In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||
as Xenus cinereus
Listed migratory - Bonn as Xenus cinereus, CAMBA as Xenus cinereus, JAMBA as Xenus cinereus, ROKAMBA as Xenus cinereus
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005c) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Marine bioregional plan for the North-west Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012y) [Admin Guideline].
Draft background paper to EPBC Act policy statement 3.21 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009bc) [Admin Guideline].
Shorebirds - A Vulnerability Assessment for the Great Barrier Reef (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Xenus cinereus.
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Xenus cinereus.
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Listed Migratory Species - Approval of an International Agreement (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007h) [Legislative Instrument] as Xenus cinereus.
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - Update of the List of Migratory Species (12/03/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009q) [Legislative Instrument] as Xenus cinereus.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Xenus cinereus |
|Other names||Tringa terek |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Xenus cinereus
Common name: Terek Sandpiper
Originally Tringa terek, the Terek Sandpiper was reviewed by DNA analysis in 2005 (Pereira & Baker 2005 cited in Christidis & Boles 2008) and is now conventionally accepted as Xenus cinereus.
The Terek Sandpiper is pale brownish-grey with finer dark streaking on the upper body, head and sides of breast. Body length is approximately 22–24 cm, with a wing span of 36–45 cm and an average weight of 95 g (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The feet are orange to orange-yellow, the eye is brown and the bill black with a dirty range base and evenly-upcurved (Geering et al. 2007; Hayman et al. 1986). The underparts are white with a greyish wash forming an incomplete breast-band. On each scapular, a blackish band of feathers forms an irregular line down the centre (Hayman et al. 1986).
Sexes are similar, and in breeding season, the main difference is stronger and increased streaking across the head. Juveniles appear similar to breeding adults, but with less pronounced streaking on the head, and with fringing of pale buff-brown on upper feathers. The black shoulder stripe on juveniles can appear more as dashes than a line (Geering et al. 2007).
In Australia, the Terek Sandpiper has a primarily coastal distribution, with occasional records inland. It is more widespread and common in northern and eastern Australia than southern Australia.
It is widespread in coastal Queensland, from south-east of the Gulf of Carpentaria, north to Torres Strait and along the eastern coast to south-east Australia. In New South Wales (NSW), there are scattered records along the coast from the northern Rivers Region, south to Lake Wollumboola. In Victoria, the species has been recorded from Corner Inlet, Anderson Inlet, Westernport Bay and west Port Phillip Bay. The species is regularly seen in Tasmania and the South Australian coastline.
In Western Australia (WA), the Terek Sandpiper is rarely seen on the south coast: occasionally around Eyre and several records around Albany. On Swan River plain, it has been recorded between Bunbury and the mouth of the Moore River. The species is widespread in the Pilbara region and Kimberley Division, from Dampier to Wyndham, with occasional records around Shark Bay. In the Northern Territory (NT), widespread records occur from Darwin, north to Melville Island, and east to the western section of the Gulf of Carpentaria, around Gove Peninsula, Groote Eylandt, Sir Edward Pellew Island and the mouth of the McArthur River.
The Terek Sandpiper is a scarce but regular visitor to New Zealand. The species is also recorded on Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, Christmas Island and Prince Edward Island (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Sites of international significance in Australia and maximum counts are (Bamford et al. 2008):
- Eighty Mile Beach, WA, 8000
- south-east Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, 4320
- Shoalwater Bay and Broad Sound, Queensland, 3410
- Great Sandy Strait, Queensland, 2500
- Roebuck Bay, WA, 1840
- Chambers Bay, NT, 1530
- Joseph Bonaparte Bay (Turtle Point), WA, 1000
- Fog Bay and adjacent islands, NT, 800
- Milingambi coast, NT, 800
- Hunter River estuary, NSW, 600
- Moreton Bay, Queensland, 800
- Hunter Estuary, NSW, 600.
The Terek Sandpiper breeds on the north coast of the Gulf of Bothnia and around Pielinen in Finland, and along the Dnieper River, near Chernobyl, Ukraine. The main breeding range is in northern Russia, with the northern extent occurring from eastern Estonia, north to the eastern shores of the White Sea at the Arctic Circle, and extending to the mouth of the Pechoua River, in the southern Yamal Peninsula, around the southern Obskaya Gulf area, and near Khatangskiy Zaliv as well as to the mountains near the Chaun Gulf and around the basin of the Anadyr River (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The southern breeding boundary extends from south-east Latvia in an almost direct line to the Yenisei River at Krasnoyansk; however the boundary east of the Yenisei River is not known. There are breeding records from the central Yukutia region (middle reaches of Lena River), Koryak Highlands, the Kamchatka Isthmus and north-east at Anadyrland. The western extremities of this main breeding range are the eastern regions of Estonia and Latvia, with the eastern extremities being the lower reaches of the Anadyr River and Koryak Highlands (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
During non-breeding periods, Terek Sandpipers occur in coastal Africa from the delta of the Nile River, south along coasts of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean to South Africa, and then occasionally north to western Namibia. Occasionally the species is found in western and central Africa, and may be recorded on passage inland in eastern Africa (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
In Asia, Terek Sandpipers occur around the coastal Arabian Peninsula, the Persian Gulf, east to the Indian subcontinent, Indomalaya, Indochina and south-east Asia, and south to New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand. In east Asia, the species passes through Mongolia, China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines and western Micronesia. They are recorded casually or as vagrants to European and Mediterranean coasts, such as the Aleutian and St Lawrence Islands, west and south-coastal Alaska, Manitoba, Fiji (Marchant & Higgins 1993) and Brazil (White et al. 2005).
The global population of the Terek Sandpiper is in the order of 187 000 (del Hoyo et al. 1996) with the East Asian-Australian Flyway population being around 60 000 of which approximately 23 000 spend the non-breeding season in Australia (Geering et al. 2007). Other birds winter in Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (Bamford et al. 2008).
Since 1981, Terek Sandpiper populations in Australia have been regularly surveyed during the Population Monitoring Program carried out by the Australasian Wader Studies Group. Sites that regularly support good numbers of shorebirds are surveyed twice a year (winter and summer) in coordinated counts (for example, Skewes 2002, 2007).
The Terek Sandpiper non-breeding population in Australia is 23 000 (Geering et al. 2007).
Habitat for feeding
The Terek Sandpiper mostly forages in the open, on soft wet intertidal mudflats or in sheltered estuaries, embayments, harbours or lagoons. The species has also been recorded on islets, mudbanks, sandbanks and spits, and near mangroves and occasionally in samphire (Halosarcia spp.). Birds are seldom near the edge of water, however, birds may wade into the water (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Occasionally, on sandy beaches, among seaweed and other debris and in rocky areas, Terek Sandpipers will use the supralittoral or upper littoral zone, where a film of water covers the sand. However, on exposed rock platforms, the species forages in the lower littoral zone and not the supralittoral or upper littoral zones (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Less often seen on sandy or shingle beaches, or on rock or coral reefs or platforms, Terek Sandpipers are occasionally sighted around drying sewage ponds and saltpans if surrounded by mudflats. The species is also found around brackish coastal swamps, lagoons and dune-lakes; and also on gravel or rocky edges of estuarine pools and freshwater river-pools (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Very occasionally, birds use swampy, grassy or cultivated paddocks near the coast (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Habitat for roosting
Preferring to roost in or among mangroves, birds may perch in branches or roots up to 2 m from the ground, or beneath them in the shade on hot days. Occasionally, they roost in dead trees or among tangled driftwood. In Westernport Bay, Victoria, the Terek Sandpiper prefers to roost on isolated banks of mangroves, surrounded by water. Elsewhere, they may roost with other waders on flat shores, on muddy spits, islets or banks, and sometimes on sandy and pebbly beaches (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The oldest recorded Terek Sandpiper bird was 14 years 11 months (del Hoyo et al. 1996). This species does not breed in Australia. It is a semi-colonial breeder from northern Russia, Finland, Siberia and the Arctic tundra (Pringle 1987). One record of breeding occurs for Norway (Richards 1988). The breeding season is May–August. Nests are a shallow depression in open or short vegetation, close to water, typically lined with grass and debris. Between two and five eggs (usually four) are laid. Incubation is mainly undertaken by females and takes 23–24 days, with fledging taking place at the age of 15 days (del Hoyo et al. 1996; Pringle 1987; Richards 1988). Both adults initially tend the young (Snow & Perrins 1998).
Terek Sandpipers have been recorded eating crustaceans, insects, seeds, molluscs and arachnids (Marchant & Higgins 1993). At Cape Howe, Victoria, seven out of ten Terek Sandpiper faecal samples contained mostly amphipods. Insects, mostly flies (Diptera spp.) but also some beetles (Coleoptera), apparently formed the remainder of the diet (Schulz 1989). The species forages solitarily (Biljlsma & de Roder 1991), deliberately avoiding contact with other birds (Piersma 1986), and pecks, jabs or probes for prey on mudflats (Biljlsma & de Roder 1991).
Birds forage at high and low tide; feeding in and on edge of flocks of other species including Hooded Plovers (Thinornis rubricollis), Red-capped Plovers (Charadrius ruficapillus), Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres), Grey-tailed Tattlers (Tringa brevipes), Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica), Red-necked Stints (Calidris ruficollis), Curlew Sandpipers (C. ferruginea), Red Knot (Calidris canutus), Wrybill (Anarhynchus frontalis), Double-banded Plover (Charadrius bicinctus) and Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) (Marchant & Higgins 1993; Schulz 1989).
Terek Sandpipers forage differently in relation to prey type and timing. When consuming crab species, the birds forage more slowly, with less pecking into the substrate than when they forage for polychaete worms (Piersma 1986). Larger crabs are often carried to pools and washed before eating, and many crabs are released alive, being rejected for unknown reasons. Foraging for worms involves 'runs' from half to six metres where birds peck deeply into the substrate numerous times in order to catch prey (Piersma 1986).
Piersma (1986) recorded birds foraging most actively at the beginning of low tide, when crabs become readily available and the birds themselves have not foraged for approximately 21 hours. The birds then become more selective after about two hours of foraging, when crabs are at peak abundance and birds have consumed a level of prey making digesting larger quantities of food difficult. Activity then increases slightly as prey become less available with the incoming tide and presumably birds have passed a digestion "bottleneck" (Piersma 1986).
The Terek Sandpiper is a bird with swift movements and abrupt changes of direction. The species is usually seen singly or in small flocks. Small numbers can often be seen among large feeding flocks or roosts of other waders. The birds also form communal roosts, sometimes in hundreds. When roosting, they commonly perch on mangroves, partly submerged posts or breakwaters, often with Grey-tailed Tattler (Tringa brevipes) (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Terek Sandpiper breeds in Eurasia and moves south to non-breeding areas for the boreal winter with small numbers crossing the western Palaearctic to non-breeding areas in Africa (Cramp & Simmonds 1983). The birds visiting north-western Australia are most likely from the same population as the eastern Indonesian birds, and probably breed farther north than slightly smaller birds that visit western Indonesia and south-east Asia (Cramp & Simmonds 1983; Lane 1987). Measurements also show that different populations occur in north-western and eastern Australia (Fry 1990). Band recoveries indicate that birds visiting eastern and north-western Australia migrate along the east coast of Asia on south and north migrations, and mainly move overland in Eurasia but along coasts in the southern hemisphere (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Departure from breeding grounds
Adults leave from the first half of July (females before males) with juveniles mainly leaving from August. The exodus continues in Russia until early September (Cramp & Simmonds 1983; Tomkovich cited in Marchant & Higgins 1993). In Ussuriland, passage is from mid-July to mid-September (Tomkovich cited in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Terek Sandpipers migrate south through Korea, Japan, Mongolia and north-east China between mid-July and October. The species is fairly common on the east coast of China and Taiwan between mid-August and October, and passes through Hong Kong September to October. They mainly occur on southern passage in south-west Brunei, Borneo, from mid-August to late November. They pass through Wallacea but are rarely recorded in Bali. They also pass through Philippines and western Micronesia, usually arriving in New Guinea mid-September (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
The Terek Sandpiper passes through Torres Strait (Draffan et al. 1983) and arrive in Cairns, Queensland and Darwin, Northern Territory in August and in northern and north-western Australia in the first week of September (Lane 1987). Arrival in the south is later than in the north, for example birds arrive on the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia in mid-September, and Victoria in November (Emison et al. 1987; Storr & Johnstone 1988). Most individuals visiting Australia apparently remain on the north coast (Blakers et al. 1984).
The Terek Sandpiper is a rare visitor to Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island where most records occur November and December (Marchant & Higgins 1993). The species arrives in New Zealand from mid-August to late December with median date of arrival around mid-December (Moore cited in Marchant & Higgins 1993).
In Australia, inland records suggest some may move overland on southern migration (Blakers et al. 1984). There appear to be two waves of migration down the eastern coast: one in August or September and one in November (Amiet 1957; Lane 1987). The species rarely occurs in south-eastern Western Australia (Storr 1987) but regularly in Tasmania. Australian retraps suggest strong fidelity to non-breeding sites (Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Return to breeding grounds
Birds leave New Zealand from the end March to mid-May. In Australia, temporary influxes are observed during March-April at sites on the east coast, suggesting that northern migration occurs along the east coast. An influx is also recorded in north-western Western Australia at this time, before birds leave there in late April. The species leaves New Guinea from March to May, passing through Hong Kong, China, Taiwan and Japan April-May with large numbers moving through Korea.
Small numbers pass Mongolia in May and through north-east China and Russia as late as early June (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Terek Sandpipers have been recorded on passage in southern Ussuriland, Sakhalin, and Lake Baikal in May-June (Tomkovich cited in Marchant & Higgins 1993). The birds arrive in eastern Siberia during late May (Dement'ev & Gladkov 1951).
Many individuals are said to remain in non-breeding grounds all year (Hayman et al. 1986), but in Australia, only small numbers, probably first-year birds, remain in these grounds during the breeding season (Fry 1990). A few regularly remain on the north coast (around Torres Strait) (Draffan et al. 1983) but only rarely do any stay in southern Australia (recorded in Westernport Bay) (Emison et al. 1987).
Migratory pathways and important sites
The Yellow Sea supports about 25% of the estimated East Asian-Australasian Flyway population during the northern migration and even higher numbers during the southern migration. Fourteen sites of international importance have been identified, eleven in South Korea and three in China. Eight of these sites are important during both north and south migration and include Huang He National Nature Reserve, Ganghwa Do, Yeong Jong Do, Namyang Man, Asan Man, Geum Gang Hagu, Dongjin Gang Hagu and Suncheon Man (Barter 2002).
There are a number of threats that affect all migratory waders, including the Terek Sandpiper, that occur in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The greatest threat facing waders is habitat loss, both direct and indirect (Melville 1997). Staging areas used during migration through eastern Asia are being lost and degraded by activities which are reclaiming the mudflats for future development (e.g. Barter 2002, 2005b, 2005c; Ge et al. 2007; Moores 2006; Rogers et al. 2006; Round 2006). In many suitable staging areas along the East Asia Flyway many intertidal areas have been reclaimed, and the process is continuing at a rapid rate and may accelerate in the near future (Barter 2002, 2005b, 2005c). In addition, water regulation and diversion infrastructure in the major tributaries have resulted in the reduction of water and sediment flows, which compound the problem (Barter 2002, 2005b; Barter et al. 1998; Melville 1997).
Intensive oil exploration and extraction, and reduction in river flows due to upstream water diversion, are other potentially significant threats in this region, where this species is present in internationally significant numbers (Barter et al. 1998). Hunting is still a very serious problem for waders in China, and this species is sometimes caught (Ming et al. 1998). Pollution, including nutrient enrichment and industrial discharge, and inappropriate land management practices can lead to habitat degradation. This could make birds more vulnerable to diseases and parasites (Harding et al. 2007; Straw 1992a). Competition for food resources with humans could also occur (Melville 1997).
Disturbance from human recreational activities is another significant threat that has increased in recent years and which will probably continue to increase (Davidson & Rothwell 1993). When Terek Sandpipers are startled, Piersma (1986) noted they quickly congregate into tight flocks and cease foraging, and reduced foraging capacity may impact migration success.
Global warming and associated changes in sea level are likely to cause long term impacts on the breeding, staging and non-breeding grounds of migratory waders (Harding et al. 2007; Melville 1997). Iwamura and colleagues (2013) found that rises in sea level could cause a dramatic collapse of population flow of this species caused by intertidal habitat loss. Taking into account upshore movements of intertidal habitat, their modelling indicates that this species population flow could reduce by 25% with a 100 cm sea level rise (Iwamura et al. 2013).
Governments and conservation groups have undertaken a wide range of activities relating to migratory shorebird conservation (AGDEH 2005c) both in Australia and in cooperation with other countries associated with the EAAF.
EAAF shorebird conservation initiatives
The Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (AGDEH 2006f) outlines national activities to support the Flyway shorebird conservation initiatives and provides a strategic framework to ensure these activities and future research and management actions are integrated and remain focused on the long-term survival of migratory shorebird populations and their habitats.
Natural Heritage Trust
From the mid 1990s to the mid 2000s, the Australian Government invested approximately $5 000 000 of Natural Heritage Trust (NHT) funding in projects contributing to migratory shorebird conservation (DEWHA 2007e). This funding was distributed across a range of projects, including: the implementation of a nationally coordinated monitoring programme that aimed to produce robust, long-term population data to support the conservation and effective management of shorebirds and their habitat; migration studies using colour bands and leg flags; and development of a shorebird conservation toolkit to assist users to develop and implement shorebird conservation projects.
Birds Australia is currently co-ordinating the Shorebirds 2020 project, which aims to monitor shorebird populations at important sites throughout Australia. Birdlife International is identifying sites and regions which are important to various species of birds, including shorebirds, and the processes that are affecting them. The aim of these activities is to inform decisions on the management of shorebird habitat. It may be possible to rehabilitate some degraded wetlands or to create artificial wader feeding or roosting sites to replace those destroyed by development, such as by creating artificial sandflats and sand islands from dredge spoil and by building breakwaters (Dening 2005; Straw 1992a, 1999).
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
The draft Significant impact guidelines for 36 migratory shorebirds EPBC Act Policy Statement 3.21 (DEWHA 2009aj) provides guidelines for determining the impacts of proposed actions on migratory shorebirds. The policy statement also provides mitigation strategies to reduce the level and extent of those impacts. The policy aims to promote ecologically sustainable development that allows for the continued ecological function of important habitat for migratory shorebirds (DEWHA 2009aj).
Australia has played an important role in building international cooperation to conserve migratory birds. In addition to being party to international agreements on migratory species, Australia is also a member of the Partnership for the Conservation of Migratory Waterbirds and the Sustainable Use of their Habitats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (Flyway Partnership), which was launched in Bogor, Indonesia on 6 November 2006. Prior to this agreement, Australia was party to the Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy and the Action Plan for the Conservation of Migratory Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and the East Asian-Australasian Shorebird Site Network.
The East Asian-Australasian Flyway Site Network, which is part of the broader Flyway Partnership, promotes the identification and protection of key sites for migratory shorebirds. Australia has 17 sites in the network (Partnership EAAF 2008):
- Kakadu National Park, NT (1 375 940 ha)
- Parry Lagoons, WA (36 111 ha)
- Thomsons Lake, WA (213 ha)
- Moreton Bay, Queensland (113 314 ha)
- Hunter Estuary, NSW (2916 ha)
- Corner Inlet, Victoria (51 500 ha)
- The Coorong, Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert, South Australia (140,500 ha)
- Orielton Lagoon, Tasmania (2920 ha)
- Logan Lagoon, Tasmania (2320 ha)
- Western Port, Victoria (59 297 ha)
- Port Phillip Bay (Western Shoreline) and Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria (16 540 ha)
- Shallow Inlet Marine and Coastal Park, Victoria
- Discovery Bay Coastal Park, Victoria
- Bowling Green Bay, Queensland
- Shoalwater Bay, Queensland
- Great Sandy Strait, Queensland
- Currawinya National Park, Queensland.
Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.
The Terek Sandpiper has been identified as a conservation value in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the North-west Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012y) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Terek Sandpiper in the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds & migratory shorebirds" for the North-west (DSEWPaC 2012y) Marine Region provides additional information.
Management documents for the Terek Sandpiper are at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Direct exploitation by humans including hunting||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Global warming and associated sea level changes||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:climate change||Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006f) [Wildlife Conservation Plan].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Exploration drilling|
|Energy Production and Mining:Oil and Gas Drilling:Production of oil and gas resources|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology due to water diversion|
|Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity|
|Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Loss and damage of intertidal areas due to land reclamation|
|Pollution:Industrial and Military Effluents:Habitat degradation due to industrial discharge|
|Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution|
Amiet, L. (1957). A wader survey of some Queensland coastal localities. Emu. 57:236-254.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2005c). Background Paper to the Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/pubs/shorebird-plan-background.pdf.
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006f). Wildlife Conservation Plan for Migratory Shorebirds. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebird-plan.html.
Bamford M., D. Watkins, W. Bancroft, G. Tischler & J. Wahl (2008). Migratory Shorebirds of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway: Population estimates and internationally important sites. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Wetlands International-Oceania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/publications/shorebirds-east-asia.html.
Barter, M.A. (2002). Shorebirds of the Yellow Sea: Importance, Threats and Conservation Status. Wetlands International Global Series No. 8, International Wader Studies 12. Canberra, ACT: Wetlands International.
Barter, M.A. (2005c). Yellow Sea-driven priorities for Australian shorebird researchers. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. Sydney, NSW: Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Barter, M.A., D. Tonkinson, J.Z. Lu, S.Y. Zhu, Y. Kong, T.H. Wang, Z.W. Li & X.M. Meng (1998). Shorebird numbers in the Huang He (Yellow River) Delta during the 1997 northward migration. Stilt. 33:15-26.
Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.
Cramp, S., K.E.L. Simmons & eds (1983). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 3 Waders to Gulls. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davidson, N. & P. Rothwell (1993). Disturbance to waterfowl on estuaries. Wader Study Group Bulletin. 68.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, D.A. Christie & J. Sargatal (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World: Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Dement'ev, G.P. & N.A. Gladkov (Eds) (1951). Birds of the Soviet Union, Volume 3. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
Dening, J. (2005). Roost management in south-East Queensland: building partnerships to replace lost habitat. In: Straw, P., ed. Status and Conservation of Shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference 13-15 December 2003. Page(s) 94-96. Sydney, NSW. Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17.
Department of the Environment and Water Resources (DEW) (2007a). Draft East Marine Bioregional Plan: Bioregional Profile: A Description of the Ecosystems, Conservation Values and Uses of the East Marine Region.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007g). Migratory Waterbirds Informaton Page, Departmental Website. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/waterbirds/index.html#conservation.
Draffan, R.D.W., S.T. Garnett & G.J. Malone (1983). Birds of the Torres Strait: an annotated list and biogeographic analysis. Emu. 83:207-234.
Emison,W.B., C.M. Beardsell, F.I. Norman, R.H. Loyn & S.C. Bennett (1987). Atlas of Victorian Birds. Melbourne: Department of Conservation (Forest & Lands) & Royal Australian Ornithological Union.
Fry, G. (1990). Biometrics, moult and migration of Terek Sandpipers, Tringa terek, spending the non-breeding season in north-west Australia. Stilt. 17:24-28.
Geering, A., L. Agnew, S. Harding & eds (2007). Shorebirds of Australia. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
Harding, S.B., J.R. Wilson & D.W. Geering (2007). Threats to shorebirds and conservation actions. In: Geering, A., L. Agnew & S. Harding, eds. Shorebirds of Australia. Page(s) 197-213. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Hayman, P., J. Marchant & T. Prater (1986). Shorebirds. An identification guide to the waders of the world. London & Sydney: Croom Helm.
Iwamura, T., H.P. Possingham, I. Chades, C. Minton, N.J. Murray, D.I. Rogers, E.A. Treml & R.A. Fuller (2013). Migratory connectivity magnifies the consequences of habitat loss from sea-level rise for shorebird populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
Lane, B.A. (1987). Shorebirds in Australia. Sydney, NSW: Reed.
Marchant, S., P.J. Higgins & eds (1993). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 2 - Raptors to Lapwings. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Xenus cinereus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 23 Sep 2014 10:30:42 +1000.