Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Critically Endangered as Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009an) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Boscabel Conostylis (Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008 (Loudon, B., 2003) [Recovery Plan] as Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (77) (26/05/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009k) [Legislative Instrument] as Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
WA:Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District (Graham, M. & M. Mitchell, 2000) [State Species Management Plan].
WA:Interim Recovery Plan. No. 218. Boscabel Conostylis (Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys) Interim Recovery Plan 2006-2011 (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2006c) [State Recovery Plan].
State Listing Status
WA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys
Scientific name Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys [5775]
Family Haemodoraceae:Liliales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author  
Infraspecies author Hopper
Reference Hopper, S.D., Purdie, R.W., George, A.S. & Patrick, S.J. in George, A.S. (Ed) (1987), Flora of Australia 45: 463, 89, Fig. 39, Map 89 [tax. nov.]
Other names Conostylis setigera dasys [67325]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys

Common name: Boscabel Conostylis

The taxonomy of Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys is conventionally accepted (Hopper et al. 1987). The official common name, Boscabel Conostylis, was coined subsequently (Louden 2003).

Boscabel Conostylis is a tufted perennial herb 15–30 cm in height. The distinctive leaves are flat and rough with shaggy white hairs over the entire surface and margins (hence the sub-varietal name dasys meaning 'shaggy' in Greek) and are coarse to touch (TSSC 2009am). The yellow flowers appear in clusters of 5–10 flowers on stalks that are usually shorter than the leaves. Flowering occurs between October and November with flowers changing to red with age (Hopper et al. 1987).

Boscabel Conostylis is endemic to Western Australia. It occurs in two locations in the Kojonup area in the southern wheatbelt region (Hopper et al. 1987). The subspecies' entire range is within the Avon Natural Resource Management (NRM) Region (TSSC 2009am).

Boscabel Conostylis is known from two subpopulations occurring over a range of approximately 1.5 km². The extent of occurrence is estimated to be approximately 1 km². The area was calculated by drawing a boundary around all known subpopulations to create a polygon. The computer program Arcview GIS and a dataset taken from WA CALM's Threatened Flora Database was used to determine the area of the polygon (WA CALM 2006b).

The area in which Boscabel Conostylis is found has been largely cleared for agriculture. While there are no records of the subspecies' numbers or distribution prior to landclearing, both are likely to have been reduced.

The area of occupancy for this subspecies is estimated to be approximately 1 km². This was calculated by adding the area of occupancy for each subpopulation, which was estimated during population monitoring (WA CALM 2006b).

The subspecies occurs on road verges on private property and a non-vested reserve (WA DEC 2008), however, due to the increasing degradation of road verges and small areas of remnant vegetation, the area of occupancy is likely to further decline (WA CALM 2006b).

There are no known translocated populations of Boscabel Conostylis, however, seeds have been collected and stored (WA CALM 2006b). Several Boscabel Conostylis plants are in cultivation at Kings Park and Botanic Gardens, Perth (CHABG 1994).

The two subpopulations of Boscabel Conostylis are considered to be fragmented. They are found within scattered patches of remnant vegetation in an area that has been largely cleared for agriculture and the populations are scattered, with some distances between them (WA CALM 2006b).

Since 1987, the known subpopulations of Boscabel Conostylis have been surveyed at regular intervals (WA CALM 2006b). Between 1988–1990 surveys on similar habitat in a 40–50 km radius of known sites did not uncover any new subpopulations (WA CALM 2006b).

In 2003, during a three month rare flora survey in the southern wheatbelt, the two known subpopulations were surveyed. Areas with a similar soil type, within a 50 km radius of the known subpopulations, were also surveyed but no new subpopulations were found (WA CALM 2006b).

The estimated total number of mature Boscabel Conostylis is around 1200 (WA DEC 2008).

The subspecies is known from two subpopulations in the Kojonup region. The number of mature individuals, from the two subpopulations, is approximately 1200 (700 and 400 plants respectively). Boscabel Conostylis is suspected to have undergone a historical reduction in numbers, however there are no historical estimates of population size for the subspecies to confirm a decline or judge its magnitude (TSSC 2009am).

There appears to be an increase in population size of Boscabel Conostylis, however the increased population numbers are possibly due to an increased survey effort rather than an increase in population size, as some records in the past are of partial surveys only (WA CALM 2006b).

The generation length of the subspecies is unknown. Plant ages are difficult to determine due to the varying heights of flowering plants. Some small plants, with only a few leaves, show evidence of flowering in the past season while quite dense clumps of the subspecies can indicate considerable age (Loudon 2003).
Both subpopulations are critical to the subspecies long-term survival and recovery.

The subspecies grows in gravelly loam and sand in Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and Wandoo (E. wandoo) low open woodland and low heath (Brown et al. 1998; Hopper et al.1987).

Boscabel Conostylis is known to grow with Dwarf She-oak (Allocasuarina humilis), Jarrah, Wandoo, Honeypot Dryandra (Dryandra nivea) and Petrophile serruriae (Loudon 2003).
The subspecies' entire distribution is within the Avon NRM Region. It is not known to overlap with any EPBC Act listed threatened ecological communities (TSSC 2009an).

The ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality for Boscabel Conostylis is unknown.

Boscabel Conostylis flowers from October to November (Hopper et al. 1987; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000). The subspecies appears to produce low amounts of seed that are passively dispersed each season, as well as being subject to high rates of abortion and predation. Germination trials with small quantities of collected seed recorded germination rates of 0% and 11%, indicating that seed set and seed viability is low in this subspecies (WA CALM 2006b). Conostylis species release their seeds at any time once mature, making them difficult to collect (WA CALM 2006b).

A study on the germination of several Western Australian plant species found that the application of diluted and full strength smoke water (water infused with plant-derived smoke) substantially improved the germination of the Conostylis setigera subsp. setigera (Tieu et al. 1999). This suggests that Boscabel Conostylis subspecies may also respond well to smoke water, and that both subspecies may respond well to fire (Loudon 2003).

Flower colour and size indicate that Boscabel Conostylis is insect pollinated. Native bees of the Halactid family are believed to be the pollinators for the subspecies. Other Conostylis species are pollinated by these bees (Hopper et al. 1987; Loudon 2003).

Boscabel Conostylis is one of two subspecies and differs from C. setigera subsp. setigera in its later flowering season and the presence of hairs on the leaf surface. C. setigera subsp. setigera flowers in August to October, and has leaf surfaces that are relatively smooth and are hairless except for the margins, or have only sparse fine hairs (Hopper et al. 1987).

Current threats to Boscabel Conostylis include:

Feral rabbits
The main ongoing threat to Boscabel Conostylis is grazing by feral rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Less heavily vegetated areas within the subspecies' range host significant numbers of feral rabbits. High levels of feral rabbit grazing have been observed in these areas with native grasses and sedges chewed back to small, dense clumps at ground level (WA CALM 2006b). However specimens occurring in dense, natural, undisturbed bush are not grazed (TSSC 2009am).

Land Clearing
Historical land clearing has severely reduced and fragmented the subspecies' range, and continues to be a potential threat given insecure land tenure (TSSC 2009am).

Future threats to Boscabel Conostylis include:

Road and powerline maintenance
Road maintenance activities such as road widening, slashing of road verge vegetation, and maintenance of rest areas and parking bays are potential threats to Boscabel Conostylis subpopulations. Similarly, powerline maintenance including vegetation pruning or removal from beneath powerlines and vehicular access directly beneath poles and overhead wires are a potential threat to some subpopulations. The impacts of these potential threats may be reduced by current management practices (TSSC 2009am).

Phytophthora cinnamomi
The exotic pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi may be a potential threat to the health of Boscabel Conostylis or the vegetation communities in which it occurs (TSSC 2009am).

Fire
Changes to fire regimes may also threaten the subspecies, but the role of fire in the subspecies' ecology is not sufficiently understood (TSSC 2009am).

Gravel extraction
Gravel extraction may be a potential threat to some populations through habitat disturbance and removal/destruction of individual specimens. Gravel extraction has occurred within the subspecies' range in the past (TSSC 2009am).

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (TSSC 2009an) provides the following priority research, recovery and threat abatement actions for the the subspecies:

  • Determine the role of fire in the subspecies' ecology and recruitment.
  • Determine the subspecies' susceptibility to dieback caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi.
  • Implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known populations from further outbreaks of the exotic pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations/occurrences of Boscabel Conostylis and more accurately assess population size and extent of occurrence.
  • Monitor known populations to identify key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Ensure road widening and maintenance activities (or other infrastructure or development activities as appropriate) in areas where Boscabel Conostylis occurs, do not adversely impact on known populations.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements such as the use of covenants, conservation agreements or inclusion in reserve tenure.
  • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to Boscabel Conostylis, using appropriate methods.
  • Manage sites to prevent introduction of invasive weeds, which could become a threat to Boscabel Conostylis, using appropriate methods.
  • Control rabbit grazing at known sites.
  • Identify appropriate intensity and interval of fire to promote seed germination.
  • Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state rural fire services and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plan(s), risk register and/or operation maps.
  • Raise awareness of Boscabel Conostylis within the local community, fire authorities and power authorities.
  • Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage and maintain vegetative propagation material.
  • Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations.
  • Carry out translocations if feasible.

Hopper and colleagues (1987) published a major taxonomic description of the species.

The following documents may inform protection and management of Boscabel Conostylis:

  • Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (TSSC 2009an)
  • Boscabel Conostylis (Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008. Interim Recovery Plan No. 150. (Loudon 2003).
  • Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. (DEWHA 2009w).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009an) [Conservation Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Conostylis setigera subsp. xdasys in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fd) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Conostylis setigera subsp. xdasys in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fd) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009an) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009an) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low fecundity, reproductive rate and/or poor recruitment Conostylis setigera subsp. xdasys in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fd) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Conostylis setigera subsp. xdasys in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fd) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines Conostylis setigera subsp. xdasys in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fd) [Internet].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2009am) [Listing Advice].

Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.

Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2009w). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/phytophthora.html.

Hopper, S.D., R.W. Purdie, A.S. George & S.J. Patrick (1987). Conostylis. In: Flora of Australia. 45:57-110. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Loudon, B. (2003). Boscabel Conostylis (Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys) Interim Recovery Plan 2003-2008. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/c-setigera/index.html.

Paczkowska, G. & A.R. Chapman (2000). The Western Australian Flora, A Descriptive Catalogue. The Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.), the Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009am). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/5775-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2009an). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys (Boscabel Conostylis). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/5775-conservation-advice.pdf.

Tieu, A., K.A. Dixon, K. Sivasithamparam, J.A. Plummer & I.M. Sieler (1999). Germination of Four Species of Native Western Australian Plants using Plant-derived Smoke. Australian Journal of Botany. 47:207-219.

Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM) (2006b). Records held in CALM's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Conostylis setigera subsp. dasys in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 10:09:23 +1000.