Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Pezoporus occidentalis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pezoporus occidentalis (Night Parrot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fu) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by the European Red Fox (Environment Australia (EA), 1999a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Predation by Feral Cats (Environment Australia (EA), 1999b) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pezoporus occidentalis.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Geopsittacus occidentalis.
 
List of Migratory Species - Amendment to the list of migratory species under section 209 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (26/11/2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2013af) [Legislative Instrument] as Geopsittacus occidentalis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NT:Threatened Species of the Northern Territory - Night Parrot Pezoporus occidentalis (Pavey, C., 2006v) [Information Sheet].
WA:Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan for Western Australia 1996 to 1998 (Blyth, J., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Priority Threat Management of Pilbara Species of Conservation Significance (Carwardine, J., S. Nicol, S. Van Leeuwen, B. Walters, J. Firn, A. Reeson, T.G. Martin & I. Chades, 2014).
Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) Research Plan. Developed to satisfy Condition 10 of EPBC Referral 2010/5696 Expansion of Cloudbreak iron ore mine (Fortescue Metal Group, 2014).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Pezoporus occidentalis
NT: Listed as Critically Endangered (Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2000 (Northern Territory): 2012 list) as Pezoporus occidentalis
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Pezoporus occidentalis
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Pezoporus occidentalis
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Pezoporus occidentalis
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Regionally Extinct (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Pezoporus occidentalis [59350]
Family Psittacidae:Psittaciformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Gould,1861
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Geopsittacus occidentalis [743]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.amonline.net.au/birds/research/night_parrot.htm
http://home.it.net.au/~austecol/nparrot.html

Scientific name: Pezoporus occidentalis

Common name: Night Parrot

Other names: The Night Parrot has also been known as the Spinifex or Porcupine Parrot, Western Ground Parrot, Nocturnal Ground Parakeet, Midnight Cockatoo and Solitaire (Higgins 1999).

The Night Parrot is a conventionally accepted species (Christidis & Boles 1994; Higgins 1999; Leeton et al. 1994; Sibley & Monroe 1990). It is sometimes referred to under the synonym Geopsittacus occidentalis (BirdLife International 2000; Boles et al. 1994; Peters 1986).

The Night Parrot is a medium-sized parrot measuring 22 to 25 cm in length, with a wingspan of 44 to 46 cm. The adults are predominantly bright green in colour, but with black and yellow bars, spots and streaks over much of the body, bright yellow colouring on the belly and vent, and black colouring on the upper surfaces of the periphery of the wings and tail. In flight, a prominent bar, off-white to pale-yellow in colour, becomes visible on the underside of each wing (Higgins 1999). The sexes are alike in appearance (Forshaw 1981; Higgins 1999). Little is known about the plumage of juvenile Night Parrots, but they are probably quite similar in appearance to the adults, although with a duller and more olive colouring (Higgins 1999).

There have been very few confirmed records of the Night Parrot, with only 24 specimens in museum collections and one other known to have been collected and identified but subsequently lost. Sightings that are considered to be reliable have recorded the Night Parrot singly and in pairs, and sometimes in small groups of four or five to eight birds (Beruldsen 1956; Cameron 1972; Ives 1971; Menkhorst & Isles 1981; Wilson 1937).

The distribution of the Night Parrot is very poorly understood. There are a small number of confirmed and well-regarded records from arid and semi-arid regions of Queensland (Blakers et al. 1984; Boles et al. 1994; Roberts 2007), South Australia (Campbell 1915; Forshaw et al. 1976; McGilp 1931; Parker 1980; Sutton 1923; Whitlock 1924; Wilson 1937), Western Australia (Blakers et al. 1984; Davis & Metcalf 2008; Forshaw et al. 1976; Wilson 1937) and the Northern Territory (Whitlock 1924). There have also been a number of unverified reports from each of these States and from NSW and Victoria (Higgins 1999).

The majority of the confirmed records for the species were obtained during the late 19th century (Blyth 1996; Boles et al. 1994; Higgins 1999). However, there have been a number of accepted sightings since 1935: records during 1979–1980 near Muncoonie Lake, Queensland, near Lake Perigund, South Australia, and near Glenayle and Meentheena, Western Australia (Blakers et al. 1984; Parker 1980; Higgins 1999); in 2005 near Fortescue Marshes, Western Australia (Davis & Metcalf 2008). Furthermore, only a small number of specimens have been collected since 1900: one bird was collected from the Gascoyne Region, in Western Australia, in 1912 (Wilson 1937); an adult male carcass, was collected near Boulia, in western Queensland, on 17 October 1990 (Boles et al. 1994); and a carcass was collected in Diamantina National Park, in western Queensland, in November 2006 (McDougall et al. 2009; Roberts 2007).

There have been occasional reported sightings of the Night Parrot since 1990, including a number of reports from around Cloncurry in western Queensland (Blyth 1996; Dingle 1998; Fitzherbert 2000; Garnett et al. 1993). However, none of these reports have been verified and are not currently accepted (Blyth 1996; Garnett & Crowley 2000). The most recent report was a sighting of three Night Parrots, by two biologists at Minga Well, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia (Davis & Metcalf 2008; FMG 2005). This observation followed an earlier, unconfirmed sighting of the species at a nearby location in the Pilbara region in 2004 (BES 2005).

The headless, dessicated, but otherwise identifiable specimen found at Diamantina National Park (Roberts 2007), suggests a breeding colony occurs in the area (McDougall et al. 2009). This record, coupled with ongoing unconfirmed sightings (and especially clusters of sightings such as those reported around Cloncurry and in the Pilbara), and the difficulty in recording the species, suggest that the Night Parrot could possibly continue to occur at low densities throughout much of its historical range (Blyth 1996; Higgins 1999; Garnett & Crowley 2000). This possibility is, however, tempered by the fact that a number of dedicated searches and two broad-scale publicity campaigns in the past 15–20 years have failed to locate even a single extant population (Blyth & Boles 1999; Blyth et al. 1997; Davies et al. 1988; Maher 1995; Jordan 1996).

The extent of occurrence is speculatively estimated to be 3 000 000 km². The extent of occurrence is believed to fluctuate (Garnett & Crowley 2000) but the small number of confirmed or verifiable records makes it difficult to determine trends with any accuracy.

The area of occupancy is speculatively estimated to be 10 km² (Garnett & Crowley 2000). The area of occupancy is believed to fluctuate, and to be highly fragmented (Garnett & Crowley 2000) but, again, the small number of confirmed or verifiable records makes it difficult to determine trends with any accuracy.

The small number of confirmed or verifiable records also makes it difficult to compare the historical and present distribution of the species. However, it is generally accepted that the population has declined since the 19th century (Blakers et al. 1984; Blyth 1996; Garnett & Crowley 2000). Consequently, it is likely that the species is now extinct in some parts of its former range (Forshaw 1981).

The small number of confirmed or verifiable records of the Night Parrot, and the presumed mobility of the species, prevents a feasible estimate of the number of locations occupied from being made.

There are no captive populations of the Night Parrot.

There have been a number of surveys for the Night Parrot in the past two decades. These include unsuccessful searches in the Lake Disappointment area in Western Australia in 1987 (Davies et al. 1988), in the Winton and Cloncurry districts in Queensland in 1994 (Jordan 1996; Maher 1995), in the Western Desert and East Pilbara areas in Western Australia in 1996 (Blyth et al. 1997), and in the Murchison, Gascoyne and East Pilbara areas in Western Australia in 1997 (Blyth & Boles 1999).

More recently, several unsuccessful surveys have been conducted at a proposed mine site in the Pilbara region, the first of these in May 2005 (Bamford 2005), following a confirmed sighting of the Night Parrot during a general fauna survey of the same site during April 2005 (Davis & Metcalf 2008; Davis et al. 2005; FMG 2005). A series of surveys also were conducted in Diamantina National Park following the discovery of a carcass in November 2006 (Roberts 2007). Further surveys of Diamantina National Park are planned in the near future (Roberts 2007).

The small number of confirmed or verifiable records prevents the population size from being assessed with any accuracy. However, the population size is speculatively estimated to consist of about 50 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The small number of confirmed or verifiable records makes it difficult to determine if the Night Parrot occurs in a number of smaller populations. The Night Parrot is speculatively estimated to occur in five subpopulations, the largest of which is estimated, with low reliability, to consist of 20 breeding birds (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The total population size of the Night Parrot is believed to have declined since the late 19th century. This assessment is based on a decline in reporting rates since the 1880s (Blakers et al. 1984; Blyth 1996; Garnett & Crowley 2000), accounts of apparent local and regional extinctions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Campbell 1915; McGilp 1931; Storr 1977; White 1913; Whitlock 1924), and the failure of a number of recent targeted surveys to locate any birds (Bamford 2005; Blyth & Boles 1999; Blyth et al. 1997; Davies et al. 1988; Jordan 1996; Maher 1995; Roberts 2007). The population size is believed to fluctuate (Garnett & Crowley 2000), but the small number of confirmed or verifiable records makes it difficult to determine population trends with any accuracy.

The recent record from Diamantina National Park (Roberts 2007) and the record near Boulia in 1990 (Boles et al. 1994) prove that the Night Parrot is still extant in western Queensland and suggest that the species may also continue to occur at other historical sites. There is insufficient information to determine if there is a single population or multiple subpopulations, but given the likely small size of the total population (Garnett & Crowley 2000), it is probable that any extant population that remains is critically important to the long-term survival of the species.

The generation length of the Night Parrot is estimated, with low reliability, to be 10 years (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Night Parrot is not known to cross-breed with any other species. It is unlikely that any cross-breeding occurs in the wild because the known distribution of the Ground Parrot, Pezoporus wallicus, the only other member of the genus Pezoporus, does not overlap with the known distribution of the Night Parrot (Higgins 1999).

The small number of confirmed or verifiable records makes it difficult to determine whether any Night Parrot populations occur within reserves. The most recent record was a specimen collected from Diamantina National Park (Roberts 2007), which suggests that a population could persist in or near this Park. However, none of the five accepted records that preceded the record at Diamantina National Park (Blakers et al. 1984; Boles et al. 1994) were obtained from within current reserve boundaries.

The Night Parrot inhabits arid and semi-arid areas that are characterised by having dense, low vegetation. Based on accepted records, the habitat of the Night Parrot consists of Triodia grasslands in stony or sandy environments (McGilp 1931; North 1898; Whitlock 1924; Wilson 1937), and of samphire and chenopod shrublands, including genera such as Atriplex, Bassia and Maireana, on floodplains and claypans, and on the margins of saltlakes, creeks or other sources of water (Andrews 1883; McGilp 1931; Parker 1980; Wilson 1937). The Night Parrot was also recorded, on one occasion, in Acacia woodland (North 1898), and a carcass found near Boulia in Queensland was recovered from the side of a road in an area comprised of low, sparse Astrebla, Calotis and species of chenopods, and with some patches of exposed gibber (Boles et al. 1994). It is possible, however, that this bird was accidentally transported to this site, or was killed while travelling to a more typical habitat (J. Blyth 2002 pers. comm. in Boles et al. 1994). It has also been observed to enter dense Muehlenbecki growth when flushed from a more typical habitat (Boles et al. 1994; Forshaw 1981). The carcass that was recently recovered from Diamantina National Park was found near a waterhole surrounded by sparse vegetation (Roberts 2007).

There are also unconfirmed reports that claim to have observed the Night Parrot in open grasslands dominated by Triodia or Aristida (Garnett et al. 1993; Howe & Tregallas 1914); in mallee shrubland consisting of Acacia, Callitris and Brachyloma, and with a ground layer of Triodia (Menkhorst & Isles 1981); in chenopod shrubland composed mainly of Atriplex, Bassia, and Maireana, with Vella and Stipa (Powell 1970); and in open Eucalyptus woodland with an understorey of grasses (Garnett et al. 1993). Several of the unconfirmed reports claim to have seen the Night Parrot in the vicinity of open areas, in particular, near roads and tracks (Cameron 1932; Garnett et al. 1993; Storr 1960). Some unconfirmed reports have claimed that the Night Parrot may nest or roost in caves (Forshaw 1981; Schodde & Mason 1980; Wilson 1937), and one unverified source claimed that it may also excavate burrows in sandy soils (Forshaw 1981).

The Night Parrot is not known to occur in any of the threatened ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act 1999, nor is it known to associate with any other listed threatened species.

The age at sexual maturity and the life expectancy and natural mortality of the Night Parrot are not known. However, Garnett and Crowley (2000) estimate the generation length to be 10 years. The generation length is the average age of parents of the current cohort, and therefore reflects the turnover rate of breeding individuals in a population.

The breeding biology of the Night Parrot is largely unknown. Breeding is said to take place after heavy rainfall (Wilson 1937). Actual breeding records are few, but young have been recorded in August (Wilson 1937), and there are unverified reports of breeding activity in April and August (Kershaw 1943; Forshaw 1981; Storr 1986) and one unverified report of possible breeding activity in July (Ives 1971).

The Night Parrot builds its nest, which consists of a few small sticks (and possibly Triodia leaves), at the end of a 'tunnel' that is formed in a Triodia tussock or a small bush (Andrews 1883; Ives 1971; McGilp 1931; Wilson 1937). There are also unverified reports of nests being built in caves (Wilson 1937), and of a single egg (claimed to be of a Night Parrot) that was retrieved from the ground between two clumps of Triodia (Gibson 1986).

The Night Parrot is said to produce a clutch of two to four white eggs (Andrews 1883; McGilp 1931; Wilson 1937). It is possible that larger clutches may sometimes be laid, given that there are published records of adult birds accompanying five and six young (Storr 1986; Wilson 1937).

The diet of the Night Parrot is largely unknown. The Night Parrot is said to feed on the seeds of grasses (especially Triodia) and herbs (Andrews 1883; Wilson 1937). The presence of green herbage in the crop of one specimen (Wilson 1937), the reported preference of one captive individual for green food (Murie 1868) and several unverified reports of the Night Parrot in open grasslands with 'soft' grasses and herbs (Garnett et al. 1993) suggest that green plant material could comprise a significant proportion of the diet (Blyth 1996). There is also questionable evidence (the presence of compacted soil in the bills of several specimens) to suggest that it may possibly also probe for roots and tubers (Schodde & Mason 1980).

The Night Parrot is a nocturnal species (Andrews 1883; Blyth 1996). Its foraging ecology is otherwise unknown, although it is said to frequent sources of water several times a night to drink (Andrews 1883).

The small number of confirmed or verifiable reports makes patterns of movement difficult to assess (Higgins 1999). The Night Parrot has been speculated to be nomadic (Boles et al. 1994; Ford 1961; Schodde & Mason 1980; Wilson 1937), or to be sedentary when conditions are suitable (Garnett et al. 1993) and to only undertake movements when food or water becomes scarce (Boles et al. 1994). The only real evidence of movement was reported by Andrews (1883), who observed that the Night Parrot was present in northern South Australia during seasons of good rainfall (and abundant seed) and absent during seasons of poor rainfall (when seed was scarce).

One study that analysed records in South Australia found some evidence to suggest that the Night Parrot may move, after rainfall, from samphire vegetation around inland saltlakes to seeding Triodia grasslands, and then return to the samphire vegetation once the supply of Triodia seeds is exhausted (Blakers et al. 1984; Parker 1980). However, the results of this study are confused by unverified reports of the Night Parrot near Cloncurry that include sightings in a variety of habitats, including some without Triodia, and in the same period (mainly from March to June) (Garnett et al. 1993), which does not fit with the model described in Blakers and colleagues (1984) and Parker (1980).

The Night Parrot is reported to make daily visits to sources of water to drink, and at times may travel up to 8 km from its nest or roost site to drink (Andrews 1883). It is not known whether such drinking behaviour is common at all times or is restricted to periods of hot weather and/or periods when green food is scarce or unavailable (J. Blyth 2007, pers. comm.).

The home range of the Night Parrot has not been quantified. However, it has been reported that Night Parrots emerge from their nest or roost sites and fly up to 8 km to the nearest source of water to drink, after which they begin to forage (Andrews 1883). The possibility that the Night Parrot occupies a very large home range cannot be discounted because of the paucity of information that is available (Brouwer & Garnett 1990).

Targeted searches of isolated waterholes, and subsequent watches of these waterholes, are the most common methods used to survey for the Night Parrot. Such surveys should be conducted in the evening, with the aid of spot-lights. It is also recommended that area searches be conducted in the vicinity of waterholes. Searches should look for feathers of the Night Parrot, especially within nests of birds such as Zebra Finches, Taeniopygia guttata, (J. Blyth 2007, pers. comm.).

Search techniques (such as mist-netting, listening for calls from fixed points and dragging a rope across an area of suitable habitat) have been tried without success (Bamford 2005; Blyth 1996; Davies et al. 1988). In the event that an extant population can be located, it is recommended that a number of techniques should be initiated to monitor the population. These could include the tracking of birds with radio collars; detection of calls from listening points or audio recordings; searches for birds with spotlights; mist-netting; and searches for evidence of foraging (J. Blyth 2007, pers. comm.).

Guidelines on survey effort are difficult to formulate given the difficulty in detection of this species.

The paucity of information available on the Night Parrot makes it difficult to determine the cause or causes of the apparent decline in population size. There is no direct evidence to link any threatening process to the apparent decline (Blyth 1996), but the following potential threats have been suggested:

  • predation by feral cats and foxes
  • degradation of habitat due to fire, grazing of stock or rabbits
  • impact of hard-hooved animals on vegetation around waterholes
  • a reduction in the availability of water due to consumption by feral camels
  • reduced maintenance of waterholes by aboriginal communities (Blyth 1996; Garnett 1992; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Whitlock 1924).
  • Competition for resources between the Night Parrot and introduced herbivores may also have had an adverse effect on the population (Blyth 1996).
    Research on the closely-related Ground Parrot suggests that widespread and intense wildfires are likely to be a major threat to the Night Parrot. Large wildfires are common in the arid regions inhabited by the Night Parrot, and especially in areas where one or more years of good rainfall have promoted the growth of vegetation which then provides a source of fuel (J. Blyth 2007, pers. comm.).

    The development of an appropriate management strategy for the Night Parrot is difficult because the locations of extant populations are unknown, there is no reliable method by which to detect the species and there is no direct evidence to link any threatening process to the apparent decline of the species (Blyth 1996; J. Blyth 2007, pers. comm.; Garnett & Crowley 2000). Efforts have been made to locate a Night Parrot population, including a number of targeted surveys, and multiple publicity campaigns, but all of these measures have proved unsuccessful in locating (or verifying the location of) a Night Parrot population (Bamford 2005; Blyth 1996; Blyth & Boles 1999; Blyth et al. 1997; Davies et al. 1988; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Jordan 1996; Maher 1995; Roberts 2007).

    If a population can be located, the following measures could be introduced:

  • a research and monitoring program
  • control of feral animals in and around the site of the population
  • patch burning to limit the possibility, or to prevent the occurrence, of fire at the site of the population until the status and ecological needs of the population are better understood
  • minimise disturbance to the site of the population, which might include the filtering of information to the public, and the establishment of agreements with land owners and land managers.
  • establish a captive breeding program (Blyth 1996; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

  • There are no major studies on the behaviour or ecology of the Night Parrot. There has, however, been a single genetic study that examined the relationship between the Night Parrot and the congeneric Ground Parrot (Leeton et al. 1994).

    There are two key management documents for the Night Parrot: an interim recovery plan (now out of date) for the species in Western Australia (Blyth 1996), and a management plan for the species in the vicinity of a proposed mining site in the Pilbara region of Western Australia (FMG 2005). In addition to these documents a brief recovery outline for the species appears in The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Land clearance (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001w) [Listing Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat loss and modification due to clearance of native vegetation and pasture improvements The Impact of Global Warming on the Distribution of Threatened Vertebrates (ANZECC 1991) (Dexter, E.M., A.D. Chapman & J.R. Busby, 1995) [Report].
    Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities An expedition to the Murchison, Gascoyne and East Pilbara areas to search for Night Parrots. Eclectus. 6:12-16. (Blyth, J. & W. Boles, 1999) [Journal].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan for Western Australia 1996 to 1998 (Blyth, J., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
    Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qw) [Internet].
    The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox, Fox) Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan for Western Australia 1996 to 1998 (Blyth, J., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
    The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan for Western Australia 1996 to 1998 (Blyth, J., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
    The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qw) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Camelus dromedarius (Dromedary, Camel) The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qw) [Internet].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Psittacine Circoviral Disease Commonwealth Listing Advice on Psittacine Circoviral (beak and feather ) Disease affecting endangered psittacine species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001v) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pezoporus occidentalis (Night Parrot) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008fu) [Conservation Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qw) [Internet].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000 (Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley, 2000) [Cwlth Action Plan].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qw) [Internet].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006qw) [Internet].

    Andrews, F.W. (1883). Notes on the Night Parrot. Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of South Australia. 6:29-30.

    Bamford, M.J. (2005). Survey for the Night Parrot Pezoporus occidentalis in the Cloud Break Project Area, Fortescue Metals Group. Unpublished report by Bamford Consulting Ecologists to Fortescue Metals Group, Perth.

    Beruldsen, G. (1956). A note on the Night Parrot. South Australian Ornithologist. 22:28.

    Biota Environmental Sciences (BES) (2005). Fauna Habitats and Fauna Assemblage of the Proposed FMG Stage B Rail Corridor and Mine Areas. Unpublished report to Fortescue Metals Group Limited, Perth.

    Birdlife International (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK:.BirdLife International and Lynx Edicions.

    Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

    Blyth, J. (1996). Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) Interim Recovery Plan for Western Australia 1996 to 1998. [Online]. TSCU, WA CALM. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/pdf/plants_animals/threatened_species/irps/fauna/pez_occ_irp4.pdf.

    Blyth, J. (2002). Personal communication.

    Blyth, J. (2007). Personal communication.

    Blyth, J. & W. Boles (1999). An expedition to the Murchison, Gascoyne and East Pilbara areas to search for Night Parrots. Eclectus. 6:12-16.

    Blyth, J., A. Burbidge & W. Boles (1997). Report on an expedition to the western desert and eastern Pilbara areas in search of the Night Parrot Pezoporus occidentalis. Eclectus. 2:25-30.

    Boles, W.E., N.W. Longmore & M.C. Thompson (1994). A recent specimen of the Night Parrot, Geopsittacus occidentalis. Emu. 94:37-40.

    Brouwer, J., & S. Garnett (Eds) (1990). Threatened Birds of Australia: An Annotated List. Brouwer, J. & S. Garnett, eds. RAOU Report 68. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne, and Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

    Cameron, A.C. (1932). Birds at Quilpie, western Queensland. Emu. 32:104-105.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pezoporus occidentalis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 15:20:03 +1000.