Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Pterostylis despectans
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans "Mt Bryan" (Lowly greenhood) - 2000-2004 (Bickerton, D. & M. Robertson, 2000a) [Recovery Plan] as Pterostylis despectans.
 
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan] as Pterostylis despectans.
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pterostylis despectans.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:New South Wales Murray Biodiversity Management Plan (Murray Catchment Management Authority (Murray CMA), 2012) [State Action Plan].
NSW:Pterostylis despectans - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005m) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Critically Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013) as Pterostylis despectans
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011) as Pterostylis despectans
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014) as Pterostylis despectans
Non-statutory Listing Status
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria: 2005)
Scientific name Pterostylis despectans [6272]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Nicholls) M.Clements & D.Jones
Infraspecies author  
Reference Australian Orchid Research 1: 122 (1989).
Other names Pterostylis rufa var. despectans [36500]
Oligochaetochilus despectans [78694]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Pterostylis despectans

Common name: Lowly Greenhood
The Lowly Greenhood was originally described as Pterostylis rufa R. Br. var. despectans by Nicholls. In 1989, it was classified as a separate species, Pterostylis despectans, by Clements and Jones (Clements 1989 cited in Mulvaney 2007). The name Lowly Greenhood has recently been assigned to the species, although it is not widely used (DSE 2001). A recent revision placed Lowly Greenhood as Oligochaetochilus despectans, however this classifaction is not currently accepted (CHAH 2010).

Lowly Greenhood is a terrestrial herbaceous orchid that remains dormant underground as a tuber from late summer to early winter. It is a small, inconspicuous plant with pale coloured flowers. In winter this species develops a rosette of six to 10 basal leaves (10–20 mm long and 6–9 mm wide), which are shrivelled by the time the flowers mature. Three or four stem-sheathing bract-like leaves form above the rosette leaves (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a; NSW DECC 2005m).

The flower stem grows to 30–80 mm tall and has scaly bracts. One to six flowers are produced during November, of which only four open at a time. Flowers are pale, grey-green to brownish and up to 15 mm long on relatively long, slender, curved pedicels that spread widely from the stalk. The dorsal sepal and petals are combined into a hooded, column-embracing structure (the galea). The Lowly Greenhood hood and lateral sepals are tapered into long narrow pointed tips and flowers are placed near the ground due to curvature of the flower stalks. The lateral sepals are joined in the lower part and reflexed against the ovary (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a; NSW DECC 2005m).

The Lowly Greenhood has a disjunct distribution in Victoria, South Australia and NSW. In these States, this species is known from very small populations each with limited areas of occupancy.

In South Australia, records of this species have been from Hallet, Yacka and an area of less than 1 ha near Mount Bryan. These three sites all occur in the Northern Lofty Flora Region (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a). The extent of occurrence of South Australian populations is about 60 km² with an area of occupancy of less than a few hectares owing to uncolonised habitat between populations.

In Victoria, the Lowly Greenhood is known from the western goldfields in the vicinity of Maryborough and Talbot in the Midlands Natural Region (Conn 1993). The orchid was also recently recorded in the Terrick Terrick National Park, about 50 km west-south-west of Moama (D. Jones 2007, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007). There are insufficient data to estimate the area of occurrence and occupancy for this species in Victoria.

In NSW, the only known population is restricted to a small area within the Yellow Water Hole to Barnes Crossing Travelling Stock Reserve (TSR Riverina 120) about 10 km north-east of Moama (just across the border from Echuca, Victoria). This population was discovered by the National Herbarium of Victoria and the NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change in 2005. During this survey effort, similar habitat within a 30 km radius of the site were sampled without recording any further Lowly Greenhood populations. The Barnes Crossing TSR is about 200 ha in area and the population's area of occupancy was 2500 m² (Mulvaney 2007).

Total population estimates for the Lowly Greenhood range from 1200–1400 plants (Bickerton 2001b; DSE 2001; Mulvaney 2007).

Victoria
The Lowly Greenhood in Victoria occur in the western goldfields area. Estimates currently put the Victorian population at between 400 and 600 plants:

  • Dunach State Forest, 7 km south-west of Talbot (approximately 200 plants, 2000) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • Dunach State Forest, 5 km south of Talbot (presumed extinct) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • Havelock private property, 10 km north-north-east of Maryborough (approximately 160 plants, 2000) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • State Forest, 5 km west of Talbot (approximately 6 plants, 1999) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • Daisy Hill, 5 km north of Talbot (approximately 12 plants, 2000) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • near Adelaide Lead in the Paddy Ranges State Park (approximately 30 plants, 1999) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • Maryborough Rifle Range (approximately 4 plants, 1995) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007)
  • Terrick Terrick National Park (unknown number) (D. Jones 2007, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007).

A report of this species from the Wimmera area is unsupported and is probably a species other than Lowly Greenhood (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; DSE 2001).

South Australia
The Lowly Greenhood in South Australia is known from populations in the northern Mt Lofty Ranges area, with an estimated total population of between 600 and 700 plants:

  • Mt Bryan (approximately 133 plants, 2000) (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a)
  • Private property 8.5 km east of Hallett, near Mount Bryan (approximately 165 plants, 2000) (Bickerton 2001b)
  • Private property, 9.5 km east of Hallett (approximately 300+ plants, 2000) (Bickerton 2001b)
  • Private property, 5 km west-north-west of Yacka (approximately 81 plants, 2000) (Bickerton 2001b).

Monitoring of the Mt Bryan site has indicated that the population size has fluctuated and remained small over the past decade. Originally, only one plant was known but in 1993 six rosettes were discovered. In 1995, 15 plants were reported. In 1997, only one plant was found following a dry winter. In 1998, after three dry years, no individuals were reported. Low survey numbers counted in previous years may be a reflection of ineffective survey methods and/or difficulty in detection (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a).

New South Wales
The Lowly Greenhood population in NSW has 120 plants in two small patches, which are about 20 m apart (Mulvaney 2007). Although all known plants occur in an area of less than 1 ha, there is a surrounding 20 ha patch of suitable habitat (NSW DECC 2005m).

The population of the Lowly Greenhood is likely to be in decline, owing to clearing of suitable habitat in much of its former range (DSE 2001). However, year-to-year fluctuations in population numbers may be a function of seasonal conditions or poor survey timing.

A population of Lowly Greenhood occurs within Terrick Terrick National Park in Victoria (Mulvaney 2007).

Lowly Greenhood often favours disturbed sites or slightly raised mossy areas (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007).

In South Australia, the Mount Bryan population occurs on a gently sloping site north of Mount Bryan in Peppermint Box (Eucalyptus odorata) woodland with sparse understorey dominated by native and exotic herbs. The soil is hard loam and the ground is stony with frequent rock outcrops (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a).

In Victoria, all recorded populations occur in flat or undulating woodland or open forest of Yellow Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon) and Grey Box (E. microcarpa) or Yellow Gum and Yellow Box (E. melliodora), with an understorey of Spreading Wattle (Acacia genistifola) and Gold-dust Wattle (A. acinacea). The soils are generally well-drained, shallow sandy loams with sparse litter and sparse ground cover (70% bare ground) (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Beardsell 1985 cited in DSE 2001). Preferred habitat is a narrow ecotone, adjacent to Red Gum (E. camaldulensis) woodland on lower elevations and Long-leaf Box (E. goniocalyx) and adjacent to Red Box (E. polyanthemos) open forests on higher slopes (Beardsell 1985 cited in DSE 2001).

In NSW, the Lowly Greenhood population is found in high quality, high diversity Riverina native grassland. The grassland is dominated by Wallaby Grasses (Austrodanthonia sp.) and Corkscrew Grasses (Austrostipa aristiglumis and A. scabra). Other common species include Common Woodruff (Asperula conferta), Cut-leaved Burr-daisy (Calotis anthemoides), Windmill Grass (Chloris truncata), Yellow Buttons (Chrysocephalum apiculatum), Ruby Saltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa), Curly Windmill-grass (Enteropogon acicularis), Hairy Bluebush (Maireana pentagona), Narrow-leaf Native Plantain (Plantago gaudichaudii), Black Roly-poly (Sclerolaena muricata) and Broughton Pea (Swainsona procumbens) (Mulvaney 2007). Weeping Myall (Acacia pendula) is not present in associated habitat and Buloke (Allocasuarina luehmannii) is the only species of tree present at the site (NSW DECC 2005m). Soils of this area are reddish clay loams derived from Quaternary alluvial sediments associated with the relic Murray Floodplain (Eardley 1999 cited in Mulvaney 2007; NSW DECC 2005m).


The area where South Australian populations occur is characterised by hot dry summers and cool winters with a winter dominant rainfall pattern. Similar conditions occur at Victorian and NSW locations. The NSW site occurs in an area with a persistently dry semi-arid climate.

EPBC Act ecological communities and threatened species
The grassland habitat of the Lowly Greenhood in NSW has affinities with the endangered Buloke Woodlands of the Riverina and Murray-Darling Depression Bioregions which support large populations of the vulnerable Slender Darling Pea (Swainsona murrayana) and endangered Turnip Copperbur (Sclerolaena napiformis). South Australian populations may occur in association with the critically endangered Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia ecological community and the Peppermint Box (Eucalyptus odorata) Grassy Woodland of South Australia ecological community. Victorian populations may occur in association with the critically endangered Natural Temperate Grassland of the Victorian Volcanic Plain ecological community.

Like other orchid species, the Lowly Greenhood lives in symbiosis with a mycorrhizal fungus (Ceratobasidium cornigerum) that ensures successful germination and also provides phosphorus (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a). Mycorrhizae generally invade the embryo or root system of juveniles in the very early stages of development and remain there for the duration of a plant's life.

Lowly Greenhood rosettes develop in winter to early spring but generally wither before the flower spike matures. Flowering occurs from late October into summer, but mostly in November and December (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Bickerton & Robertson 2000a). During a study in 1999, flowering plants produced between one and nine buds. Flower development on any one plant is staggered, so that at any one time only one or two flowers is open. This feature is typical of multi-flowered Pterostylis (Bickerton & Roberston 2000a).

Most Pterostylis are pollinated by flies or fungus gnats (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a) and pollinia (a coherent mass of pollen grains transported as a whole during pollination) are concealed inside protective shells to deter non-pollinators.

Lowly Greenhood typically does not form colonies; plants produce only one replacement tuberoid each season (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a). The longevity of the tuber is unknown. Reproduction for Lowly Greenhood is entirely from seed (most likely ripe and dispersed four to eight weeks after flowering) and seed capsules have been observed in the field (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007).

Backhouse and Jeanes (1995) report that seedlings of the Lowly Greenhood have been raised symbiotically, with mycorrhizae fungi, at the Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Canberra.

The Lowly Greenhood is difficult to detect when not in flower. The species is usually found in open areas where it is well camouflaged by grass and leaf litter, and may sometimes be hidden away under low shrubs (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). It is recommended that surveys be conducted in spring and early summer while this species is flowering (Mulvaney 2007). This species is not easily confused with other orchid species, being characterised by the flower colours, a short flower stem, long spreading pedicels, sepal points often resting on the soil and a labellum with two long prominent basal bristles (NSW DECC 2005m).

Habitat disturbance and destruction
Habitat throughout the known and potential range of the Lowly Greenhood is fragmented and degraded. Specific disturbances include clearing, agriculture, timber harvesting, heavy machinery disturbance, mining and prospecting (Berwick et al. 1999; DSE 2001). Other human activities that threaten colonies include substrate disturbance and soil dumping during track maintenance (DSE 2001). Gravel mining, gold prospecting and soil removal are particular threats in Victoria (J. Jeanes 2001, pers. comm. cited in Mulvaney 2007).

The Cobb Highway forms the eastern boundary of the Travelling Stock Route where the NSW population is located and the plants occur relatively close to the road. Infrastructure development, such as pipelines or telecommunication cables, should include management strategies for reducing impacts on the Lowly Greenhood and other threatened species in their proposal documents (Mulvaney 2007).

Grazing
Grazing by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is thought to be a major factor in limiting the regeneration of some Victorian populations of the Lowly Greenhood. The flower stems are particularly vulnerable to grazing (DSE 2001).

Stock grazing may have been a contributing factor in the localised extinction of this species from most of its former range in Victoria (DSE 2001). In NSW, this species occurs on travelling stock routes and populations may be frequently/intensively grazed depending on the time of year and conditions (Mulvaney 2007). Grazing by cattle and sheep appears to be affecting the South Australian population near Mount Bryan (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a). Cattle trampling may also cause damage to plants, especially near watering points (Mulvaney 2007; NSW DECC 2005m). However, it is noted that moderate stock grazing at non-flowering times may be beneficial to orchids if it reduces competition from introduced grasses and native perennials (DSE 2001; NSW DECC 2005m).

Native species
Some native bird species, such as White-winged Choughs (Corcorax melanorhamphos), dig up the soil with their beaks and eat orchid tubers. They may also be able to relocate sites from one year to the next. Although Chough densities are not high in Victoria, where the problem is reported, a single visit by a group of birds could decimate a plant colony (DSE 2001).

Low pollination rates
Pollination occurs through insects and the pollinator for this species is likely to be a Mycetophilidae fly or fungus gnat (DSE 2001). Breeding success for the Lowly Greenhood in Victorian populations is likely to be diminished as numbers dwindle, owing to the time the flies must spend in finding the plant. It is also possible that fly numbers are lower owing to a missing component in habitat (DSE 2001). A lack of natural pollination has also been observed in the South Australian populations (Coates et al. 2002).

Changes in available leaf litter
The Lowly Greenhood seed requires inoculation by a symbiotic fungus (Ceratobasidium cornigerum) in order to ensure successful germination. A reduction in leaf litter and decaying grass roots, on which the fungus is likely to feed (it may also feed on depleted supplies of fallen timber), may reduce the viability of the Lowly Greenhood. Conversly, a build-up of litter where an orchid is growing appears to suppress growth by excluding light to the plant (DSE 2001).

Fire
The effect of fire on orchids is variable, encouraging some to flower and harming others. The effect of fire on the Lowly Greenhood is unknown, though some Pterostylis species appear to be adversely affected (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). The South Australian populations may also be subject to a lack of fire disturbance leading to a decline in preferred habitat such as open space (Coates et al. 2002.).

Collecting
Illegal collection is thought to have resulted in the extinction of the former population near Talbot in Victoria. Collection also threatens extant populations. Collection should not be undertaken, and may be limited by reducing access to sites (DSE 2001; Coates et al. 2002).

Stochastic events
The low number of individuals at some sites makes this species vulnerable to localised extinction associated with stochastic events.

A number of recovery actions have been proposed for the Lowly Greenhood. Given that populations are isolated, population distribution should be actively enhanced. To increase abundance and area of occupancy flowers must survive to be pollinated, pollination needs to occur and seeds need to be produced and survive the summer. Environmental conditions need to be suitable for seed germination and seedling establishment. Seedlings must survive to maturity to ensure generational replacement. General recovery actions include (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a; DSE 2001):

  • Experienced persons and trained volunteers to hand pollinate populations in accordance with management guidelines.
  • Undertake trials to enhance understanding of seedling recruitment.
  • Search for additional populations.
  • Collect and store seed to secure the genetic variability of the species.
  • Liaise with researchers in order recover the species across its entire range and to clarify its taxonomy.
  • Minimise the incidence of grazing on the Mt Bryan population, thereby allowing more flowers to be pollinated and seed set.
  • Develop and apply appropriate management of rabbits.
  • Investigate the feasibility of translocation.
  • Maintain ex situ populations.
  • Exclude firewood collection and other forest production activities from known sites.
  • Reduce the potential for off-road vehicle damage by rationalising track network and ensure that open tracks remain well maintained
  • Erect explanatory signs at appropriate locations, without revealing precise orchid locations
  • Protect sites from mining, intrusive exploratory activities and gravel collection.
  • Investigate options for caging plants.
  • Survey potential habitat for further populations.
  • Monitor all known sites in order to gauge the effectiveness of management actions, to assess population stability and population trends.

South Australia
In South Australia, the Lowly Greenhood population at Mount Bryan is subject to several recovery actions, as detailed in the Lowly Greenhood (Pterostylis despectans) 'Mt Bryan' Recovery Plan (Bickerton & Robertson, 2000a). Recovery actions in this plan are directed towards threat abatement, to prevent the extinction or decline of the population at Mount Bryan, and trials of appropriate management regimes aimed at increasing abundance and area of occupancy (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a).

Victoria
Management of the Lowly Greenhood in Victoria involves mitigating known threats and encouraging seeding, monitoring and research (DSE 2001).

New South Wales
The Murray Catchment Management Authority, with assistance from the Natural Heritage Trust and the NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change, has begun a program of targeting Pasture Protection Boards for incentive funding to manage priority Travelling Stock Reserves, such as the one that contains the only known NSW population of Lowly Greenhood. The Travelling Stock Reserves where this species occurs is considered a priority (Mulvaney 2007).

Management documentation for this species includes the Lowly Greenhood (Pterostylis despectans) 'Mt Bryan' Recovery Plan (Bickerton & Robertson 2000a) and the National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five threatened orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales, 2003–2007 (Coates et al. 2003).

There is a draft National recovery plan in preparation for this species.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans "Mt Bryan" (Lowly greenhood) - 2000-2004 (Bickerton, D. & M. Robertson, 2000a) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Wood and Pulp Plantations:Habitat destruction due to forestry activities National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat disturbance due to foresty activities Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans "Mt Bryan" (Lowly greenhood) - 2000-2004 (Bickerton, D. & M. Robertson, 2000a) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification with associated erosion Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans "Mt Bryan" (Lowly greenhood) - 2000-2004 (Bickerton, D. & M. Robertson, 2000a) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans "Mt Bryan" (Lowly greenhood) - 2000-2004 (Bickerton, D. & M. Robertson, 2000a) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) The Orchids of Victoria (Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes, 1995) [Book].
Recovery Plan for Pterostylis despectans "Mt Bryan" (Lowly greenhood) - 2000-2004 (Bickerton, D. & M. Robertson, 2000a) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, White Horehound, Hoarhound, Marrube, Houndsbane) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Avena barbata (Bearded Oats) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lolium perenne (Perennial Ryegrass) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Echium plantagineum (Paterson's Curse, Salvation Jane, Purple Bugloss, Blue Echium, Blueweed, Blue Weed, Lady Campbell Weed, Plantain-leaf Viper's Bugloss, Purple Echium, Riverina Bluebell) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lycium ferocissimum (African Boxthorn, Boxthorn) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Romulea rosea var. communis (Common Onion-grass) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Bromus spp. Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Corcorax melanorhamphos (White-winged Chough) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Negative impact from animals National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development National Recovery Plan for Twenty-five Threatened Orchid taxa of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales 2003-2007 (Coates, F., J. Jeanes & A. Pritchard, 2002) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Lack of pollination Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Contstruction and maintenance of underground utilities Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Backhouse, G.N. & J.A. Jeanes (1995). The Orchids of Victoria. Carlton: Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press.

Berwick, S., A. Moorrees & G. Backhouse (1999). Draft Recovery Plan for Audas' Spider-orchid, Caladenia audasii, 1998-2002. Melbourne: Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Bickerton, D. (2001b). Recent discoveries of an unusual Greenhood Orchid. South Australian Vegetation on the Edge. 3(2):1-2.

Conn, B.J. (1993). Natural Regions and Vegetation of Victoria. In: Foreman, D.B. and N.G. Walsh, eds. Flora of Victoria: Volume One. Page(s) 79-153. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2001). Action Statement 123: Lowly Greenhood Pterostylis despectans. Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. [Online]. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/E37667B28E8FE4D3CA2570ED0007AE3B/$File/123+Lowly+Greenhood+2001.pdf. [Accessed: 21-Aug-2007].

Mulvaney, M. (2007). Species Information Sheet on Pterostylis despectans in New South Wales. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Unpublished report to the Department of Environment and Water Resources.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005m). Pterostylis despectans - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=20086.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterostylis despectans in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 16 Apr 2014 20:54:25 +1000.