Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis
Listed marine as Diomedea amsterdamensis
Listed migratory - Bonn as Diomedea amsterdamensis
This taxon may be listed under the EPBC Act at the species level, see Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) [1073].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea amsterdamensis.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea amsterdamensis.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea amsterdamensis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (72) (15/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008k) [Legislative Instrument] as Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis.
 
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013) as Diomedea amsterdamensis
Scientific name Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis [82330]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author  
Infraspecies author (Roux, Jouventin, Mougin, Stahl & Weimerskirch, 1983)
Reference  
Other names Diomedea amsterdamensis [64405]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Amsterdam Albatross, Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis, under Australian and State Government legislation and under international conventions, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered, Marine and Migratory under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

NSW: Listed as Endangered under the name Diomedea exulans under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.

South Australia: Listed as Vulnerable under the name Diomedea exulans under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972.

Tasmania: Listed as Endangered under the name Diomedea exulans under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Victoria: Listed as Threatened under the name Diomedea exulans under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.

Western Australia: Listed as Fauna that is rare or likely to become extinct under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific name: Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis

Common name: Amsterdam Albatross

This profile takes the taxonomy applied by Dickinson (2003), the Australian Fauna Directory (2007) and Christidis and Boles (2008) where the Amsterdam Albatross is treated as a subspecies of the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans). This treatment is accepted by many authorities. Morphometric differentiation is difficult as the appearence of the Amsterdam Albatross is similar to the juvenile Wandering Albatross.

Significant authorities (including the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, of which Australia is a signatory) treat the Amsterdam Albatross as a separate species (i.e. Diomedea amsterdamensis) following Robertson and Nunn (1997). Robertson and Nunn (1997) are responsible for the widely accepted use of Thalassarche for medium sized albatross and with Diomedea for large species.

The Amsterdam Albatross is a huge, full-bodied albatross with extremely long wings (wing span 2.5–3.5 m) and a short, wedge-shaped tail. The bill is very large and pink, with a bulbous tip (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The subspecies is similar in appearence to the Wandering Albatross with uniform dark brown plumage, and a contrasting clown-like white mask extending from the top of the bill, behind the eyes, around the cheeks and under the chin, and white underwings (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Amsterdam Albatross differs from juvenile Wandering Albatrosses in the colouration of the bill: Amsterdam Albatrosses have a diagnostic dark-brown cutting edge to the upper mandible, although this may appear black at a distance; and greenish-brown bill-tip, forming a dusky tip contrasting the rest of the bill (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Amsterdam Albatross is a non-resident visitor to Australia, and may occur in south-west and south Australian waters (Pizzey & Knight 1999). The similarity of the Amsterdam Albatross to juvenile Wandering Albatross makes identification at sea difficult, and may obscure distribution information of this subspecies. There are a few records of this subspecies off New Zealand, and one bird was captured on a longline fishing vessel operating south of Tasmania (Gales 1998).

The Amsterdam Albatross breeds on Amsterdam Island (territory of France), in the southern Indian Ocean. It mainly forages in the Southern Hemisphere in the ocean surrounding this island (Gales 1998).

It has been estimated that the total global population of Amsterdam Albatross is approximately 130 individuals, of which 80 are adults (ACAP 2007a). About 20 pairs breed annually, laying an average of 13 eggs per year. The number of breeding pairs has increased to approximately 18–25 pairs from five pairs in the mid 1980s, when monitoring studies began (Weimerskirch et al. 1997). The breeding population on Amsterdam Island is considered to be stable (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The number of Amsterdam Albatross visiting Australian waters is unknown. Given the low number of known individuals, it is likely to be very few.

The Amsterdam Albatross is a marine, pelagic seabird. It nests in open patchy vegetation (among tussocks, ferns or shrubs) near exposed ridges or hillocks (Weimerskirch et al. 1985). It sleeps and rests on ocean waters when not breeding (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Adult Amsterdam Albatrosses arrive at Amsterdam Island in January (Environment Australia 2001f). Clutch size is one and eggs are laid in late February and March, and hatch 79 days later (in May). Both sexes incubate eggs and rear chicks in alternate shifts (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Offspring fledge in January and February after spending 235 days in the nest (Jouventin et al. 1989). Mean breeding success has been estimated to be 72% (Wiemerskirch et al. 1997). On average, each breeding pair produces one egg every 1.8 years and fledges a chick every 2.4 years (Jouventin et al. 1989). Immature Amsterdam Albatrosses roam the seas for four to seven years before returning to Amsterdam Island. They begin to breed when they are nine years old (ACAP 2007a; Environment Australia 2001f).

The Amsterdam Albatross forages in open water, mainly in the Indian Ocean. Some birds concentrate over shelves near Amsterdam Island or continents; in productive waters at upwellings; and boundaries of currents. Others birds remain in pelagic waters all year (Weimerskirch et al. 1985). This subspecies feeds on squid, fish and crustaceans (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1997).

The Amsterdam Albatross is migratory or dispersive. In winter and spring, its range is further north than at other times. This subspecies is rare south of the polar front (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1987). It occurs near south-west Africa between March and October, north to 17° S (Hansen 1978; Summerhayes et al. 1974).

In the southern Indian Ocean, juveniles are present only in the northern part of the range, occurring to 35–45° S in summer (Jouventin et al. 1982; Stahl 1987; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1987) and to 30–38° S in winter and spring (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Adult males range further south (usually to 50–60° S) than adult females (usually to 35–45° S) in summer (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1987).

General threats
When migrating through the East Marine Region, the Amsterdam Albatross may be threatened by a reduction in food stock, ingestion or being caught in marine debris, oil spills and pollution (DEWHA 2009m). The chick is unlikely to survive if a parent is killed while it is foraging at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Longline fishing
The primary threat to the Amsterdam Albatross is drowning in longline fishing gear (Garnett & Crowley 2000) and related hook and plastic ingestion (DEWHA 2009m). One Amsterdam Albatross was recorded caught during longline fishing south of Tasmania (Gales 1998). The foraging behaviour of large seabirds that eat fish and squid on or close to the surface, such as diving for baits, makes them the most susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (AGDEH 2006q). It is stipulated that the Amsterdam Albatross cannot sustain any level of incidental bycatch (Inchausti & Weimerskirch 2001).

Oceanic longline fishing has targeted pelagic and demersal fish in southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in most Australian waters (AGDEH 2006q). Of all birds killed on longlines and retained for identification, albatrosses represented 75% of those caught (Gales & Brothers 1995). Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial bycatch mitigation measures (Environment Australia 2001f). Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (Environment Australia 2001f).

Other fishing-related deaths
Outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables (or their equivalent) may cause substantial collision mortality to Amsterdam Albatross. The subspecies may also be shot for sport or by fishers protecting bait (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998).

Disease
Recent evidence suggests that the Amsterdam Albatross is threatened by avian cholera and the bacterial disease Erysipelas. These diseases are known to occur in the Amsterdam Island region. The diseases apparently killed 66% of chicks in 2000 and 74% in 2001 (Weimerskirch 2004).

Breeding colony threats
Predation of the Amsterdam Albatross by introduced cats and rats pose a further threat on Amsterdam Island (ACAP 2007a). Human disturbance through habitat destruction, fire management and cattle farming have also degraded breeding sites on the island.

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process of the EPBC Act 1999. The Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) aims to reduce seabird bycatch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a bycatch reduction of 90% within the Australian Fishing Zone) by:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures)
  • developing new mitigation measures
  • educating fishers and the public
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions.

A large portion of Amsterdam Island has been fenced-off to protect the breeding colonies from feral cattle (Micol & Jouventin 1995).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Weimerskirch, H., P. Jouventin, J.L. Mougin & J-C. Stahl (1985). Banding recoveries and dispersion of seabirds breeding in the French austral and Antarctic territories. Emu. 85:22-31.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea exulans amsterdamensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 12:07:14 +1000.