

Strong wind is a threat to subpopulations 1b and 1t due to a lack of protective natural vegetation. Wind can physically damage adult plants, increase soil moisture loss and dislodge enough material to smother small plants.

Road maintenance threatens subpopulation 1a and 1b and their habitat. Associated threats include grading, chemical spraying, construction of drainage channels and the mowing of roadside vegetation. Several of these actions also encourage weed invasion (Stack et al. 2003). In 2004 a mineral sands mining operation began at the eastern end of Oates Road. As a result, traffic and road maintenance (Oates Road has a gravel surface) has increased. This necessitated the removal of 3–5 mature plants in 2006 which, because of their size, would otherwise have encroached on the road and affected road safety (WA DEC 2007).

Competition between McCutcheon's Grevillea and several other native species is also a threat. The dominant ones being Melaleuca incana, Viminaria juncea, Hakea sp. Williamson, Kunzea aff. micrantha, Loxocarya magna, Juncus microcephalus, Acacia sp. and Dryandra nivea subsp. uliginosa. These have been pruned in the past to reduce competition (Stack et al. 2003). McCutcheon's Grevillea had out-competed other protected species in its vicinity, with the result that in earlier years, permits for the removal of McCutcheon's Grevillea were issued (WA DEC 2007).

The McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003–2008 (Stack et al. 2003) describes the following existing and proposed recovery actions:

Existing recovery actions

All relevant land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the species. The notification details the Declared Threatened status (in Western Australia) of McCutcheon's Grevillea and the legal responsibility to protect it.

Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at subpopulation 1a. These alert people working in the area to the presence of significant flora, helping to prevent accidental damage during maintenance operations. Awareness of the significance of these markers is being promoted to relevant bodies such as the Shire. To this end, dashboard stickers and stubby holders have been produced. These illustrate DRF markers and the need to avoid disturbance between them. An on-site meeting has been held at Subpopulation 1a with relevant road maintenance workers, a Shire representative and Blackwood District staff, at which road maintenance workers were presented with stubby holders.

In 2001, invasive weeds were controlled by hand around McCutcheon's Grevillea by volunteers and Department staff. The paddock section of subpopulation 1t had herbicide applied via a blanket wiper mounted on a four-wheel motorbike to control Guilford grass (Romulea sp.), which was very effective. The remaining weed species are mostly annuals which will be controlled by application of herbicide and slashing as required. The aim is to eventually smother the weed species with native vegetation.

Subpopulation 1a has been fenced to protect plants from road works and grazing. The fence was observed to have rusted in some sections in 2001, but repairs have now been completed. Rabbit activity was also observed, and 1080 poisoned oats, gassing and shooting have all been used to reduce the number of rabbits. However, rabbits continue to threaten translocated plants and further rabbit control will be undertaken.

Although disease hygiene is actively practiced during all recovery activities, dieback appears to be active in the south-west corner of the Nature Reserve containing subpopulations 1b and 1t. The first positive Phytophthora cinnamomi result from this species was confirmed from a plant translocated into that area in 2002. Results from dieback susceptibility testing indicate the species to be moderately susceptible. Investigations into the possibility of using Restionaceae species to inhibit the spread of the disease were conducted in 2002.

Different treatments being trialled to improve the success rate of translocated plants include ripping and mounding, mounding, watering and shading. Control sites were also established. Problems are being experienced due to the death of translocated plants from Phytophthora infection (Stack et al. 2003).

The translocated plants planted in 2000 were backpack-sprayed with phosphite in February 2001. Tissue samples were obtained and analysed for phosphite concentrations in early 2002. Uptake was shown to be good, however, it is too early to judge if it is effective in controlling dieback in this species.

Fire response plans have been developed for this site and incorporated into the Fire Control Working Plan. It is also intended to inform other relevant fire fighting agencies of appropriate responses to a fire threatening the site. Firebreaks surrounding the property are maintained in good working order.

Two areas of ironstone habitat on private property were purchased by DEC in 1999. Although degraded due to clearing for agriculture, the sites have the right soil type and are being rehabilitated using both common and critically endangered (in Western Australia) ironstone species. One site is adjacent to the natural subpopulation (Subpopulation 1a) of McCutcheon's Grevillea and been rabbit proof fencing. The second site has been fenced with three strand wire. Both areas have been vested as Class A Nature Reserves for the purpose of conservation. The purchase of another area of private property is also in progress, further extending the potential area for future translocations.

Additional plantings were undertaken in 2001 and 2002, extending the original translocations. In 2001 a further 176 plants were planted in the translocated subpopulations 1t and 2t (147 into 1t and 21 into 2t). Jute matting was trialled to suppress weeds and conserve water with mixed success. Strong winds unpegged a number of the mats and blew them onto translocated plants, smothering them. Wind guards were also trialled but had similar problems due to unpegging and it was thought that they may also foster fungal infection. In addition to these problems, rabbits, weeds, strong winds, and inundation followed by a longer than average summer drought all contributed to deaths of translocated plants, with poor initial survival overall. Watering systems were installed at both sites, weed and rabbit control undertaken and windbreaks started in 2002 in order to address these issues (Stack et al. 2003).

Eight seed collections have been made from subpopulation 1 since 1994, resulting in a total of approximately 1000 seeds in storage at DEC's Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC). Some seed has been germinated for propagation as per approved translocation proposals. Staff of the TFSC test the viability of seed soon after collection and again after one year in storage. The initial germination rate of McCutcheon's Grevillea seed ranged from 75% to 77%, and after one year in storage, the germination rate was 80% (A. Cochrane unpubl. data, cited in Stack et al. 2003).

Translocations have been undertaken and seed collected for propagation and storage.

A double-sided information sheet has been produced, and includes a description of McCutcheon's Grevillea, its habitat, threats, recovery actions and photos. This will be distributed to community members through local libraries, wildflower shows and other means. An information sheet in support of landholders protecting their remnant vegetation has been produced about the values of Abba Plains vegetation by the local catchment group Geocatch with Departmental assistance. This information sheet includes details of the 'Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstones' threatened ecological community and photos of McCutcheon's Grevillea and other key species. It is hoped that it and the species' information sheet will result in the discovery of new subpopulations. A threatened flora display was operated during the Annual Busselton Wildflower Show.

Staff from DEC's Blackwood District regularly monitor all occurrences of McCutcheon's Grevillea.

Future recovery actions

The following future recovery actions, as described by Stack and colleagues (2003), will be monitored by the WA DEC through the South West Region Threatened Flora Recovery Team (SWRTFRT).

Coordination
The SWRTFRT will coordinate recovery actions for McCutcheon's Grevillea and other Declared Rare Flora in the region.

Weed control
The current level of threat from weeds is not high, due to past weed control actions. However, if weed density increases again it will impact on McCutcheon's Grevillea by competing for resources, degrading habitat, exacerbating grazing pressure, and increasing the risk and severity of fire. Remaining weeds are mostly annuals, and weed control will be undertaken in consultation with the land managers as needed. This will be by hand-weeding or localised application of herbicide. All weed control that is undertaken will be followed by a report on the method, timing and success of the treatment and any detrimental effect on McCutcheon's Grevillea and associated native plant species.

Rabbit control
After some previous rabbit control the current level of threat is moderate. Subpopulations have been surrounded by rabbit proof fences to protect them from grazing (subpopulations 1a, 1b, 1t and 2t). However, as rabbits are still having some impact on subpopulations through grazing and digging they will be controlled using a variety of methods as appropriate in consultation with relevant landholders.

Hygiene measures
McCutcheon's Grevillea has been shown to be moderately susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Hygiene measures will be adhered to wherever possible during road works, installation and maintenance of firebreaks and when walking into the area during wet soil conditions.

Phosphite application
Research conducted from 1992 to 1997 indicates that phosphite application is a very effective tool in controlling P. cinnamomi (Murray 1997, cited in Stack et al. 2003). DEC will apply phosphite to the area of subpopulations, either by hand spraying or by aerial spraying. This action will have the added benefit of protecting a number of other threatened plant species in the threatened ecological community in which McCutcheon's Grevillea occurs.

Fire management strategy
McCutcheon's Grevillea is an opportunistic species that germinates from soil-stored seed following fire and soil disturbance. However, frequent fire will kill plants before they reach maturity and may result in the accumulation of insufficient soil stored seed for regeneration. Except for recovery purposes, fire should be excluded from the area of subpopulations. A fire response plan developed for this site which determines fire control measures and fire frequency has been incorporated into the Blackwood District's Fire Control Working Plan. Other fire fighting agencies will be informed of appropriate responses to fire threatening this site. Firebreaks will continue to be maintained.

Translocation
Although translocations are generally undertaken under full Recovery Plans, the threats to the small wild subpopulation of McCutcheon's Grevillea requires the implementation of a translocation proposal within the time frame of the IRP. A translocation proposal has been prepared and implemented by DEC through the SWRTFRT.

Habitat rehabilitation
Habitat rehabilitation at the site of subpopulation 1b will include the planting of species native to that site with particular emphasis on species that provide habitat for pollinators. Site rehabilitation will extend beyond the current boundary of the McCutcheon's Grevillea subpopulation to control further weed invasion.

Seed and cuttings
Preservation of germplasm is essential to guard against extinction if the wild subpopulation is lost. Such collections are also needed to propagate plants for translocations. A small quantity of seed has been collected from subpopulation 1a but further collections are required. Cuttings will also be collected and used for propagation to enhance the living collection at the Botanic Garden and Parks Authority (BGPA). This will be undertaken by DEC through the SWRTFRT.

Liaison
Staff from DEC's Blackwood District will liaise with relevant land managers to ensure that subpopulations of McCutcheon's Grevillea are not accidentally damaged or destroyed.

Monitoring
Annual monitoring of factors such as habitat degradation (including weed invasion and salinity), subpopulation stability (expansion or decline), pollination activity, seed production, recruitment, longevity and predation is essential. Competition from associated native species will also be monitored at Subpopulation 1a.

The presence and movement of Phytophthora cinnamomi will be monitored and the need for further dieback control will be assessed periodically. Monitoring will also examine the effect of phosphite application, both for its control of P. cinnamomi and its impact on native species.

Surveys
Although the community type in which McCutcheon's Grevillea occurs has been extensively surveyed over the last decade it is possible that additional subpopulations of this or other threatened ironstone species may be discovered on private land. Surveys will target remnant vegetation as permission is obtained. Surveys by Departmental staff and community volunteers will be conducted during the flowering period of the species (July–November). This will be undertaken by DEC through the SWRTFRT.

Stimulate germination of soil-stored seed
Soil disturbance has been shown to be effective in stimulating the germination of soil-stored seed. When mature plants senesce, soil disturbance will be implemented to encourage recruitment.

Community awareness
The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of McCutcheon's Grevillea in the wild will be promoted to the general community through the local print, electronic media and poster displays. An information sheet, which includes a description of the plant, its habitat type, threats, management actions and photos, has been produced. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will be encouraged.

Obtain biological and ecological information
Better knowledge of the biology and ecology of McCutcheon's Grevillea will provide a scientific basis for management of wild subpopulations. An understanding of the following is necessary for effective management:

  • soil seed bank dynamics and the role of various disturbances (including fire), competition, rainfall and grazing in germination and recruitment
  • the pollination biology of the species
  • the requirements of pollinators
  • the reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species
  • the population genetic structure, levels of genetic diversity and minimum viable population size
  • the impact of dieback disease and control techniques on the species and its habitat
  • the impact of changes in the level of salinity on the species and its habitat.

McCutcheon's Grevillea taxonomy was described by Keighery, G.J. and Cranfield, R.J. (1996).

Key management documentation is as follows:

McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003–2008 (Stack et al. 2003).

Recovery actions are also described in Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region, Wildlife Management program No. 33 (Williams et al. 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R. & Papenfus, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Wind damage McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii), Interim Recovery Plan 1996-1999 (Papenfus, D., Brown, A. & Bunny, F., 1997f) [State Recovery Plan].
McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R. & Papenfus, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R. & Papenfus, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Invasion and competition from native plant species McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R. & Papenfus, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Phillimore, R. & Papenfus, D., 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2 (Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb, 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V., 2003) [Recovery Plan].

Ammanford News (2013). The National Botanic Garden of Wales. [Online]. Available from: http://www.thisisammanford.co.uk/local-attractions/the-national-botanic-garden-of-wales/.

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Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.

English, V. (1999c). Shrubland Association on Southern Swan Coastal Plain Ironstone (Busselton Area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim recovery Plan 1999 - 2002. Shrublands on southern Swan Coastal Plain ironstones in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=23.

Environment Australia (2001b). Threatened Species Information and Resources - Fact Sheets. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ea.gov/biodiversity/threatened/information/factsheets/.

Gibson, N., B.J. Keighery, G.J. Keighery, A.H. Burbidge & M.N. Lyons (1994). A floristic survey of the Southern Swan Coastal Plain. Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission. Prepared by the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation Council of Western Australia (Inc.).

Keighery, G.J. & Cranfield, R.J. (1996). Grevillea maccutcheonii (Proteaceae), a new rare Grevillea from Western Australia. Nuytsia. 11(1):33-36.

Makinson, R.O. (2000b). Proteaceae 2 - Grevillea. In: Flora of Australia. 17A:1-524. Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.

Meissner, R. & V. English (2005). Shrubland association on southern swan coastal plain ironstone (Busselton area) (Southern Ironstone Association) Interim Recovery Plan No. 215 2005-2010. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Murray, D., ed. (1997). Control of Phytophthora and Diplodina Canker in Western Australia. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Phillimore, R. & Papenfus, D. (1999). McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 1999-2002. [Online]. WA CALM. Perth: Dept of Conservation & Land Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/g-maccutcheonii/index.html.

Stack, G., Brown, A. & English, V. (2003). McCutcheon's Grevillea (Grevillea maccutcheonii) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/g-maccutcheonii/index.html.

Tille, P. J., and N. C. Lantzke (1990c). Busselton - Margaret River - Augusta land capability study; methodology and results Volume 2 Appendices. Technical Report 109. Division of Resource Management. Western Australian Department of Agriculture. Perth.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2007). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation.

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Williams, K., A. Horan, S. Wood & A. Webb (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Central Forest Region. Part 2. [Online]. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 33. Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Grevillea maccutcheonii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sun, 31 Aug 2014 05:56:36 +1000.