Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Fregetta grallaria grallaria
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Fregetta grallaria [1031].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2007b) [Recovery Plan] as Fregetta grallaria grallaria.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for predation by feral cats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008zzp) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Fregetta grallaria grallaria.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:White-bellied Storm-petrel - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005eq) [Internet].
NSW:White-bellied Storm-petrel Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999bb) [Information Sheet].
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Fregetta grallaria grallaria [64438]
Family Hydrobatidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Vieilott, 1817)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Fregetta grallaria royana [25998]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

National: At the species level, Fregatta grallaria is listed as Marine under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

New South Wales: At the species level, F. grallaria is listed as Vulnerable under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

Scientific name: Fregetta grallaria grallaria.

Common name: White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea).

Other names: White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Australasian), Vieillot's Storm-Petrel, Broad-tailed Storm-Petrel.


The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is currently recognised as a subspecies of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel. However, the relationships between the birds in the genus Fregretta are poorly understood, and the taxonomic classification is to be considered tentative until further research can be undertaken (del Hoyo et al. 1992; Mayr & Cottrell 1979).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is about 20 cm long. It has a wingspan of about 40 to 48 cm and a mass of 45 to 65 g (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Hutton 1991). It is polymorphic. In its most common form, a light morph, it is a blackish-brown colour, with white fringes to the feathers of the shoulders, back, and rump; a pale greyish-brown patch on the shoulder of each wing; a white patch on the upper tail-coverts; a white lower breast, belly and vent; white flanks; a large white panel on the underside of each wing; and some white in the under tail-coverts. In the less common dark morph, it is dark blackish-brown except for some white mottling on the belly and upper tail-coverts, and a patch of dark brown on the shoulder of each wing (Marchant & Higgins 1990; van Tets & Fullagar 1984). Intermediate plumage morphs, displaying a continuous variation in characters between the light and dark morphs, also have been recorded. The plumages of adult males and adult females are alike, and juvenile birds cannot be distinguished from the adults (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) commonly occurs singly or in small groups when at sea (Hutton 1991). It breeds in loose colonies (Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds on small offshore islets and rocks in the Lord Howe Island group, including Roach Island and Balls Pyramid (Baker et al. 2002; Hutton 1991; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; McAllan et al. 2004; Rogers 1972). Its pelagic distribution is poorly understood, but it has been recorded north and east of its breeding islands to the tropics, in the Tasman Sea, Coral Sea, and north of New Zealand (Hindwood et al. 1963; Lovegrove 1978; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Norris 1965, 1967), and it is thought that some birds also reach the central Pacific Ocean (Harrison 1983; Hutton 1991). It has also been recorded over near-shore waters off the coasts of Queensland (Palliser 1985), NSW (Cooper 1989; Holmes 1977; Lindsey 1985) and Tasmania (Atlas of Australian Birds 2006), and a single dead bird has been collected from the southeastern coast of Tasmania (Fletcher 1947).

The terrestrial extent of occurrence during the breeding season is estimated, with high reliability, to be 20 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The extent of occurrence has declined since the early 20th century: the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) formerly bred on Lord Howe Island, but its breeding distribution is now restricted to offshore islets and rocks (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991). The extent of occurrence is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The terrestrial area of occupancy during the breeding season is estimated, with high reliability, to be 3 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy has declined since the early 20th century: the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) formerly bred on Lord Howe Island, but its breeding distribution is now restricted to offshore islets and rocks (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991). The area of occupancy is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds in at least two locations in Australia: Roach Island and Balls Pyramid, in the Lord Howe Island group. It is reported to breed on Mutton Bird Island, but this has not been confirmed, and it possibly also breeds on other offshore islets and rocks in the Lord Howe Island group, such as Blackburn Island (Baker et al. 2002; Hutton 1991).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds on offshore islets and rocks in the Lord Howe Island group, Australia, and on Macauley Island and Curtis Island, in the Kermadec Islands group, New Zealand (Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Mayr & Cottrell 1979; McAllan et al. 2004; Rogers 1972). Its pelagic distribution is poorly understood, but it has been recorded north and east of its breeding islands to the tropics, in the Tasman Sea, Coral Sea, and north of New Zealand (Hindwood et al. 1963; Lovegrove 1978; Marchant & Higgins 1990; Norris 1965, 1967), and it is thought that some birds reach the central Pacific Ocean (Harrison 1983; Hutton 1991). It has also been recorded over near-shore waters off the coasts of mainland Australia (Cooper 1989; Holmes 1977; Lindsey 1985; Palliser 1985), Tasmania (Atlas of Australian Birds 2006) and New Zealand (Croxall 1970; Jenkins 1970), and dead birds have been collected from the coasts of Tasmania (Fletcher 1947) and New Zealand (Edgar 1975; Gaze 1988; Powlesland 1987, 1989b; Sibson 1978).

The global population size of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is estimated, with low reliability, to consist of about 2 500 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The population size of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) in the Lord Howe Island group has declined, evidently in response to predation by cats Felis catus and, possibly, Black Rats Rattus rattus (Fullagar & Disney 1975; Hindwood 1940; Priddel 1996). No information is available on trends in population size or threats in the Kermadec Island group. The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is considered to be Vulnerable at the global level (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

It is estimated that about 40% of the total global population of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds on Australian territory. The relationship between the breeding populations in the Lord Howe Island group and the Kermadec Islands group is not known. However, as a long-distance migrant, it is possible that there may be some infrequent exchange of birds between the Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands populations (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) has been poorly surveyed: there have not been any published systematic, targeted surveys of the breeding population in Lord Howe Island group, and population estimates are, therefore, speculative (Baker et al. 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000). Although the breeding distribution in the Lord Howe Island group is reasonably well known (Hutton 1991; Magrath et al. 2004), the pelagic distribution of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is poorly understood (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The population of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) that breeds in the Lord Howe Island group is estimated, with low reliability, to consist of 1 000 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000). This population was previously estimated to consist of 200 to 2 000 or more breeding birds (or 100 to 1 000 or more breeding pairs) (Fullagar & Disney 1975; Priddel 1996; Rogers 1972).

There are two confirmed breeding populations of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea): one on Roach Island and another to the south on Balls Pyramid (Baker et al. 2002). Breeding has also been reported on Mutton Bird Island, and possibly occurs on Blackburn Island, but the presence of breeding colonies has not been confirmed at either of these locations (Baker et al. 2002; Hutton 1991).

It is possible that the geographically isolated breeding populations on Roach Island and Balls Pyramid could represent genuine subpopulations (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but there is no evidence available to determine the degree of genetic exchange between these two populations. The population on Balls Pyramid is the larger of the two breeding populations (Baker et al. 2002); it is estimated, with low reliability, to consist of 700 (Garnett & Crowley 2000) or more (Baker et al. 2002) breeding birds. The population on Roach Island is speculatively estimated to number in the hundreds (Baker et al. 2002).

The breeding population of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) probably declined when breeding colonies of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) were eliminated from Lord Howe Island during the 20th century (Fullagar & Disney 1975; Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991). The population size is currently stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is not known to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population size, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy.

Because the breeding population in the Lord Howe Island group is small (estimated at 1 000 breeding birds [Garnett & Crowley 2000]) and geographically fragmented (Hutton 1991), all remaining breeding populations are likely to be important to the long-term survival of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea).

The generation length is estimated, with low reliability, to be 10 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

No cross-breeding has been recorded between the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) and any other subspecies of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel, or between the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) and any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs in the wild because the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is the only subspecies of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel, and the only species of the genus Fregetta, that breeds in the Lord Howe Island group (Mayr & Cottrell 1979).

The population of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) that breeds in Australian territory occurs entirely within the Lord Howe Island group (Mayr & Cottrell 1979; Hutton 1991), which is listed as a World Heritage Area.

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel occurs across sub-tropical and tropical waters in the Tasman Sea, Coral Sea and, possibly, the central Pacific Ocean (Harrison 1983; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990). In the non-breeding season, it reaches and forages over near-shore waters along the continental shelf of mainland Australia (Holmes 1977; Priddel 1996). It breeds, in Australian territory, on offshore islets and rocks in the Lord Howe Island group (Hutton 1991). It nests in crevices between large volcanic rocks (Fullagar et al. 1974; Hutton 1991), and in burrows excavated in banks (Hindwood 1940; McAllan et al. 2004). Breeding colonies are often situated along dykes (Fullagar 2002, pers. comm.).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) does not occur in any of the ecological communities that are listed as threatened under the EPBC Act 1999. It is not known to associate with any other species or subspecies that is listed as threatened under the EPBC Act 1999.

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is probably long-lived based on records of longevity for other members of the family Hydrobatidae. For example, Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa is capable of surviving to 31 years of age (Klimkiewicz & Futcher 1989). Based on records for other members of the family Hydrobatidae it probably begins to breed at three or more years of age (Marchant & Higgins 1990; Menkhorst et al. 1984).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds in late summer and autumn; eggs are laid from January to March, and the young fledge in May (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991; McAllan et al. 2004). It nests in crevices between large volcanic rocks (Fullagar et al. 1974; Hutton 1991), or in burrows excavated in banks (Hindwood 1940; McAllan et al. 2004). The nest chamber is sparsely lined with dried grass (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991; McAllan et al. 2004).

Clutches consist of a single white egg; some eggs have reddish-brown spots around the broader end (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991). The egg is incubated by both parents for about 37 days. The young are fed by both parents on a mixture of crustaceans and squid. They fledge about 80 days after hatching, and then depart the Lord Howe Island group, with the adult birds, until the following breeding season (Hutton 1991). No information is available on breeding success.

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) feeds on small crustaceans and squid (Hutton 1991).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) forages by skimming low over the ocean, sometimes pattering the water with its feet, and plucking small crustaceans and squid from beneath the surface of the water. It forages both at day and at night, usually far from shore (Hutton 1991). The White-bellied Storm-Petrel has been observed foraging with petrels Pterodroma, Buller's Shearwaters Puffinus bulleri and Masked Boobies Sula dactylatra in the southern Pacific Ocean (Ainley & Boekelheide 1983). It is possible that such foraging associations could also occur with the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea), given that the pelagic distribution of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) overlaps with the pelagic distributions of Buller's Shearwater, the Masked Booby, and several species of petrel (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) migrates between its breeding locations in Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands groups and its non-breeding grounds in the Tasman Sea, Coral Sea and central Pacific Ocean (Harrison 1983; Hutton 1991; Marchant & Higgins 1990). It is usually present in the Lord Howe Island group from September to May (McAllan et al. 2004), at which time the newly-fledged young and adults depart until the following breeding season (Hutton 1991).

The extent of daily movements made by the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) during the breeding season is unknown, but it usually spends the day at sea, and only returns to its breeding colonies at night (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds in loose colonies (Marchant & Higgins 1990). No specific information is available on home ranges or territories, but the birds are rarely seen close to land, even during the breeding season (when they usually only occur on land at night) (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) is very similar to the Black-bellied Storm-Petrel Fregetta tropica, and is similar to Wilson's Storm-Petrel Oceanites oceanicus and the Grey-backed Storm-Petrel Garrodia nereis. It can be difficult to separate these species, and especially the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) and Black-bellied Storm-Petrel, in the field (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) occurs at sea during the day, and returns to its breeding colonies at night (Hindwood 1940; Hutton 1991).

The only potential threat to the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) that has been identified is the accidental introduction of exotic terrestrial predators, specifically rats or cats, to the offshore islets and rocks on which the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds (Baker et al. 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000). The White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) formerly bred on Lord Howe Island, but the breeding colonies on Lord Howe Island were eliminated during the 20th century, evidently as a result of predation by cats and, possibly, Black Rats (Fullagar & Disney 1975; Hindwood 1940; Priddel 1996).

The survival of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeding colonies in the Lord Howe Island group depends on the exclusion of cats and rats from its breeding locations (Baker et al. 2002; Garnett & Crowley 2000). Cats and Black Rats presently do not occur on any of the offshore islets and rocks on which the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) breeds (Fullagar & Disney 1975; Garnett & Crowley 2000). Cats have recently been eliminated from Lord Howe Island (McAllan et al. 2004), and localised control programs are being conducted for Black Rats on Lord Howe Island (Baker et al. 2002). Strict quarantine measures are in place to prevent Black Rats from being introduced to Roach Island or Balls Pyramid (Garnett & Crowley 2000). It has been recommended that the breeding population of the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea) in the Lord Howe Island group should be surveyed every five years or less, and that an attempt be made to eradicate the Black Rat from Lord Howe Island (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The White-bellied Storm-petrel has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for White-bellied Storm-petrel in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East(DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

There have not been any published major studies on the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea).

No recovery, conservation or threat abatement plan have been prepared for the White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Tasman Sea). However, a brief recovery outline for the subspecies is featured in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Fregetta grallaria grallariain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lg) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) Fregetta grallaria grallariain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006lg) [Internet].

Ainley, D.G. & R.J. Boekelheide (1983). An ecological comparison of oceanic seabird communities of the south Pacific Ocean. Studies in Avian Biology. 8:2--23.

Atlas of Australian Birds (2006). Unpublished data from ongoing atlas database.

Baker, G.B., R. Gales, S. Hamilton & V. Wilkinson (2002). Albatrosses and petrels in Australia: a review of their conservation and management. Emu. 102:71-97.

Cooper, R.M. (1989). 1985 New South Wales Bird Report. Australian Birds. 22:1-52.

Croxall, J.P. (1970). Sightings of the White-bellied Storm-Petrels in coastal waters (b). Notornis. 17:76.

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliot & J. Sargatal (1992). Ostrich to Ducks. In: Handbook of the Birds of the World. 1. Spain: Lynx Edicions.

Edgar, A.T. (1975). Classified summarised notes. Notornis. 22:313-340.

Fletcher, J.A. (1947). Tasmanian notes. Emu. 46:394-395.

Fullagar, P.J. (2002). Personal communication.

Fullagar, P.J. & H.J. de S. Disney (1975). The birds of Lord Howe Island: a report on the rare and endangered species. Bulletin of the International Council for Bird Preservation. 12:187--202.

Fullagar, P.J., J.L. McKean & G.F. Van Tets (1974). Report on the Birds. In: Recher, H.F., & S.S. Clark, eds. Environmental Survey of Lord Howe Island: a Report to the Lord Howe Island Board. Page(s) 55-72. Dept of Environmental Studies, Australian Museum, Sydney.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gaze, P.D. (1988). Classified summarised notes, South Island. Notornis. 35:311-323.

Harrison, P (1983). Seabirds: An Identification Guide. London: Croom Helm.

Hindwood, K.A. (1940). The birds of Lord Howe Island. Emu. 40:1-86.

Hindwood, K.A., K. Keith & D.L. Serventy (1963). Birds of the south-west Coral Sea. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper. 3:1-44.

Holmes, G. (1977). The ecology of petrels in mid-northern New South Wales. Australasian Seabird Group Newsletter. 8:20-35.

Hutton, I. (1991). Birds of Lord Howe Island: Past and Present. Coffs Harbour, NSW: author published.

Jenkins, J.A.F. (1970). Sightings of White-bellied Storm-Petrels in coastal waters (a). Notornis. 17:75-76.

Klimkiewicz, M.K. & A.G. Futcher (1989). Longevity records of North American birds. Supplement 1. Journal of Field Ornithology. 60:469-494.

Lindsey, T.R. (1985). New South Wales Bird Report for 1983. Australian Birds. 19:65-100.

Lovegrove, T.G. (1978). Seabird observations between New Zealand and Fiji. Notornis. 25:291-298.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Mayr, E., & G.W. Cottrell (Eds) (1979). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 1. Second Edition. Massachusetts, USA: Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge.

McAllan, I.A.W., B.R. Curtis, I. Hutton & R.M. Cooper (2004). The birds of the Lord Howe Island Group: a review of records. Australian Field Ornithology. 21:1-82.

Menkhorst, P.W., T.W. Pescott & G.F. Gaynor (1984). Results of banding White-faced Storm-Petrels Pelagodroma marina at Mud Islands, Victoria. Corella. 8:53-56.

Norris, A.Y (1967). Seabird observations from the south-west Pacific in the southern winter. Emu. 67:33-55.

Norris, A.Y. (1965). Observations of seabirds in the Tasman Sea and in New Zealand waters in October and November, 1962. Notornis. 12:80-105.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007b). Lord Howe Island Biodiversity Management Plan. [Online]. Sydney, NSW: NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lord-howe/index.html.

Palliser, T. (1985). The Queensland Ornithological Society Bird Report, 1984. Sunbird. 15:45-70.

Powlesland, R.G. (1987). Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1985, and a review of Pterodoma species recoveries since 1960. Notornis. 34:237-252.

Powlesland, R.G. (1989b). Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1987, and a review of Precellaria species recoveries since 1960. Notornis. 36:299-314.

Priddel, D. (1996). The status of seabirds in New South Wales. In: Ross, G.J.B., K. Weaver & J.C. Greig, eds. The status of Australia's seabirds Proceedings of the National Seabird Workshop, Canberra, 1-2 November 1993. Page(s) 201-208. Canberra: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia.

Rogers, A.E.F. (1972). New South Wales Bird Report for 1971. Birds. 6:77-99.

Sibson, R.B. (1978). Classified summarised notes. Notornis. 25:332-349.

van Tets, G.F. & P. Fullagar (1984). Status of Australian seabirds. Australasian Seabird Group Newsletter. 20:2--25.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Fregetta grallaria grallaria in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 16 Sep 2014 21:58:20 +1000.