Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
VIC:Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis - Action Statement No. 77 (Taylor, S., J. Crosthwaite & G. Backhouse, 2004) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Invertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2009)
Scientific name Megascolides australis [64420]
Family Megascolecidae:Haplotaxida:Oligochaeta:Annelida:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author  
Reference ANZECC Threatened Fauna List May 2000
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Megascolides australis

Common name: Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Karmai

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm is one of the largest earthworms in the world. It grows to 80–100+ cm long and is 2 cm in diameter. It has 300 to 400 body segments. The front third of the body, including the head, is dark purple and the remainder is a pinkish-grey (Taylor et al. 2004). Weight's of up to 400 g have been recorded with an average weight of 200 g (Van Praagh 1992, 1994).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm is endemic to approximately 440 km² of the Bass River Valley, in South Gippsland, Victoria, in a triangle roughly bounded by Loch, Korumburra and Warragul. The species is patchily distributed within its range (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002a). The species has been recorded only as far north as Buln Buln and not found south of Leongatha (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). Some populations occur on public land, however most occur on private land. There is a small population in Mount Worth State Park (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). The distribution is fragmented and populations can be restricted to very small areas of habitat (Vic. DSE 2004b).

In 1980, a questionnaire survey was undertaken by Smith and Peterson (1982) to obtain information on the Giant Gippsland Earthworm's distribution in South Gippsland. The questionnaire requested details of records or sightings of the worm and was sent to 2000 people from within the known distributional range of the species and to a further 1000 people in a buffer zone immediately surrounding this area. Approximately 600 responses were received, 338 of which provided information on sightings of the species (Smith & Peterson 1982; Yen & Van Praagh 1993).

A survey in the early 1990s (Yen & Van Praagh 1993) sought to determine the Giant Gippsland Earthworm's distribution, land tenure of populations and geology of habitat (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). A total of 321 sites were dug over 27 sampling periods. Forty-one sites had evidence of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm (Yen & Van Praagh 1993).

During a field survey for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm conducted in January 2002 (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002), the species was recorded at two sites east of Bena over a range 3.7 km.

Museum Victoria was contracted by VicRoads in October 2000 to investigate the potential impact of road and bridge construction works on the South Gippsland Highway around Loch and Bena on the Giant Gippsland Earthworm (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2000; 2000a; 2000c). During these surveys, a population of around 20 individuals was located at Loch Hill (Van Praagh 2000b). A preliminary study of the distribution, soils and biology of Loch Hill was conducted between September and November 2001 (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002b). A large earthworm population was found to occur over an area of approximately 2500 m² (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002b). Museum Victoria monitored the population at Loch Hill for five months (February to June 2002) (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002b).

Targeted surveys conducted during 2009 and 2010 detected four small, low density populations within a referral project site on the western boundary of Warragul (Van Praagh 2010).

There are no estimates of the total population size, but worms can be locally abundant. For example, during a survey in 2002, a population at Loch Hill (occurring over an area of 2500 m²) was found to have a high density that ranged from 4.1 to 17.9 per m³, with an average of 8.5 per m³ (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002b).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm has disappeared from some areas where it was previously known and has decreased in numbers at others (Taylor et al. 2004).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm occurs at Mt Worth State Park, on the eastern edge of the species range. The park represents one of the few remaining areas supporting remnant wet forest (mostly Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans)) that would have once been widespread throughout the species range (Gippsland CRA 1999).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm is generally found in the deep blue-grey clay-like soils over cretaceous rocks in the western Strezlecki Ranges and in the alluvial soils in depositional zones to the north and south-west (Smith & Peterson 1982; Yen & Van Praagh 1993). Rainfall in the area is over 700 mm a year (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). The earthworm is usually associated with creek banks (especially smaller tributaries of the Bass River), soaks, river flats or on slopes with a southerly or westerly aspect and is rarely found on north facing slopes (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). The species is absent from soil with a high levels of coarse sand (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2000a) and areas of waterlogging and compaction (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002).

Populations are usually found within close proximity to streams or drainage channels, usually within 40 m but are often restricted to within 5 to 10 m of the banks. They are associated with streams (but not under stream beds) and active streambanks and are almost always found above the active flood plain. Intermittent flooding and siltation of the larger river-banks may explain the absence of the species from sites below the active flood plain (Van Praagh & Yen 2010).

Pasture habitat

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm occurs in permanent pasture, with agriculture representing the major land use throughout its range. Distribution studies of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm at Mt Worth found that it occurred mainly in the open, pastured areas surrounded by remnant vegetation and was absent from under the remnant vegetation (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2000b). Similar findings have been observed along revegetated stream banks and areas of remnant bush where the species was confined to the more open, disturbed areas (Van Praagh et al. 2004, 2005; Van Praagh 2008). 

The species has been predominately detected on farms with dairy/beef cattle, and occasionally on farms growing potatoes, vegetable or fruit (Taylor et al. 2004; Van Praagh & Hinkley 2004). Of the 41 sites where Giant Gippsland Earthworms were found, during a survey in the early 1990s (Yen & Van Praagh 1993), most (90.3%) were in areas dominated by introduced pastures, and often (31.7%) along roadsides (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). In another survey, over 80% occurred within 40 m of banks of streams or soaks (Van Praagh 1992). On farmland, populations tend to be restricted to steep hillsides and gullies without ploughing (Taylor et al. 2004).

Burrows

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm lives in complex, permanent subsoil burrows that extend to around 1–1.5 m in depth (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002) with the species at an average depth of 52 cm (Kretzschmar & Aries 1992; Van Praagh 1992). Water balance within burrows is important for worm movement and respiration (Van Praagh et al. 2002). Burrows are very wet (even in summer) and usually have a free-flow of water in them (Van Praagh et al. 2002).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm is hermaphroditic (having both female and male reproductive organs), but requires two individuals for fertilisation to occur (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002). Breeding activity is evidenced by a large, swollen clitellum (where the cocoon is produced) and occurs predominantly in spring and summer (Van Praagh 1996; Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002). Each year an individual lays a single egg which contains one embryo (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). The egg capsule is 4–9 cm in length, 2 cm in diameter and amber in colour (Yen & Van Praagh 1993; Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002). Egg capsules occur at an average depth of 23 cm, but are often much closer to the surface (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). Eggs take over 12 months to hatch (Van Praagh 1992; Yen & Van Praagh 1993). Field and laboratory studies suggest that the Gippsland Giant Earthworm is very long lived, possibly taking up to five years to reach reproductive maturity (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002). Populations predominantly consist of adults at all times of the year (Van Praagh 1994).

No successful breeding has been achieved in captivity (Van Praagh 1992). Attempts to breed other species of giant worms have also been unsuccessful (Blackmore 1992 pers. comm. cited in Taylor et al. 2004; Lavell 1993 pers. comm. cited in Taylor et al. 2004; Lee 1991 pers. comm. cited in Taylor et al. 2004).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm feeds on roots and organic matter in the soil, although it may occasionally feed on plant material on the surface by poking its head out of the burrows (Taylor et al. 2004; Yen & Van Praagh 1994).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm moves by alternately contracting and expanding its head and tail ends (Yen & Van Praagh 1994). Earthworms are very sluggish on the soil surface (Yen & Van Praagh 1993). Within wet burrows this movement produces a loud gurgling or sucking noise, a distinguishing characteristic that is used to detect the presence of worms (Taylor et al. 2004; Van Praagh & Hinkley 2000).

Detection

The most reliable way of locating the Giant Gippsland Earthworm is by digging 50 cm x 50 cm quadrats and looking for burrows (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002). A wet burrow indicates that the burrow is actively being utilised by a worm. Earthworms also make gurgling sound in wet burrows and can be detected by banging the ground with a spade and listening for gurgles (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002). There is no available information on required survey effort.

Unlike most other earthworms, which deposit their casts (waste material) on the surface, the Giant Gippsland Earthworm casts within its burrow. In areas of high yabby (Cherax spp.) densities, yabby burrows may be mistaken for worm burrows, but the presence of cast material in a burrow confirms the Giant Gippsland Earthworm's presence (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2000a).

Release

Uninjured worms can be gently placed, anterior first, into existing burrows of appropriate size. A stick or a metal rod can be used to check that the burrows are not blocked, however, this can be difficult as burrows are not straight. The posterior section of the worm should be supported by either a handmade ledge below the burrow or with a soil mound. The exposed section can then be gently buried with loose soil to reduce the likelihood of desiccation or predators. Following this, the soil should be watered (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002b).

Artificial burrows can be made using a thin metal rod, 1 cm in diameter hammered into exposed soil face or a trench using a rubber mallet. It can be difficult to hammer the rod in far enough and removing it from the soil (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002b).

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm is threatened by intensification of soil disturbance (cultivation), alteration to local drainage patterns or watertables, earthworks, urbanisation, the use of soluble biocides, effluent discharge into waterways, excessive fertiliser use, the collection of individual worms and fragmentation of populations (Taylor et al. 2004; Van Praagh & Yen 2010). The species' low recruitment rate, slow growth rate and poor dispersal ability increase the risks associated with these threats.

Altered hydrology

Water table and drainage pattern alterations are one of the most serious threats to the Giant Gippsland Earthworm. Drain construction is thought to have resulted in local extinction of the species from a section of roadside habitat west of Loch that was widened in the mid-1990s. The Giant Gippsland Earthworm was found at this site in 1990 (Van Praagh 1994), and again in 1993 when an overtaking lane was constructed (Dent 2004 pers. comm. cited in Van Praagh & Yen 2010). This section of road was widened and table drains constructed in 1995, causing lowering of the water table. A survey five years later failed to locate any Giant Gippsland Earthworms in the area (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2000b).

Soil disturbance

Direct soil disturbance kills earthworms and destroys their burrows. According to Van Praagh and Hinkley (2002a), the Giant Gippsland Earthworm is extremely fragile and even slight bruising or damage may cause death. Activities that can disturb soil include soil excavation, road construction, dam construction, deep ripping and the laying of cables (Taylor et al. 2004; Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002).

Collection

Historically, the Giant Gippsland Earthworm has been collected for recreation, commercial purposes (including public display) and scientific research. Intensity of collection has ranged from incidental to extensive. Worms can only be collected by digging them out of the ground, which destroys burrow systems and often injures and kills worms. Also, skins of earthworms can burst as they try to escape capture (Van Praagh 1994). Recent research indicates that collection depletes local populations, and the removal of even small numbers of the worms may, over time, cause the extinction of the populations from which they have been taken (McCarthy et al. 1994). It is an offence to collect, possess or display the species without an appropriate permit issued by the Victorian Government (Taylor et al. 2004).

Farming practices

Conservation of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm relies on farmers maintaining and managing areas of suitable habitat on their properties. Because of the species association with particular soil types that have a very patchy distribution, it is unlikely that the species occupies more than 5–10% of any one property. Fencing out sides of streams and wetter hillsides is probably the most effective ways of protecting the populations. Land for Wildlife Note No. 11, Giant Gippsland Earthworm - Nature's Plough, details steps landowners can take to conserve habitat (Taylor et al. 2004).

Vertical migration of earthworms may be important when considering timing of land use activities: although earthworms can be found in wet patches close to the surface in summer, generally they occur deeper if soil is drier. If possible, ploughing should be avoided in areas when the upper level of the soil is very wet since this is when adults will be found closest to the surface (Taylor et al. 2004; Yen & Van Praagh 1993). In areas of suitable habitat, leaf-litter and the like should be allowed to accumulate as it provides a good source of food for the earthworm and helps maintain moisture in the soil (Taylor et al. 2004; Yen & Van Praagh 1993).

Proposed actions

The National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm (Van Praagh & Yen 2010) states the key recovery strategy as improving the knowledge of distribution and habitat requirements of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm. Current survey techniques are time-consuming and destructive.

Actions undertaken

The Giant Gippsland Earthworm has been subject to a range of conservation works since the mid 1980s (Taylor et al. 2004; Van Praagh & Yen 2010). Examples of specific actions include:

  • Financial support for field studies provided by the Victorian Government, World Wide Fund for Nature, the Australian Government and Museum Victoria (Taylor et al. 2004).
  • Improved community awareness through the publication of Giant Gippsland Earthworm - Nature's Plough (Van Praagh 1991) and the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 77 (Taylor et al. 2004).
  • Habitat rehabilitiation along the Bass River (Taylor et al. 2004), on private property (Taylor et al. 2004) and priority areas in South Gippsland region (through the Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture Initiative) (Van Praagh & Yen 2010).
  • Central population register maintained by Museum Victoria (Taylor et al. 2004).
  • Various ecology, biology and distribution research projects (Van Praagh & Yen 2010).
  • Translocation of individuals from the Loch Bypass population (Van Praagh & Hinkley 2002c; Van Praagh & Yen 2010).

Commonwealth Government funding

The Powlett Catchment Landcare Group Inc. received $29 110 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2003–04 for targeted landholder education and broader community involvement to deliver on-ground works in known and suspected locations of this species.

Management documents relevant to the Giant Gippsland Earthworm are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Fertiliser application National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Intensification of farming practices such as increased grazing pressure, cropping expansion, vegetation clearance and/or pasture improvement National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for commercial purposes Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for recreational purposes Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for scientific purposes Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Small isolated populations National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Stress caused by water table reduction National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Habitat degradation due to agricultural chemical pollution Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Herbicide application National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pesticide application National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Species Stresses:unspecified Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006qd) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis (Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen, 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Gippsland CRA (1999). Biodiversity Assessment 1999. Published by the Joint Commonwealth and Victorian Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) Steering Committee.

Kretzschmar, B., & F. Aries (1992). An analysis of the structure of the burrow system of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis McCoy 1878, using 3D- images. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 24:1583-1586.

McCarthy, M.A., B.D. Van Praagh, & A.L. Yen (1994). An Assessment of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Harvesting. Report to the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Melbourne.

Smith, B.J., & J.A. Peterson (1982). Studies of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Magascolides australis McCoy, 1878. Victorian Naturalist. 99:164-173.

Taylor, S., J. Crosthwaite & G. Backhouse (2004). Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis - Action Statement No. 77. [Online]. Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

Van Praagh, B.D. (1991). Giant Gippsland Earthworm - Nature's Plough. Land for Wildlife Note. 11. Melbourne: Department of Conservation and Environment.

Van Praagh, B.D. (1992). The biology and conservation of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm (Megascolides australis McCoy, 1878). Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 24 (12):1363-7.

Van Praagh, B.D. (1994). The Biology and Conservation of Megascolides australis McCoy 1878. Ph.D. Thesis. Bundoora: LaTrobe University.

Van Praagh, B.D. (2008). Giant Gippsland Earthworm Surveys at Revegetated Stream Frontage Sites in South Gippsland, Victoria. Unpublished Report for Melbourne Water.Waterways Investigation.

Van Praagh, B.D. (2010). Giant Gippsland Earthworm Survey of Proposed Waterford Rise Residential Development at 196 Tarwin Street, Warragul, Victoria. Melbourn, Invert-Eco.

Van Praagh, B.D. & A.L. Yen (2010). National Recovery Plan for the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis. [Online]. Melbourne Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/giant-gippsland-earthworm.html.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2000). Survey of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis in areas to be affected by a realignment of the South Gippsland Highway Realignment - Loch to Bena Stage One. Unpublished Report prepared for VicRoads. Melbourne: Museum Victoria.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2000a). Survey of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis in areas to be affected by a realignment of the South Gippsland Highway - Loch to Bena Stage One. Unpublished Report prepared for VicRoads. Melbourne: Museum Victoria.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2000c). Survey of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis in areas to be affected by a realignment of the South Gippsland Highway - Loch to Bena Stage Two. Unpublished Report prepared for VicRoads.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2000d). Further surveys on the distribution of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis McCoy within Mt Worth State Park. Unpublished report prepared for the Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2002). Survey of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis in areas potentially affected by a realignment of the South Gippsland Highway - Bena to Korumburra. Museum Victoria Science Reports. 3:1-5.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2002a). Survey of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis in areas potentially affected by a realignment of the South Gippsland Highway - Korumburra to Leongatha. Museum Victoria Science Reports. 4:1-4.

Van Praagh, B.D. & S.D. Hinkley (2002b). Further studies on the Giant Gippsland Earthworm (Megascolides australis) population at Loch Hill, South Gippsland, Victoria. Museum Victoria Science Reports. 5:1-10.

Van Praagh, B.D., A.L. Yen & N. Rosengren (2005). Gippsland Earthworm Case Study: Management of farm habitats for Earthworm Conservation in South Gippsland. Part 2 Ellinbank . Report for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (ESAI) subproject 05118.

Van Praagh, B.D., A.L.Yen & N. Rosengren (2004). Giant Gippsland Earthworm Case Study: Management of farm habitats for Earthworm Conservation in South Gippsland. Part 1 Jumbunna. Report for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (ESAI) sub-project 05118.

Van Praagh, B.D., S.D. Hinkley & I.J. Sargeant (2002). The Giant Gippsland Earthworm, Megascolides australis, population at Loch Hill, South Gippsland: distribution and preliminary biological and soil studies. Museum Victoria Science Reports. 2:1-20.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2004b). Threatened Species and Farming, Report No X, Giant Gippsland Earthworm case study: Management of farm habitats for Earthworm conservation in South Gippsland. Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2009). Advisory List of Threatened Invertebrate Fauna in Victoria. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/native-plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-species-advisory-lists.

Yen, A.L., & B.D. Van Praagh (1993). The Distribution of the Giant Gippsland Earthworm. Report to the Australian Heritage Commission for the National Estate Program.

Yen, A.L., & B.D. Van Praagh (1994). Studies on the Giant Gippsland Earthworm Megascolides australis McCoy 1878 (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megascoledicae). Final report to the World Wide Fund for Nature (Aust). World Wide Fund for Nature (Australia).

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Megascolides australis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:46:56 +1000.