Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Threatened flora of the Western Central Wheatbelt (Collins, J., 2009) [State Species Management Plan].
Scientific name Pityrodia scabra [6421]
Family Lamiaceae:Lamiales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author A.S.George
Infraspecies author  
Reference George, A.S., (1968) Additions to the flora of Western Australia: ten miscellaneous new species. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 50(4): 103, Fig. 3C [tax. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Current name: Pityrodia scabra

Common name: Wyalkatchem Foxglove

The Wyalkatchem Foxglove now includes the species formally known as Pityrodia sp. Yilgarn (A.P. Brown 2679) (Shepherd et al. 2013). Two subspecies are recognised: P. scabra scabra from Wyalkatchem and P. s. dendrotricha from Southern Cross and Lake Lefroy (Shepherd et al. 2013).

The Wyalkatchem Foxglove is an erect shrub to 1 m high. Its stems and branches are terete (slender and smooth), with dense viscid (sticky), shortly stalked, rusty-gold branched hairs and sessile (without a base) glandular hairs (Shepherd et al. 2013). Its linear leaves, 5–12 mm long, are in whorls of three. They lack stalks and are blunt at the apex, with inrolled margins. The margins have numerous, small, rounded teeth, and the leaves are covered with dense, coarse, short hairs, becoming rough above. Inflorescences are held in the leaf axils. Flowers are white with the corolla consisting of two upper lobes and three lower lobes (Brown et al. 1998).

The Wyalkatchem Foxglove is known from three areas in south-west Western Australia (WA): one population north of Wyalkatchem, two disjunct populations south of Southern Cross and one population near Lake Lefroy (Shepherd et al. 2013).

Prior to 2013, the species was believed to be restricted to thee sites in the Wyalkatchem (Cowcowing) area, consisting of less than 40 plants (WA DEC 2009n). This population occurred in disturbed vegetation on a road verge and an adjacent private property (Mollemans et al. 1993).

After 2013, the populations near Southern Cross (Jilbadji Nature Reserve) and Lake Lefroy (Kambalba/Widgiemooltha), which were previously thought to have belonged to the species Pityrodia sp. Yilgairn, were included with the Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Shepherd et al. 2013). Authorities had previously highlighted the possible synonymy (Brown et al. 1998). Sites at Lake Lefroy mainly occur in disturbed areas (WMC 2001).

The following table presents a population summary for the Wyalkatchem Foxglove (WA DEC 2009n; WMC 2001):

Location Site Year Number of plants Notes Reference
Wyalkatchem 1A - road reserve 1987 11 When discovered, it was scattered along 450 m of the side of Koorda-Wyalkatchem Road and a small area that had been excavated. It may be present in the seed bank. WA DEC (2009n)
1992 0
2005 0
1B - private property 1994 2   WA DEC (2009n)
2005 0
2008 34
1C - rail reserve 1996 1 May be present in the seed bank   WA DEC (2009n)
2005 0
1T - private property 1995 50 (planted) Translocated population O'Donoghue & Atkins (1995), WA DEC (2009n)
2005 4
4T (Koorda) - reserve 1995 69 (planted) Translocated population may be present in the seed bank O'Donoghue & Atkins (1995), WA DEC (2009n)
2008 0
14 (Koorda) - private property 1998 4 Poor condition   WA DEC (2009n)
2008 1
Southern Cross       Jilbadji Nature Reserve Shepherd and colleagues (2013), WA DEC (2009n)
Lake Lefroy     973 Nine sites consisting of 1 to over 600 plants Shepherd and colleagues (2013), WA DEC (2009n), WMC (2001)

The species has been recorded in Jilbadji Nature Reserve (Shepherd et al. 2013).

At Wyalkatchem, the Wyalkatchem Foxglove occurs on brown to white sandy soil in disturbed shrubland that consists of Raspberry Jam (Acacia acuminata), A. beauverdiana, A. nigripilosa subsp. nigripilosa, Allocasuarina acutivalvis, Melaleuca spp. and Verticordia spp. (Shepherd et al. 2013).

To the east, the species occurs on brown sand over gravel or deep, yellow sand near gypsum dunes. Established populations occur with mixed sandplain heath or shrubland associated with Acacia assimilis, Grevillea spp., Hakea spp., Callitris spp. and emergent mallee eucalypts (Shepherd et al. 2013).

The Wyalkatchem Foxglove seems to be a disturbance opportunist (Mattiske & Associates 1994) with young plants observed on disturbed soils near recently cleared fence lines (Shepherd et al. 2013), excavated areas (WA DEC 2009n) or road verges where topsoil has been removed or graded (Brown et al. 1998; Mattiske & Associates 1994). Flowering occurs in October and November in the west (WA DEC 2009n) and has been observed in July in the east (Shepherd et al. 2013).

Staff at Kings Park and Botanic Garden propagated the species in 1994–95. Initial tissue culture and cuttings failed, but grafting onto the related species, Dicrastylis fulva and D. corymbosa proved successful. Early trials suggested that self-pollination is unable to produce seed. Plants were cross-pollinated by hand. The resulting seed proved difficult to germinate normally, but seedlings were produced via the embryo excision method (O'Donoghue & Atkins 1995). In 1992, several self-rooted cuttings were established from a single parent source and were found to be self sterile (Atkins 1992). In 1993, an in-situ site was scarified and had smoke treatment in an unsuccessful attempt to stimulate seed germination (O'Donoghue & Atkins 1995).

The Wyalkatchem Foxglove resembles Grey Foxglove (Pityrodia hemigenioides). However, the Wyalkatchem Foxglove's covering of coarse, sticky hairs gives it a distinct appearance. Further differences are the larger whorled leaf arrangement, leaves with inrolled margins and the flowers, arranged in small cymes (WA DEC 2009n). Pityrodia scabra scabra (the population at Wyalkatchem) is distinguished from P. s. dendrotricha (at Lake Lefroy and Southern Cross) in having leaves in whorls of three that become scabrous with age, linear to narrowly elliptic bracts and wider calyx lobes (Shepherd et al. 2013).

In the west of its range, the Wyalkatchem Foxglove is under significant threat from weed invasion, grazing by the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), frequent fire and encroachment of salinity (Shepherd et al. 2013). Movement of stock and inappropriate maintenance (e.g. herbicide application) along the road reserve where the species is found, may cause damage (Mollemans et al. 1993). 

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Inappropriate disturbance regimes Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hypochaeris radicata (Flatweed, Cat's-ear) Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed, Cape Dandelion) Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Tripteris clandestina (Tripteris) Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Negative impact from animals Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Changes in hydrology leading to rising water tables and dryland salinity Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Pestitcide application and runoff Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Population senescnce and lack of recruitment Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006tq) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra) (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009n) [Recovery Plan].

Atkins, K. (1992). Interim Recovery Plan No 1 for the Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra). Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Mattiske, E.M. & Associates (1994). Assessment of Three Gazetted Rare Plants: Daviesia microcarpa, Lepidium catapycnon and Pityrodia scabra. Perth: Mattiske & Associates.

Mollemans, F.H., P.H. Brown & D.J. Coates (1993). Declared rare flora and other plants in need of special protection in the Merredin District (excluding the Wongan-Ballidu Shire). Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.

O'Donoghue, M. & K. Atkins (1995). Will the Wyalkatchem Foxglove survive?. Landscope. 11(1):17-19. Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Shepherd, K.A., A. Perkins, J. Collins, M. Byrne & K.R. Thiele (2013). Morphological and molecular evidence supports the recognition of a new subspecies of the critically endangered Pityrodia scabra (Lamiaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 26:1-12.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009n). Recovery Plan for Wyalkatchem Foxglove (Pityrodia scabra). [Online]. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/pubs/pityrodia-scabra.rtf.

Western Mining Company (WMC) (2001). Performance Biodiversity. [Online]. Available from: http://www.wmc.com/sustain/envrep97/page28.htm.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pityrodia scabra in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 19 Apr 2014 02:34:48 +1000.