Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Beak and Feather Disease Affecting Endangered Psittacine Species (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for competition and land degradation by unmanaged goats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008ada) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Threatened Species - South Australian Glossy Black-Cockatoo - A Gradual Recovery (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2009d) [Internet].
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus [64436]
Family Cacatuidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author Mathews, 1912
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is not specifically listed under any international agreements. However, at the species level, the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (C. lathami) is listed along with other species of Psittaciformes under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (CITES 2006). This listing protects the Kangaroo Island subspecies.

Scientific name: Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus

Common name: Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island)

Other names: At the species level, the Glossy Black-Cockatoo has also been known, in the past, as the Casuarina, Casuarine, Glossy or Latham's Cockatoo, Leach's Black-Cockatoo, Leach's Red-tailed Cockatoo, and the Nutcracker (Higgins 1999).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is considered to be a conventionally accepted subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (C. lathami) (Schodde et al. 1993).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is a medium-sized cockatoo about 48 cm in length and 510 to 515 g in weight, with a wing-span of approximately 90 cm. The adults are mainly black, with black-brown colouring on the head, neck and underbody, and panels of red (in males) or orange-red with black bars (in females) in the tail. The adult female also has conspicuous yellow patches on the head. These patches are absent from most males, but they may be expressed weakly in a few individuals (Higgins 1999).

Juveniles of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) are similar in appearance to the adult male, but have tiny yellow spots on the head; yellow spots or bars on the breast, belly and flanks; yellow or orange spots on the wing (mainly on the underside); red or orange-yellow panels with black barring in the tail; a pale (rather than dark) grey bill; and a pale pink-grey (rather than dark grey) ring of skin around the eye (Higgins 1999; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) usually occurs in pairs, or in groups of three, which comprise a breeding pair and their offspring (Pepper 1996). Solitary males and small groups of juvenile males are also observed, as are loose flocks, which typically consist of 25 birds or less, but may comprise 50 or more birds in the post-breeding period (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is currently restricted to Kangaroo Island in South Australia. It has been recorded at sites on the northern and western coasts of the island, from Sandy Creek to Antechamber Bay, and along inland river systems including Cygnet, Stun'sail Boom, Harriet and Eleanor Rivers (Baxter 1989b; Garnett et al. 1999; Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Program, unpublished records; Higgins 1999; Joseph 1982; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1997). Recent reports from the Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Team suggest the subspecies may breed on the American River. This site is considered to be the eastern-most breeding site for the species at present (Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Program, unpublished records). The last accepted record of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) from mainland South Australia was reported in 1977 (Joseph 1989b; Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The extent of occurrence of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is estimated, with high reliability, to be 4400 km². The extent of occurrence is considered to be stable at present (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but it has declined in size since the arrival of European settlers. The Glossy Black-Cockatoo formerly occurred on both Kangaroo Island and mainland South Australia. There are confirmed historical records from the Fleurieu Peninsula and the southern Mount Lofty Ranges (north to Adelaide), and there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that it may also have occurred on the Eyre Peninsula (Crowley et al. 1999; Joseph 1989b; Mathews 1916–17; Mooney & Pedler 2005). There is also some evidence to suggest that it possibly also occurred in western Victoria (Crowley et al. 1999).

There have not been any confirmed records of the Glossy-Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) from mainland South Australia since 1977 (Joseph 1989b; Mooney & Pedler 2005). There have been occasional sightings on the Fleurieu Peninsula in the past decade. Attempts to verify these reports have proven unsuccessful although a single observation near Spring Mount Conservation Park in January 2002 appears likely to have been accurate (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population currently appears to be increasing in size (Mooney & Pedler 2005). If this is correct, and the population continues to increase in size in the coming years, it is possible that the extent of occurrence could likewise increase in the future.

The area of occupancy of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is estimated, with medium reliability, to be 100 km². The area of occupancy is considered to be stable at present (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but it has declined since the arrival of European settlers, with the subspecies now absent from mainland South Australia (Crowley et al. 1999; Mooney & Pedler 2005). The area of occupancy may also have declined on Kangaroo Island. Twenty-five percent of the original Drooping Casuarina (Allocasuarina verticillata) vegetation habitat used by the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been cleared (Crowley et al. 1998). The loss of this vegetation is believed to have caused a decline in population size and area of occupancy (Joseph 1982; Pepper 1996).

The entire population of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) exists in one location on Kangaroo Island (Garnett et al. 1999; Joseph 1982; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1997). Fire, which is the primary threat to the subspecies, could potentially affect all individuals in the population. However, given the topography of the island, fire could potentially be confined to a number of inhabited locations across Kangaroo Island (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.).

There are no captive populations of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) (Mooney & Pedler 2005). The potential value of a captive breeding and translocation program was assessed by Crowley and colleagues but was not recommended (Crowley et al. 1999).

The distribution of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is not considered to be severely fragmented. Observations of banded individuals have shown that the subspecies can move between the areas of suitable habitat that are spread across Kangaroo Island (L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population has been subject to annual monitoring since 1995. The first annual survey, in 1995, observed a minimum of 158 birds and, from this count, the population size was estimated to consist of 195 birds. The population size has increased since 1995 (Burbidge & Raines 2003; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pedler 1999; Pedler & Mooney 2004, 2005). The most recent survey for which data is available, in 2006, observed a minimum of 293 birds. From this count, the population size was estimated at 310 to 330 birds (L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population was also surveyed on several occasions prior to 1995:

  • In 1979–80, when the population was estimated at 115 to 150 birds (Joseph 1982).
  • In 1987 and 1988, when a total of 15 and 50 birds were observed, respectively.
  • In 1993, when a total of 136 birds were observed (Pepper 1997).

Based on the 2006 annual census, the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population is estimated to consist of 310 to 330 birds (L. Pedler 2007, pers.comm.).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is considered to occur in a single, contiguous population (Garnett & Crowley 2000). However, the population is loosely segregated into six flocks (Mooney & Pedler 2005). Observations of banded birds indicate that most individuals remain to breed within their natal flock. There is, however, some movement of individuals between flocks (L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.). For example, Southgate (2002) reported that 27% of individuals studied were never observed away from the general area in which they had fledged. This figure included some individuals more than four years of age. Of the individuals that moved, most remained within the general region inhabited by their natal flock. Only 23% of individuals studied moved to a different region. When they do disperse, individuals can move large distances. For example, individuals of more than one year of age have been observed up to 78 km from their natal sites (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population currently appears to be increasing in size. The number of birds observed during the annual population census has increased from a minimum of 158 birds in 1995 to a minimum of 293 birds in 2004 (Burbidge & Raines 2003; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pedler 1999; Pedler & Mooney 2004). Based on these counts, the estimated population size has increased from 195 birds in 1995 to 310–330 birds in 2006 (L. Peddler 2007, pers.comm.).

It appears that the population size declined between the early part of the 20th century until 1995, when recovery management began. The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) was said to be plentiful in the ranges south of Adelaide in the mid to late 1800s (Mathews 1916–1917), but it became increasingly scarce during the 20th century up until the final confirmed report from the mainland in 1977 (Joseph 1989b). The population also appears to have declined on Kangaroo Island during this period. There are anecdotal reports of flocks of 30 to 40 or 50 birds on Kangaroo Island during the first half of the 20th century followed by reports of the subsequent absence of the bird from areas on the Island where Drooping Sheoak had been cleared (Pepper 1996).

Currently, the long-term survival of the Glossy-Black Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) depends on the persistence of the single, small population on Kangaroo Island, which contains all known individuals of this subspecies in the wild (Mooney & Pedler 2005). For the Glossy Black-Cockatoo to become re-established on the mainland, it may be particularly important to maintain mortality rates and breeding success of the eastern flock, which breeds at Cygnet River, Parndana Conservation Park and American River (Mooney & Pedler 2005), and to retain all suitable habitat in this region (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is not known to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population size, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy.

The generation length of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is estimated, with low reliability, to be 15 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) does not co-occur with either of the other two subspecies of the Glossy-Black Cockatoo, (C. l. lathami and C. l. erebus) (Schodde et al. 1993). Because of the geographical separation between the population of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) and the populations of the other two subspecies, it is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs.

The distribution of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) does, however, overlap with the distribution of the congeneric Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo (C. funereus) (Higgins 1999). The geographic and genetic proximity of the two taxa suggests that there might be some potential for cross-breeding. To date however, no cross-breeding has been recorded, and cross-breeding in fact appears unlikely to occur, despite frequent consecutive use of the same nest hollows by the two taxa (L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

Since 1996, the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been recorded in Baudin Conservation Park, Lathami Conservation Park, Parndana Conservation Park, Western River Wilderness Protection Area, Flinders Chase National Park, Ravine Des Casoars Wilderness Protection Area and in close proximity to Cape Torrens Wilderness Protection Area (Atlas of Australian Birds, unpublished data; P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.). Over the same period of time, breeding has been recorded at all locations except for Baudin Conservation Park and Cape Torrens Wilderness Protection Area, and hence annual monitoring of nests and ongoing protection of nests and maintenance of artificial hollows is conducted at these locations. Artificial hollows have been erected in Lathami Conservation Park, Parndana Conservation Park, Western River Wilderness Protection Area and Ravine Des Casoars Wilderness Protection Area. Feeding habitat of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been re-vegetated in Baudin Conservation Park and Lathami Conservation Park (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.).

Management activities are also undertaken at sites located outside of the reserve system. In many instances, the individual birds and flocks that use the reserves listed above also forage and breed in habitat near or adjacent to the reserves (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

It is estimated that 45% of suitable nesting habitat (much of which is not currently used by the birds), and 31% of Drooping Sheoak foraging habitat, occurs within gazetted reserves managed by the South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (Mooney & Pedler 2005).


The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) inhabits woodlands that are dominated by Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) and often interspersed with taller stands of Sugar Gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx). These woodlands occur in small gullies adjacent to cleared land in coastal and sub-coastal areas, generally on shallow acidic soils on the steep and rocky slopes of gorges and valleys, along inland creek and river systems (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Joseph 1982; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1996, 1997). Though most activity is confined to Drooping Sheoak and Sugar Gum, the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) occasionally utilises other tree species, including Blue Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon), Manna Gum (E. viminalis) for breeding and Slaty Sheoak (Allocasuarina muelleriana) for foraging (Joseph 1982; P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; Pepper 1993, 1996).
The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) does not occur in any of the threatened ecological communities, nor is it associated with any other threatened species, listed under the EPBC Act.

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) can reach sexual maturity at two years of age. However, most females do not begin breeding until they are three or more years of age, and males may not begin breeding until five years of age (Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pedler 2003).

The life expectancy of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is not known. However, the longevity is likely to exceed 15 years (Mooney & Pedler 2005) and, based on other species of Psittacines in captivity, could possibly extend to 50 years or more (Hill 1954).

Studies on banded birds have shown that about 50% of fledged young survive to one year of age (Southgate 2002), and that the average annual survivorship increases to 77–83% for birds aged between one year and three years old, and to 85% for birds that are older than three years (Mooney & Pedler 2005). Data collected in more recent years suggests that annual survivorship of adult birds is likely to exceed 90% (Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Program, unpublished data; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) breeds from late summer to spring, with eggs laid from January to July. It nests in hollows in the trunks and upper limbs of tall Eucalyptus trees (especially Sugar Gum, but also Blue Gum and Manna Gum) and, in recent years, in specially-erected artificial nests, most of which are made from PVC piping (Garnett et al. 1999; Joseph 1982; Mooney & Pedler 2005). The 'nest' itself (when located in a tree hollow) consists of a bed of wood chips formed by the nesting bird chewing the rim and interior walls of the nest hollow (Garnett et al. 1999). No other material is added to the nest hollow (Pedler 2007, pers. comm.). Bark and twigs were observed in two nest hollows by Joseph (1982), but it is likely that this material was added to the hollows by Galahs (Cacatua roseicapilla) (Pedler 2007, pers. comm.). Natural nest hollows are often used in successive seasons, sometimes by the same female (Garnett et al. 1999; Mooney & Pedler 2005), and nests are often located in close proximity (within 1 km) to other active nests (including, occasionally, two or three active nests in a single tree) (Garnett et al. 1999).

The clutch of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) consists of a single white egg (Mathews 1916–1917). The egg is incubated by the female for a period of about 30–31 days. The female may lay up to three clutches in a single season if the initial breeding attempts are unsuccessful (Garnett et al. 1999).

The single nestling is brooded and fed by the female. For the first three weeks after hatching, the male provides food to the brooding female, who in turn feeds the nestling. At approximately three weeks after hatching, the female departs the nest to forage during the day with the male. The nestling remains in the nest for a period of 84–96 days and, after leaving the nest, is fed by both parents (Garnett et al. 1999; T. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; Mooney & Pedler 2005). The fledgling continues to be fed for a period, based on observations of captive Glossy Black-Cockatoos, of three or four months (Sindel & Lynn 1989), or sometimes longer (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

The nesting success of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been monitored since 1995. Nesting success (the proportion of nesting attempts that are successful) has increased from 18% in 1995 to a mean of 51% for the years 1997–2004. This increase in nesting success has been attributed to the introduction of management and recovery measures (e.g. the application of iron collars around tree trunks) to protect nests from Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). Nesting success is similar (around 50%) in both natural and artificial nest sites (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The known causes of nest failure include:

  • Predation by Brushtail Possums (although the incidence of possum predation has eased since measures were introduced to protect nests from possums).
  • Interference at nests by Galahs, Little Corellas (C. sanguinea) and Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (C. galerita).
  • Competition for tree hollows with other species including Brushtail Possums, Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoos, Galahs, Little Corellas, Sulphur-crested Cockatoos, and introduced Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).
  • Accidental loss of the nest and/or nest contents due to flooding or collapse of the tree hollow (Garnett et al. 1999; Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) feeds almost exclusively on the seeds of Drooping Sheoak(Bebbington 1990; Joseph 1982; Pepper 1993, 1996). It occasionally also feeds on the seeds of Slaty Sheoak(Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Team, unpublished data; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.; Pepper 1993). It was reported to feed on the seeds of an unknown species of Acacia by Cleland (1942), but numerous observers have been unable to confirm this during extensive observations conducted over more than a decade as part of the recovery effort. Consequently, it is believed that the record of Cleland (1942) could refer to a different species of cockatoo, such as the Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo (L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.). The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has sometimes been observed chewing on the bark, wood or fruit of Sugar Gum, and on the branches of Allocasuarina trees, but this activity seems to be associated with social and grooming behaviour rather than foraging (Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1993, 1996).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) spends much of its day foraging, especially during the breeding season (Chapman & Paton 2002; Pepper 1993, 1996). It forages by walking or climbing along the branches of a food tree, and stopping intermittently to pick at all cones that are within reach, before moving on a short distance in the tree to a new clump of cones (Pepper 1996, 2000). It feeds on closed seed cones (Joseph 1982; Pepper 2000) by removing a cone from a tree with the bill, and then transferring the cone to the left foot. The cone is then rotated with the foot while the bird shreds the outer layer of the cone with its bill and removes the seeds with its tongue. The husked fragments of the cone, and the empty cone itself, are both discarded (Crowley & Garnett 2001; Joseph 1982; Pepper 1993, 1996).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) forages in trees of varying size and density (Mooney & Pedler 2005). It appears to prefer foraging in large trees that have large seeds, a high ratio of seed mass to cone mass, and a high proportion of seeds with kernels (Crowley & Garnett 2001; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 2000). Individual birds tend to feed in one tree for hours at a time. They usually remain in one small foraging area for a period of several days or weeks. They often return to individual trees that have been used previously, and will sometimes make repeated visits to one tree over a period of several weeks, until the tree is almost stripped of cones (Pepper 1996, 2000).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) drinks in the late afternoon after feeding or, on hot days, in both the morning and afternoon. It drinks at stream pools and man-made stock ponds and, after heavy rains, from flooded tree hollows (Pepper 1996).

The extreme dependence of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) on Drooping Sheoak for food makes this subspecies highly vulnerable to any process (such as wildfire or clearing) that might reduce the extent or availability of Drooping Sheoak dominated habitats (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is present on Kangaroo Island throughout the year (Higgins 1999). It appears that at least some birds undertake local movements, some of which are in response to the availability of food. For example, during the breeding season, some birds travel up to 30 km per day between nesting and feeding sites (Garnett et al. 1996; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1993). Most birds tend to wander in the general vicinity of their natal area, although some individuals may leave their natal area and travel up to 78 km to join a new flock (Southgate 2002).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) appears to form congregations and disperse locally towards the coast at the end of the breeding season (Joseph 1982; Higgins 1999; Pepper 1996). The largest flocks are observed in late September, after most or all young have fledged, often in locations where no nest trees are present. These flocks persist until late December, at which time pairs begin to investigate tree hollows in preparation for the coming breeding season. Smaller flocks may persist throughout the breeding season at locations away from breeding areas. These flocks are comprised mostly of immature birds, although as the breeding season progresses they may be joined by pairs who fail to breed successfully and, from late May, by pairs with newly-fledged young (L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

Some birds may occasionally cross Backstairs Passage and reach the adjacent mainland (Blakers et al. 1984; Joseph 1989b). However, although there have been occasional reports of the subspecies on the Fleurieu Peninsula during the past decade, there have not been any confirmed records on the mainland since 1977 (Joseph 1989b; Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The home range of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has not been quantified. However, it is known that, during the breeding season, some birds may travel up to 30 km a day between nesting and foraging sites (Garnett et al. 1996; Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) appears to be territorial only during the breeding season, when pairs aggressively exclude conspecifics from a small area (of a few metres) directly around the nest. Though some pairs may remain near their nest sites throughout the year, they do not defend or visit the sites in the non-breeding season (Pepper 1996).

Distinctiveness
The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is a distinctive bird that, within its known range, is unlikely to be mistaken for any other species (Higgins 1999).

Detectability
The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) can be detected by sight, call, foraging signs (the presence of shredded seed cones and cone fragments on the ground beneath feeding trees) or feeding sounds (the clicking of mandibles, the sound of cones being broken open, and the sound of falling debris). It is described as a quiet and unobtrusive bird. It usually takes flight if approached too closely, and is especially wary when drinking. However, some, but not all, individuals that are accustomed to human activity may be quietly approached to within 5–10 m while they are foraging (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.). It forages throughout the day during the breeding season, but it usually rests quietly throughout the middle of the day in the non-breeding period.

Recommended methods
The recommended method for detecting the presence of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) within a particular location is to perform area searches or transect surveys, on foot, through stands of Drooping Sheoak, in search of signs of recent foraging. These signs consist of shredded seed cones that are coloured pale green to creamy white (shredded in the previous 24 hours), cream to light orange (shredded in the previous few days), bright orange (shredded in the previous week) or orange-brown (shredded in the previous six weeks or so); shredded cones that are brown or grey in colour may be up to one year old (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; L. Pedler 2007, pers. comm.).

Current threats to the long-term survival and recovery of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) include a low rate of recruitment of juveniles into the adult population, and the loss of habitat due to wildfire, land clearance and grazing (Mooney & Pedler 2005). Current potential threats include the spread of the infectious and fatal Psittacine Beak and Feather (or Psittacine Circovirus) Disease (DEH 2005q), the loss of genetic diversity due to inbreeding, the removal of eggs or nestlings for the pet trade, and the loss of community support for the recovery program (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The past declines in Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) numbers and distribution have been attributed to habitat loss. This was caused by the widespread clearance of Allocasuarina habitat for settlement and agriculture, and the harvesting of Allocasuarina trees for timber and firewood, and also, perhaps, by an increase in the frequency of fires since the time of European settlement (Baird 1986; Cleland & Sims 1968; Joseph 1989b; Mooney & Pedler 2005)

Low Rate of Recruitment
The low recruitment rate of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been attributed to four factors: predation, mostly by Brushtail Possums; interference at nests by Galahs, Little Corellas and Suphur-crested Cockatoos; a shortage of suitable nest hollows due to past management practices (including clearing, harvesting, ring-barking and burning) and to competition for tree hollows with other species including Brushtail Possums, Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoos, Galahs, Little Corellas, and introduced Honey Bees; and the breeding biology of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) (pairs that breed successfully rear only one fledgeling per year) (Garnett et al. 1999; Mooney & Pedler 2005). The impact of predation by Brushtail Possums has been eased by the introduction of management and recovery measures such as the application of iron collars around tree trunks and pruning of overlapping canopy to prevent possums from gaining access to Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) nests. Population monitoring has shown that breeding success has almost tripled since the introduction of these measures (Mooney & Pedler 2005). However, incidences of nest competition and nest interference could possibly have become more frequent because the Kangaroo Island populations of the Galah and Little Corella, and possibly the Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo, have increased in recent decades (Garnett et al. 2000; Mooney & Pedler 2005).

Habitat Loss
Wildfire and altered fire regimes
Wildfire is a major threat to the habitat of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island). There are numerous wildfire events each year on Kangaroo Island, caused mainly by farm machinery, lightning strikes, and the accidental spread of fire from stubble burn-off. The manner in which wildfire is most likely to affect the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population is through the loss of trees used for feeding and/or nesting. It takes at least ten years for stands of Allocasuarina verticillata to recover their fruiting capacity after being burnt by fire. Trees that contain hollows suitable for nesting are thought to be at least 100 years old. The loss of stands of these trees in a series of fires over ten to fifteen years, or in a single widespread catastrophic fire, could significantly reduce the amount of food and/or the number of nesting sites available to the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island), and this in turn could have a significant negative effect on breeding success (Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1997). It is possible that such fires could also affect the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population in other ways, for example, by increasing predation, habitat fragmentation, competition for tree hollows, and the potential for inbreeding (Burbidge & Raines 2003; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1997).

Though fire can have a negative impact on the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) and its habitat, periodic fire is necessary for the habitat of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) to regenerate effectively. It takes many decades for fire to generate suitable foraging and nesting habitat, and thus the need to determine and establish an appropriate fire regime is considered to be of critical importance to the conservation effort (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

Land clearance
The potential for land clearance to affect the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been greatly reduced in the last 30 years. This has been achieved through the:

  • formation of new conservation reserves
  • the establishment of Heritage Agreements with some private landowners
  • the introduction of the Native Vegetation Act 1991, which prohibits broad-scale clearance of native vegetation, and the introduction other legislation and regulations by the South Australian government
  • and the listing of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) under the EPBC Act 1999 (Garnett et al. 2000; Mooney & Pedler 2005).

There is, however, likely to be some inevitable further loss of habitat due to fragmentation in new rural and residential subdivisions and to the continued development of towns and existing rural sub-divisions (Mooney & Pedler 2005). The rate and extent of development on Kangaroo Island has increased in the last five to ten years, especially in coastal and sub-coastal areas where much of the habitat of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) occurs (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.).

Grazing
Habitat loss could also occur as a result of grazing. Grazing by native and introduced animals (including wallabies, kangaroos, possums, goats, deer and, on the Fleurieu Peninsula, rabbits and hares) and domestic stock can inhibit the natural regeneration of Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) habitats (P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; Mooney & Pedler 2005; Pepper 1997). The impact of grazing is unknown but, given that about 60% of foraging habitat and 50% of nesting habitat occurs on private land, it is possible that large areas of habitat could potentially be subject to some form of grazing (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

Psittacine Beak and Feather (Psittacine Circovirus) Disease
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease is an infectious and potentially fatal disease that is common in Australian parrots. It can cause extremely high mortality rates amongst nestlings, and could potentially have a catastrophic effect on the small extant population of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island). Symptoms of the disease have been recorded in the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (DEH 2005q), but it is not known if any of the infected birds were from Kangaroo Island. However, it is possible that the disease may have been introduced, or could be introduced in future, to Kangaroo Island by Galahs and Little Corellas, both of which are common species that have recently arrived on the Island, and that are known to carry the disease (DEH 2005q).

Loss of Genetic Diversity Due to Inbreeding
The small population size and limited geographic range of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) increases the potential for inbreeding. Inbreeding could lower the genetic diversity, fertility and health of the population, and reduce the ability of the birds to adapt to changes in their environment. Research is needed to determine if any inbreeding occurs, and to ensure that the genetic diversity of the population is maintained at a sufficient level (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

Removal of Eggs or Nestlings for the Pet Trade
The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) is a rare bird that currently does not occur in captivity. It may, therefore, be a desirable acquisition for some aviculturists. There is no evidence that the removal of eggs or nestlings has had an impact on the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population, but the high public profile of the subspecies and its recovery effort, and the accessibility of the population, indicate that there is some potential for nest-robbing to occur (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

Loss of Volunteer Support for the Recovery Program
The recovery program for the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) relies heavily on the support of the local community and volunteers, who participate in fund-raising, population and nest monitoring, and revegetation programs. This involvement must continue if the current scope of the recovery effort is to be maintained (Mooney & Pedler 2005).

The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population has been actively and intensively managed for more than a decade. The following recovery actions have been implemented to benefit the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Garnett et al. 2000; P. Mooney 2007, pers. comm.; Mooney & Pedler 2005):

  • Programs have been implemented to monitor population size, nest-sites and breeding success.
  • In the past 30 years, new conservation reserves have been established for the specific protection of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island).
  • Several hundred hectares of Drooping Sheoak habitat on reserves and private land have been restored through re-vegetation programs and protected by erecting fences to exclude livestock.
  • Artificial nest sites have been erected and are subject to annual maintenance.
  • Natural and artificial nest-sites are protected from Brushtail Possums and introduced Honey Bees.
  • Little Corellas are culled if they stray into the vicinity of Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) nest sites.
  • A program has been introduced to control Honey Bee swarms in areas used by the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) for nesting. To date, this program has achieved only limited success.
  • Studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) and on its primary food source, Drooping Sheoak.
  • A network of volunteers has been established to assist with the monitoring of numbers and nests and the protection of nest sites.
  • A fund was established to finance the recovery effort, but this fund is now more or less defunct.
  • A newsletter is published biannually and distributed widely on Kangaroo Island and to several hundred recipients on mainland Australia and elsewhere. Articles on the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) have appeared regularly in local Kangaroo Island media and in Australian birding magazines and newsletters. There have also been media interviews with participants in the recovery effort.
  • On-going liaison has been established with Local, State and Federal government agencies to promote the protection of Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) habitat, to facilitate appropriate planning outcomes and to ensure compliance with existing legislation.
  • The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) should also benefit from the recent development of a threat abatement plan for Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (DEH 2005q).

The following recovery actions are proposed in the most recent Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005–2010 (Mooney & Pedler 2005):

  • Maintain and facilitate community awareness about the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) and its plight, and encourage community participation in the recovery effort. This can be achieved through the publication of a biannual newsletter; presentations to the public; exposure in the media; coverage in environmental and ornithological publications; and the involvement of volunteers in various aspects of the recovery effort.
  • Conserve nest-sites and maximise breeding success. This is to be achieved by excluding Brushtail Possums and Honey Bees from nests; culling Galahs, Little Corellas and Sulphur-crested Cockatoos to limit competition for tree hollows and interference at nests; eliminating Honey Bee hives in areas used for nesting; drilling holes in nest hollows to prevent flooding; and by maintaining chewing blocks and climbing ladders at nests.
  • Locate and monitor nests in natural and artificial nest-sites.
  • Conserve Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) habitat by; liaising with local government and private landholders; identifying and monitoring the status of suitable habitat; promoting and monitoring the success of revegetation schemes; and managing existing habitat, with special consideration to limiting the potential impact of wildfire.
  • Survey and monitor the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) population by conducting annual surveys of population size and survivorship and investigating all reported sightings of the subspecies.
  • There have been a number of major studies on the distribution, morphology, habitat, social organization and behaviour, foraging ecology and breeding biology of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island). These include studies conducted by:

    • Chapman & Paton (2005, 2006)
    • Chapman (2005)
    • Crowley & Garnett (2001)
    • Garnett et al. (1999)
    • Joseph (1982)
    • Pepper (1996, 1997)
    • Pepper (2000)
    • Schodde and colleagues (1993).

    The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Kangaroo Island) has been the subject of at least two recovery plans (Garnett et al. 2000), including the current Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005–2010 (Mooney & Pedler 2005). In addition, The Action Plan for Australian Birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000) provides some management recommendations for the species.

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to firewood collection Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by mammals SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Psittacine Circoviral Disease SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Psittacine Circoviral (beak and feather ) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001v) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for the South Australian Subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus): 2005-2010 (Mooney, P.A. & L.P. Pedler, 2005) [Recovery Plan].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003 (Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire, 2000) [State Recovery Plan].

    Baird, R.F. (1986). Historical records of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami and the Red-tailed Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus magnificus in south-eastern Australia. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:38--45.

    Baxter, C.I. (1989b). An Annotated List of the Birds of Kangaroo Island. Kingscote, Kangaroo I, SA National Parks & Wildlife Service.

    Bebbington, L. (1990). Field observations of Glossy Black Cockatoos. South Australian Ornithologist. 31:54.

    Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

    Burbidge, A. & J. Raines (2003). South Australian Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Program Review 2003. Department for Environment and Heritage, Kingscote, South Australia.

    Chapman, T.F. (2005). Cone production by the Drooping Sheoak Allocasuarina verticillata and the feeding ecology of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus on Kangaroo Island. Ph.D. M.Sc. Thesis. Thesis, University of Adelaide.

    Chapman, T.F. & D.C. Paton (2002). Factors Influencing the Production of Seeds by Allocasuarina verticillata and the Foraging Behaviour of Glossy-Black Cockatoos on Kangaroo Island. Unpublished report to Wildlife Conservation Fund, Canberra.

    Chapman, T.F. & D.C. Paton (2005). The Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus) spends little time and energy foraging on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 53:177-183.

    Chapman, T.F. & D.C. Paton (2006). Aspects of Drooping Sheoaks (Allocasuarina verticillata) that influence Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus) foraging on Kangaroo Island. Emu. 106:163-168.

    Cleland, J. (1942). Birds seen on Kangaroo Island by members of the Ralph Tate Society. South Australian Ornithologist. 16:19-21.

    Cleland, J.B. & E.B. Sims (1968). Food of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo. South Australian Ornithologist. 25:47-52.

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    Crowley, G., S. Garnett & S. Carruthers (1998). Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Existing and Potential Glossy Black-Cockatoo Habitat on Kangaroo Island. Department for Environment and Heritage, Kingscote, South Australia.

    Crowley, G.M. & S.T. Garnett (2001). Food value and tree selection by Glossy Black-Cockatoos Calyptorhynchus lathami. Austral Ecology. 26:116-126.

    Crowley, G.M., S.T. Garnett & L.P. Pedler (1999). Assessment of the role of captive breeding and translocation in the recovery of the South Australian subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus. Birds Australia Report. 5:1-35.

    Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2005q). Threat Abatement Plan for Beak and Feather Disease Affecting Endangered Psittacine Species. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/beak-feather.html.

    Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

    Garnett, S.T., G.M. Crowley, L.P. Pedler, W. Prime, K.L. Twyford & A. Maguire (2000). SUPERSEDED Glossy Black-Cockatoo Recovery Plan (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus), South Australian subspecies, 1999-2003. NPW SA, Department for Environment and Heritage.

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    Joseph, L. (1982). The Glossy Black-Cockatoo on Kangaroo Island. Emu. 82:46--49.

    Joseph, L. (1989b). The Glossy Black-Cockatoo in the south Mount Lofty Ranges. South Australian Ornithologist. 30:202-204.

    Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

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    Pepper, J.W. (1997). A survey of the South Australian Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus) and its habitat. Wildlife Research. 24:209-223.

    Pepper, J.W. (2000). Foraging ecology of the South Ausralian Glossy Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus). Austral Ecology. 25:16-24.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 20 Sep 2014 04:56:40 +1000.