Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Threatened Species of the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin. Western Whipbird (eastern subspecies) Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster. Vulnerable (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2006j) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster [64448]
Family Cinclosomatidae:Passeriformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Howe & Ross, 1933
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster

Common name: Western Whipbird (eastern)

Other names: Also known, at the species level, as the Whipbird, Black-throated Whipbird, Mallee Whipbird, Mallee Black-throated Whipbird, Mallee Western Whipbird, Coachwhip-bird, Psophodes or Rainbird.

The Western Whipbird (eastern) is one of four currently accepted subspecies of the Western Whipbird (Higgins & Peter 2002; Schodde & Mason 1991). One morphological study elevated the westernmost subspecies of the Western Whipbird, P. n. nigrogularis, to full species status and assigned the three remaining subspecies (oberon, lashmari and leucogaster) to the newly-recognized Mallee Whipbird Psophodes leucogaster (Schodde & Mason 1999). However, the separation of nigrogularis from the other three subspecies of the Western Whipbird is not supported by more recent genetic evidence and the Western Whipbird (western heath) has been replaced within P. nigrogularis (Christidis & Norman 1999).

The Western Whipbird (eastern) is about 20 to 25 cm long and has a mass of around 47 g (Higgins & Peter 2002). It is a distinctive bird, with a short triangular crest, a short and stout bill, long and powerful legs, short rounded wings, and a long graduated tail. It is mostly greyish-olive to olive above, with a prominent white stripe down each cheek and a black chin and throat, and grey to olive below, with a broad white stripe down the centre of the breast and belly (Higgins & Peter 2002; Schodde & Mason 1999). It has dull red irides, a narrow ring of grey skin around each eye, a grey-black to black bill, and dark grey legs and feet. The sexes are alike, but juvenile birds can be distinguished from the adults by the absence of the black and white colouring on the cheeks, chin and throat (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The Western Whipbird (eastern) usually occurs singly or in pairs (Carpenter & Matthew 1986; Howe & Ross 1933; Hunt 1976; McNamara 1966; Woinarski et al. 1988), or sometimes in small groups of three or four birds (Condon 1966).

The Western Whipbird (eastern) occurs in three isolated regional populations in southern South Australia: the first on the southern Eyre Peninsula; the second on the south-western Yorke Peninsula; and the third in the Murray-Mallee region of south-eastern South Australia (perhaps extending across the border to western Victoria). It may also occur in a fourth isolated population in north-western Victoria (Schodde & Mason 1991, 1999).

The population on the Eyre Peninsula is restricted to sites around Coffin Bay National Park and Lincoln National Park (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Carpenter et al. 2003; Garnett & Crowley 2000; McNamara 1966; Rogers 2003). The population on the Yorke Peninsula is mainly confined to Innes National Park (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Condon 1966; Mack 1967; Rogers 2003) and Warrenben Conservation Park (Higgins & Peter 2002).

The population in the Murray-Mallee region occurs at scattered sites from Billiatt Conservation Park south to Ninety-Mile Plain, Mount Rescue Conservation Park, Ngarkat Conservation Park and Comet Bore; and at several sites further west (Barrett et al. 2003; Blakers et al. 1984; Carpenter & Matthew 1986; Carpenter et al. 2003; Glover 1969; Hatch 1977; Rogers 2004; Woinarski et al. 1988). The population could also extend to sites across the border in western Victoria, from where there are historical records around Manya and Murrayville (Bryant 1938; Chisholm 1946; Howe & Burgess 1942; Howe & Ross 1933) and at Red Bluff and Moonlight Tank (Hunt 1976; Hunt & Kenyon 1970).

The Western Whipbird (eastern) had been presumed to persist in suitable habitat in the Sunset Country and Big Desert regions (Garnett & Crowley 2000), despite the fact that the most recent records of the Western Whipbird (eastern) in Victoria were made in 1974 and in the mid 1980s (although this later record is unconfirmed) (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins & Peter 2002; Hunt 1976; Woinarski et al. 1988). No records of the whipbird were obtained from the Sunset Country region during recent intensive surveys for the Black-eared Miner (Manorina melanotis). This result suggests that the Western Whipbird (eastern) may now be extinct in the Sunset Country region. Thus, if the subspecies continues to occur in Victoria, it is likely to be within Big Desert Wilderness Park, the majority of which has not been surveyed (P. Menkhorst 2007, pers. comm.).

The extent of occurrence of the Western Whipbird (eastern) is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 30 000 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The extent of occurrence has declined. The Western Whipbird (eastern) was formerly more widespread on the Eyre Peninsula, where it once occurred north to Cockaleechie (Condon 1966, 1969). The disappearance of the subspecies from Peebinga in South Australia (Condon 1969) and the absence of any recent records from Victoria (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins & Peter 2002) could indicate that the distribution has contracted at the eastern limit of the range. The decline in the extent of occurrence is probably continuing (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The area of occupancy of the Western Whipbird (eastern) is estimated, with low reliability, to be 200 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy has also declined. Like the extent of occurrence, the decline in area of occupancy is probably due to contractions at the eastern limit of the subspecies' range. The decline in area of occupancy has continued in recent years as extensive fires have burnt out large areas of suitable habitat in the Murray-Mallee region (Clarke 2004; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Gates 2003; SA DEH 2006).

The distribution of the Western Whipbird (eastern) has been severely fragmented because of a loss of suitable habitat due to clearing and extensive wildfires (Garnett & Crowley 2000; SA DEH 2006).

The Western Whipbird (eastern) has been moderately well surveyed, with searches conducted:

  • at five locations in the Big Desert region of South Australia and Victoria between 1968 and 1975 (Hunt 1976)
  • at all known locations in the Murray-Mallee region, except for Malinong, in 1985 (Woinarski et al. 1988)
  • in and around Billiatt Conservation Park, Mount Rescue Conservation Park and Ngarkat Conservation Park in 2003 (Clarke 2004; Gates 2003).
  • These surveys were successful in locating only a small number of birds. Further survey work is needed before the distribution and population size of the Western Whipbird (eastern) can be assessed more accurately (Baker-Gabb in prep.). To address this problem, annual surveys are being conducted in Innes National Park (SA DEH 2005) and regular population monitoring is likely to commence at other key sites in the near future (Baker-Gabb in prep.). No monitoring is conducted at present in Victoria (P. Menkhorst 2007, pers. comm.).

    The total population of the Western Whipbird (eastern) is speculatively estimated to comprise of 2000 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) occurs in three or four isolated regional populations (Schodde & Mason 1991, 1999). Based on recent records, the Eyre and Yorke Peninsula populations probably consist of 250 or more birds each (Garnett & Crowley 2000; SA DEH 2006). However, the other three locations are thought to support fewer than 100 birds in total (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Billiatt Conservation Park possibly only supports tens of birds (Baker-Gabb in prep.; Clarke 2004; Gates 2003), and a similarly small population may exist in Ngarkat Conservation Park, where most of the habitat considered suitable for the Western Whipbird (eastern) was burnt by wildfires in 2005 and 2006 (SA DEH 2006). There is the possibility that an additional population could persist within Big Desert Wilderness Park, but this requires confirmation (P. Menkhorst 2007, pers. comm.).

    The total population size of the Western Whipbird (eastern) is probably declining (Garnett & Crowley 2000). No quantitative information is available to illustrate this, but a decline is considered likely based on the extinction of local populations at Cockaleechie and Peebinga (Condon 1966, 1969), the absence of any recent records or reports from Victoria (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Higgins & Peter 2002), the recent loss of much suitable habitat, and a consequent substantial contraction in the distribution of the subspecies, due to extensive wildfires in Ngarkat National Park and the Big Desert region (Garnett & Crowley 2000; P. Menkhorst 2007, pers. comm.; SA DEH 2006).

    The generation length of the Western Whipbird (eastern) is estimated, with low reliability, to be five years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

    No cross-breeding has been recorded between the Western Whipbird (eastern) and any other species or subspecies. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs because the distribution of the Western Whipbird (eastern) does not overlap with the distribution of any other species in the genus Psophodes (Higgins & Peter 2002), or with the distribution of any of the other three recognized subspecies of the Western Whipbird (eastern) (Schodde & Mason 1999).

    Most extant populations of the Western Whipbird (eastern), and most critical habitat for the subspecies, occur within conservation reserves (Baker-Gabb in prep.; SA DEH 2005).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) inhabits mallee and thicket vegetation in coastal and inland areas of southern South Australia (Baker-Gabb in prep.). It usually occurs in habitats that have an open layer of mallee about 3–5 m tall and an understorey of dense shrubs about 1.5–2 m tall (Woinarski et al. 1988). It occurs in mallee scrub on sand flats, dunes and limestone that consists of an overstorey of mallee eucalypts such as Lerp Mallee (Eucalyptus incrassata), Red Mallee (E. socialis), Narrow-leaved Mallee (E. foecunda), White Mallee (E. dumosa), Soap Mallee (E. diversifolia) or Giant Mallee (E. oleosa). This habitat is characterised by a dense species-rich heath understorey of shrubs including Dryland Teatree (Melaleuca lanceolata), Broom Honey-myrtle (M. uncinata), Baeckea behrii, Desert Banksia (Banksia ornata), Mallee Pine (Callitris verrucosa), Desert Hakea (Hakea muelleriana), Leptospermum coriaceum, species of Allocasurina, and Porcupine Grass (Triodia irritans) (Carpenter & Matthew 1986; Condon 1966; Higgins & Peter 2002; Howe & Ross 1933; Hunt 1976; Hunt & Kenyon 1970; McGilp & Parsons 1939; Woinarski et al. 1988). It also occurs in thickets of Acacia (Condon 1966).

    The structure of the habitat appears to be more important in determining suitability than the species composition (Smith 1991b) and the frequency of wildfire has an important role in maintaining a habitat structure that is suitable for the Western Whipbird (eastern) (Baker-Gabb in prep.; Woinarski et al. 1988). The Western Whipbird (eastern) has been recorded in habitats that were last burnt less than two years earlier, and in habitats that were last burnt forty or more years ago, but most habitats that are occupied have a post-fire age of 10 to 25 years (Clarke 2005b; Higgins & Peter 2002; Woinarski et al. 1988).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) is said to associate with the Red-lored Whistler (Pachycephala rufogularis) (Hunt & Kenyon 1970), which is listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act. It also occurs in areas inhabited by the Malleefowl (Leipoa ocellata) and Regent Parrot (eastern) (Polytelis anthopeplus monarchoides) both listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act and the Black-eared Miner (Manorina melanotis) and Mallee Emu-wren (Stipiturus mallee) (Baker-Gabb in prep.) listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act.

    No specific information is available on the age at sexual maturity, life expectancy or natural mortality of the Western Whipbird (eastern). However, based on observations of the related Eastern Whipbird (Psophodes olivaceus), the Western Whipbird (eastern) might be capable of breeding at less than one year of age (Dunn 1993) and of surviving to more than 12 years of age (ABBBS 1996). Garnett and Crowley (2000) estimate the generation length to be five years. The generation length is the average age of parents of the current cohort, and therefore reflects the turnover rate of breeding individuals in a population. In species that breed more than once the generation length is greater than the age at first breeding and less than the age of the oldest breeding individual.

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) has been recorded breeding in September and October (Bryant 1938; Howe & Burgess 1942; Howe & Ross 1933; Woinarski et al. 1988), with one record of adults and young in April (Glover 1969). It builds a bowl-shaped nest from twigs, bark and grass that is placed close to the ground in a dense bush (such as Broom Honey-myrtle), clump of spinifex Triodia, sedge or grass-tree Xanthorrhoea (Bryant 1938; Howe & Burgess 1942; Howe & Ross 1933; McGilp & Parsons 1939; Woinarski et al. 1988). It lays a clutch of two eggs that are pale blue with black and brown or purple spots and blotches (Howe & Burgess 1942; Howe & Ross 1933; McGilp & Parsons 1939). The eggs are incubated by the female (Bryant 1938; Howe & Ross 1933; McGilp & Parsons 1939) and, based on observations of the closely-related subspecies Western Whipbird (western heath) (P. n. nigrogularis), probably also by the male (Smith 1991b; Webster 1966c).

    The incubation period, fledging period, period of dependence and role of the sexes in care of the young has not been recorded for the Western Whipbird (eastern). However, observations of the Western Whipbird (western heath) subspecies indicate that the incubation period is likely to be about three weeks, the fledging period around 12 days and the period of dependence two months or more in length, with both parents probably contributing to the feeding and brooding of the young (Smith 1991b; Webster 1966c).

    No quantitative information is available on the breeding success of the Western Whipbird (eastern), but the removal of eggs by collectors has been identified as a potential threat to the subspecies (Woinarski et al. 1988), and its tendency to build its nest close to the ground renders the nest vulnerable to terrestrial predators (Condon 1966; Howe & Ross 1933).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) feeds on insects (such as ants and grasshoppers) and spiders (Condon 1966; McGilp & Parsons 1939).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) forages on the ground and amongst the lower foliage of shrubs such as Scaevola and Olearia (Condon 1966; McGilp & Parsons 1939; Menkhorst & Bennett 1990). It hops across the ground in search of food items (Condon 1966; McGilp & Parsons 1939). Its tendency to feed on and close to the ground renders the Western Whipbird (eastern) vulnerable to terrestrial predators (Baker-Gabb in prep.).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) is a sedentary bird (Condon 1966) that is capable of making only short-distance flights (Condon 1966). Its inability to traverse long distances in flight (the longest continuous flight recorded by one observer was about 30 m in length [Condon 1966]) probably limits or prevents its dispersal across areas that have been cleared of suitable habitat (Woinarski et al. 1988).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) is territorial: six pairs were reported in territories of less than 20 ha at Malinong in South Australia (Woinarski et al. 1988); one male near Pinnaroo in South Australia moved within a circular area of about 12 ha (McGilp & Parsons 1937); and three pairs in north-western Victoria were recorded in an area of about 8 km² (Howe & Ross 1933).

    Distinctiveness
    The Western Whipbird (eastern) is a distinctive bird that is unlikely to be mistaken for any other species that occurs within its known range (Higgins & Peter 2002).

    Detectability
    The Western Whipbird (eastern) is difficult to observe. It is a timid and elusive bird that inhabits dense vegetation and is able to rapidly run or fly between patches of cover. It does, however, possess a loud and distinctive call that is said to be audible at distances of up to 800 m, and as such it is much more often heard than seen (Condon 1966; Howe & Ross 1933; McGilp & Parsons 1939; McGilp 1943; Woinarski et al. 1988).

    Recommended Survey Methods
    The recommended method to survey for the Western Whipbird (eastern) is to conduct broadcast surveys (the playback of recorded calls to solicit a response from the target subspecies) or transect-point surveys in suitable habitat. It is recommended that surveys be conducted during the breeding season when calling is most prevalent (P. Menkhorst 2007, pers. comm.).

    The decline of the Western Whipbird (eastern) has primarily been caused by the broad-scale clearance of suitable mallee habitat (Bryant 1938; Garnett & Crowley 2000; McGilp & Parsons 1939; SA DEH 2006; Woinarski et al. 1988). The threat from clearing has now diminished (most extant populations of the whipbird occur in conservation reserves) (Garnett & Crowley 2000; SA DEH 2005, 2006), but the small and fragmented populations that remain are highly vulnerable to wildfire. Wildfire has always been a threat to the Western Whipbird (eastern), but its effects are likely to be exacerbated now because clearing has fragmented and reduced the extent of suitable habitat available. This habitat fragmentation has reduced the potential for whipbird populations to find refuge in unburnt areas when confronted with wildfire, and to recolonise burnt areas after a wildfire (SA DEH 2006; Woinarski et al. 1988).

    Extensive wildfires in the Murray-Mallee region in 1959, 1985, 1986 and 1988 burnt large areas of habitat and thus may have eliminated many local whipbird populations (Woinarski et al. 1988). A series of wildfires in more recent years has further reduced the range and habitat of the Western Whipbird (eastern) in the Murray-Mallee region (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The effect of fire has been most notable in Ngarkat Conservation Park, where most suitable habitat was burnt during wildfires in 2005 and 2006 (SA DEH 2006). It generally takes several years for habitat to regenerate sufficiently to be suitable for the Western Whipbird (eastern), although the whipbird has been recorded in habitat burnt less than two years earlier. The majority of occupied habitats have had post-fire ages of 10 to 25 years, and there have been records in habitats that had not been burnt for 40 years or more (Clarke 2005b; Higgins & Peter 2002; Woinarski et al. 1988).

    The suitable habitat that remains occurs in isolated fragments that are separated by cleared land or other unsuitable habitats that could inhibit or prevent birds from dispersing. It is probable that populations in small fragments of suitable habitat are unlikely to survive in the long-term (Baker-Gabb in prep.; Woinarski et al. 1988). For example, the subspecies no longer occurs in small fragments of suitable habitat near Billiatt Conservation Park (Clarke 2004).

    The removal of eggs from nests by collectors has been touted as a possible factor in the decline of the Western Whipbird (eastern) (Woinarski et al. 1988), but the collection of eggs was not acknowledged as a potential threat by later authors (Baker-Gabb in prep.; Garnett & Crowley 2000) and is now, presumably, a rare occurrence.

    The tendency of the Western Whipbird (eastern) to forage and nest on and/or close to the ground renders the subspecies vulnerable to terrestrial predators (Baker-Gabb in prep.; Howe & Ross 1933). However, predation has not been linked to the decline of the Western Whipbird (eastern) (Baker-Gabb in prep.; Garnett & Crowley 2000), and no information is available to show that predation is having, or might be having, an adverse impact on the subspecies.

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) lays two eggs per clutch (Howe & Ross 1933; McGilp & Parsons 1939) and is claimed to produce only one clutch per breeding season (Boles 1988). This apparent low rate of reproduction limits the potential for the subspecies to persist and recover when confronted with a threatening process or event (Condon 1966).

    The following recovery actions have been implemented:

    • The distribution, habitat and status of the Western Whipbird (eastern) in the Murray-Mallee region has been reviewed (Woinarski et al. 1988).
    • Information on the role and impact of wildfire in habitats occupied by the Western Whipbird (eastern) has been summarized (Silveira 1993).
    • The habitat of the species has been modelled (Clarke 2005a).
    • Surveys for Western Whipbird (eastern) and other threatened birds have been conducted in and around Billiatt Conservation Park, Mount Rescue Conservation Park and Ngarkat Conservation Park (Clarke 2004; Gates 2003).
    • A national recovery plan (Baker-Gabb in prep.) is being prepared, and a regional recovery plan is already in place (Clarke 2005b; SA DEH 2006).
    • A Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement has been drafted for the population in Victoria (Silveira 2000).

    The Western Whipbird (eastern) has also benefited from more generalised conservation actions such as the introduction of restrictions on the clearance of native vegetation, improved fire management and the expansion of the reserve system in the Murray-Mallee region (Baker-Gabb in prep.).

    The following recovery actions have been recommended (Baker-Gabb in prep.):

    • Determine the distribution, habitat characteristics, habitat requirements and fire history of occupied habitat through targeted surveys, detailed studies and mapping.
    • Clarify the genetic relationships between the geographically-isolated subpopulations.
    • Introduce long-term monitoring of subpopulations and use this data to develop landscape-scale estimates of population size and to assess the conservation status.
    • Evaluate the need for the establishment of a captive population.
    • Investigate the need for a translocation program to re-establish populations at former sites, and develop and implement a translocation program if deemed necessary.
    • Examine the impact of fire frequency. Develop and implement multi-species fire management strategies, and ensure that strategies are included in relevant fire management plans.
    • Ensure that the habitat requirements of the Western Whipbird (eastern) are taken into account in relevant management plans, and that measures are taken to preserve existing suitable habitat located outside of conservation reserves.
    • Increase community awareness about the subspecies and encourage participation in the recovery program.
    • Take action, if necessary, to redress fragmentation and degradation of important habitat on private land.

    The only detailed study on the Western Whipbird (eastern) is a review of the distribution, habitat and status of the subspecies in the Murray-Mallee region by Woinarski and colleagues (Woinarksi et al. 1988). There have, additionally, been some intensive surveys for the Western Whipbird (eastern) in the Murray-Mallee region of South Australia (Clarke 2004; Gates 2003).

    A national recovery plan for threatened mallee birds, including the Western Whipbird (eastern), is currently being prepared (Baker-Gabb in prep.). A regional recovery plan for the Western Whipbird (eastern) and three other threatened birds in the Murray-Darling Basin in South Australia is already in place (Clarke 2005b; SA DEH 2006). In addition to these documents, a brief recovery outline for the subspecies is featured in The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Psophodes nigrogularis leucogasterin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vi) [Internet].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Psophodes nigrogularis leucogasterin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vi) [Internet].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Psophodes nigrogularis leucogasterin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006vi) [Internet].

    Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme (ABBBS) (1996). Recovery round-up. Corella. 20:147-148.

    Baker-Gabb, D. (in prep). National Recovery Plan for the Mallee Emu-wren, Stipiturus mallee, Red-lored Whistler, Pachycephala rufogularis, and Western Whipbird, Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne. (August 2007 Draft).

    Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter (2003). The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Birds Australia.

    Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

    Boles, W.E. (1988). The Robins and Flycatchers of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.

    Bryant, C.E. (1938). The Mallee Whipbird. Emu. 38:338-339.

    Carpenter, G. & J.S. Matthew (1986). The birds of Billiatt Conservation Park. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:29-37.

    Carpenter, G., A. Black, D. Harper & P. Horton (2003). Bird Report, 1982-1999. South Australian Ornithologist. 34:93-151.

    Chisholm, A.H. (1946). Observations and reflections on birds of the Victorian Mallee. Emu. 46:168-186.

    Christidis, L. & J. Norman (1999). Status of the Western Whipbird (Heath subspecies): Development of Molecular Markers. Unpublished report to Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

    Clarke, R. (2004). Threatened Bird Species Recorded Within the Billiatt and Ngarkat Conservation Park Complexes, South Australia, Spring 2003. Unpublished report to Department for Environment and Heritage, Adelaide.

    Clarke, R. (2005a). Ecological Requirements of Birds Specializing in Mallee Habitats. Unpublished La Trobe University report to the Department for Environment and Heritage, Adelaide, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, and New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Dubbo.

    Clarke, R. (2005b). Recovery Plan for the Mallee Emu-wren Stipiturus mallee, Striated Grasswren Amytornis striatus,Red-lored Whistler Pachycephala rufogularis and Western Whipbird Psophodes nigrogularis lecuogaster, South Australian Murray Darling Basin. Department for Environment and Heritage, Adelaide.

    Condon, H.T. (1966). The Western Whipbird. Preliminary notes on the discovery of a new subspecies on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 24:79-91.

    Condon, H.T. (1969). A Handlist of Birds of South Australia. Adelaide: SA Ornithologists Association.

    Dunn, R. (1993). Breeding the Eastern Whipbird at Melbourne Zoo. Australian Aviculture. 47:172-174.

    Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

    Gates, J.A. (2003). Ecology of Threatened Mallee Birds in Billiatt Conservation Park: Baseline Distribution and Abundance Surveys, 2003. Unpublished report to Wildlife Conservation Fund, Adelaide.

    Glover, B. (1969). Bird report 1967-1968. South Australian Ornithologist. 25:72-84.

    Hatch, J.H. (1977). The birds of Comet Bore (Ninety-mile Plain). South Australian Ornithologist. 27:163-172.

    Higgins, P.J. & J.M. Peter (Eds) (2002). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 6. Pardalotes to Spangled Drongo. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

    Howe, F.E. & J.A. Ross (1933). On the occurrence of Psophodes nigrogularis in Victoria. Emu. 32:133-148.

    Howe, F.E. & W. Burgess (1942). Ornithologists in the mallee. Emu. 42:65-73.

    Hunt, T. (1976). Birds in the Big Desert region of Victoria and South Australia. Victorian Ornithological Research Group Notes. 12(2):3-13.

    Hunt, T.J. & R.F. Kenyon (1970). The rediscovery of the Mallee Whipbird in Victoria. Australian Bird Watcher. 3:222-226.

    Mack, K.J. (1967). Some observations of the Western Whipbird. South Australian Ornithologist. 24:148-149.

    Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

    McGilp, J.N. (1943). The Murray Mallee and its birds. South Australian Ornithologist. 16:2--4.

    McGilp, J.N. & F.E. Parsons (1937). Mallee Whipbird Psophodes nigrogularis (leucogaster?), and other mallee birds. South Australian Ornithologist. 14:3-13.

    McGilp, J.N. & F.E. Parsons (1939). Mallee Black-throated Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster). South Australian Ornithologist. 15:19-25.

    McNamara, D. (1966). The Western Whipbird on Eyre Peninsula. South Australian Ornithologist. 24:93.

    Menkhorst, P. (2007). Personal communication.

    Menkhorst, P.W. & A.F. Bennett (1990). Vertebrate fauna of mallee vegetation in southern Australia. In: J.C. Noble, P.J. Jones & G.K. Jones, eds. The Mallee Lands: A Conservation Perspective. Proceedings of the National Mallee Conference, Adelaide, April 1989. Page(s) 39-53. CSIRO Canberra.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 17 Sep 2014 20:10:57 +1000.