Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aea) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aef) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, the species is only known from three subpopulations and is subject to a number of land use threats (19/12/2008).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Mingenew everlasting (Schoenia filifolia subsp. subfolia) Interim Recovery Plan 2011-2016 (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2012c) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (69) (19/12/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008d) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District (Patrick, S.J., 2001) [State Species Management Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Scientific name Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia [63904]
Family Asteraceae:Asterales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author (F.Muell.) Paul G.Wilson
Reference Wilson, Paul. G. (1992) The Lawrencella complex (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae: Angianthinae) of Australia. Nuytsia 8(3): 375 [comb. et stat. nov.]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/13356

The current conservation status of Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia, under Australian and State Government legislation, is as follows:

National: Listed as Endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Western Australia: Listed as Declared Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.

Scientific Name: Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia

There are two other subspecies of Schoenia filifolia, both endemic to Western Australia.

Schoenia filifolia subsp. arenicola
This is an erect, single-stemmed annual herb growing to 0.5 m high with yellow flowers. Flowering occurs between August and September. It occurs in sand, red clay, on sub-coastal sand ridges. Currently this species is listed in Western Australia as Priority 1 Flora.

Schoenia filifolia subsp. filifolia
This is an erect, often multi-stemmed annual herb with yellow flowers. Flowering occurs between July and November. It occurs in sand or sandy loam or salt flats. This species conservation status is not threatened.

Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia is an annual herb growing to 0.5 m, with terete leaves. Flowers are yellow and the flowering period is from September to October. The species grows in pale yellow-grey-brown clay in swampy flats, tops of breakaways and crabholes (Western Australian Herbarium 2005).

The taxon is endemic to Western Australia where it is currently known from three subpopulations in the Mingenew area approximately 110 km south-east of Geraldton in the Northern Agricultural NRM Region. Old records also show it as having once occurred at Walkaway and Champion Bay near Geraldton, Western Australia (WA CALM 2006).

The extent of occurrence is estimated to be approximately 35 km². The area was calculated by drawing a boundary around all the known subpopulations to create a polygon. The computer program Acrview GIS and a dataset taken from CALM's Threatened Flora Database (which contains a single GPS coordinate for each subpopulation) was used to determine the area of the polygon (WA CALM 2006).

There is some evidence of a historical decline in extent of occurence, as this taxon was reportedly widepsread in the past, with Herbarium records from 1962 locating it near Geraldton. It is quite likely that other small subpopulations exist in isolated patches of remnant vegetation on private properties. However, there is no information to support a wider actual extent of occcurrence other than it was once widespread in the past. It was suggested that because the known subpopulations are restricted to swampy areas unsuitable for cropping, few patches of suitable habitat might still exist in an area that has been extensively cleared. However, being on private property, these areas are difficult to access (WA CALM 2006).

There is insufficient data to calculate the actual area of occupancy. The area of only two subpopulations have been recorded. For the two subpopulations where area of occupancy was recorded, the total area recorded was 850 m². Based on extrapolations of this information, the area of occupancy for the three subpopulations is estimated to be less than 0.002 km² (WA CALM 2006).

The taxon is known from three extant subpopulations in the Mingenew area south-east of Geraldton.

The taxon's distribution is considered to be fragmented as the known subpopulations are small and isolated to patches of remnant vegetation on private properties, within an area extensively cleared for agriculture (WA CALM 2006).

Conservation and Land Management (CALM) officers searched roadsides and reserves in the vicinity of the previous collection sites during the 1999 flowering season. No new subpopulations were found (WA CALM 2006).

Staff from the Mingenew Regional Herbarium undertook surveys for this taxon over several years, and located the three currently known subpopulations (WA CALM 2006).


Subpopulation No. Year Size
1 1999
2004
20+
1000+
2 1999
2004
30+
200+
3 1999
2004
Not recorded
20



As this taxon is known to have been widespread in the past, it is quite likely that other small subpopulations exist in remnant vegetation on private properties (WA CALM 2006).

The population size for this taxon was estimated to be 1220 (+) mature plants in 2004 (TSSC 2008aef). The following figures are a combination of actual and estimated counts during monitoring of the three known subpopulations (WA CALM 2006):

Subpopulation 1: 1000+ mature plants in healthy condition - last surveyed 30/8/04.

Subpopulation 2: 200+ mature plants in healthy condition - last surveyed 30/8/04.

Subpopulation 3: 20 mature plants in moderate condition - last surveyed 8/11/04.

This taxon was reportedly widespread in the Mingenew area in the early 1900s, but is now restricted to swampy areas unsuitable for agricultural purposes. As an annual taxon, the size of the subpopulations are subject to seasonal variation. It is not possible, therefore, to deduce trends in population size based on surveys conducted in 1999 and 2004 (TSSC 2008aef).


Subpopulation No. Year Size
1 1999
2004
20+
1000+
2 1999
2004
30+
200+
3 1999
2004
Not recorded
20

None of the known subpopulations fall within the reserve system (WA CALM 2006).

The taxon grows in pale yellow-grey-brown clay in swampy flats, tops of breakaways and crabholes (Western Australia Herbarium 2005).

Present and future threats to Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia include agricultural encroachment, weed invasion, salinity and grazing (TSSC 2008aef; WA CALM 2006).


Subpopulation ID Past Present Future
1 Land Clearing Agricultural Encroachment

Weed Invasion

Climate Change

Weed Invasion

Grazing
2 Land Clearing Agricultural Encroachment

Weed Invasion
Climate Change

Weed Invasion

Salinity
3 Land Clearing Agricultural Encroachment

Weed Invasion
Climate Change

Weed Invasion

Grazing



The long-term survival of the remaining subpopulations is under threat from agricultural encroachment; the same factors responsible for the reduction in the distribution of the species over the last 50–100 years. While land clearing is implied in agricultural encroachment, it also refers to farm activities such as maintaining fence lines/firebreaks, chemical drift and land degradation by stock, all of which can impact the species' habitat. It is likely that the remaining subpopulations will continue to decline due to other threats associated with agriculture (WA CALM 2006).

Climate change and the associated processes such as sea level rise and increases in carbon dioxide levels are expected to affect biodiversity in Western Australia during the next few decades (WA CALM 2004). It is of particular threat to rare species that are often already occurring in small fragmented subpopulations that have evolved specifically to their habitat. Should particular parameters of their habitat change such as climatic conditions, the species may not be able to cope and hence lead to extinction. It is unknown how climate change will specifically affect this species.

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision:

Local actions are being undertaken to assist the species and most subpopulations are located within Crown reserves. Therefore the approved Conservation Advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and manage the threats posed by weed invasion and salinity. A recovery plan is not considered to be necessary at this time.

The Conservation Advice for this species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2008aea) includes the following regional and local priority action recommendations:

  • Protect areas of native vegetation, which contain populations of the species or which could support populations in the future.

  • Manage any disruptions to water flows.

  • Develop and implement a management plan for the control of weeds in the region.

  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.

  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land, and for crown and private land investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.

  • Monitor known sites to identify annual changes in population size.

  • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia, using appropriate methods.

  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations/occurrences/remnants.

  • Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites.

Existing Recovery Actions
All known subpopulations occur on private property. The landowners have been notified of the status of the taxon and the associated legal responsibilities. All subpopulations are monitored to assess subpopulation health and possible decline. This will continue in the future.

Choengsaat and colleagues (1998) trialled germination approaches (for possible commercial propagation) while Peishi and colleagues (1999) undertook survivability and germination studies of Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia.

The taxon is described in the CALM's Wildlife Management Program No. 26 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District (Patrick 2001) and conservation actions are included in the Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (TSSC 2008aea).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aea) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aef) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aea) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aef) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aea) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aea) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aef) [Listing Advice].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Pesticide drift Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aea) [Conservation Advice].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Commonwealth Listing Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008aef) [Listing Advice].

Choengsaat, D., J. A. Plummer & D.W Turner (1998). Irrigate for more seeds and heat for better germination in Australian Everlasting Daisies. In: International Society for Horticultural Science Acta Horticulturae 454:III International Symposium on New Floricultural Crops. 454:241-250. [Online]. Available from: http://www.actahort.org/books/454/454_28.htm.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. [Online]. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Available from: http://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/SSC/RedList/redlistcatsenglish.pdf. [Accessed: 13-Jul-2007].

Patrick, S.J. (2001). Declared Rare or Poorly Known Flora in the Geraldton District. [Online]. Wildlife Management Program No 26. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.

Peishi, P., J.A. Plummer, D.W. Turner, D. Choengsaat & D.T. Bell (1999). Low- and High-temperature Storage Effects on Viability and Germinability of Seeds of Three Australian Asteraceae. Australian Journal Botany. 47:265-275. [Online]. Available from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=BT97105.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008aea). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/63904-conservation-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008aef). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/63904-listing-advice.pdf.

Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA CALM.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2004). Towards a Biodiversity Conservation Strategy for Western Australia Discussion Paper. Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Schoenia filifolia subsp. subulifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 1 Sep 2014 22:37:37 +1000.