Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2005p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Redfin blue eye (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2012i) [Database].
QLD:Enhancing biodiversity hotspots along Western Queensland stock routes (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM), 2009a) [Management Plan].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Critically Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis [56792]
Family Pseudomugilidae:Atheriniformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Ivantsoff, Unmack, Saeed & Crowley, 1991
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.desertfishes.org/australia/fish/scatverm.shtml

Scientific name: Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis

Common name: Redfin Blue Eye

Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis was first described in 1991 (Ivantsoff et al. 1991) and is conventionally accepted (AFD 2010).

The Redfin Blue Eye is Australia's smallest freshwater fish, reaching a length of 30 mm (Fairfax et al. 2007). The species is a translucent to silvery fish with a plainly visible swim bladder and silvery-blue eyes. Sexually mature males, in the reproductive mode, have fins edged with a brilliant red (Tappin 2007).

Current distribution

The Redfin Blue Eye currently exists in four small, shallow freshwater springs at Edgbaston Springs in the Aramac district of central western Queensland. Edgbaston Springs is located in upper Aramac Creek which is part of the Cooper Creek/Lake Eyre drainage basin (Unmack & Wager 2006).

The combined wetland area (or area of occupancy) of the four springs supporting the Redfin Blue Eye is approximately 0.3 ha (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Former distribution

Several springs within the Edgbaston complex are no longer active and two of these have had bores sunk directly on them. It is not known whether inactive springs in the district formerly contained populations of the Redfin Blue Eye, although examples of aquifer drawdown resulting in the loss of populations of Great Artesian Basin spring-endemic species are known from elsewhere (Fairfax & Fensham 2003; Kinhill Engineers Pty Ltd 1997; McLaren et al. 1986).

The current population size of the Redfin Blue-eye is estimated at less than 3000 individuals (Fairfax et al. 2007) but is likely to vary with the fluctuating amount of preferred habitat available (Wager 2001 pers. comm.). Individual population size varies and appears to be determined by spring size, rainfall and the presence or absence of the exotic Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki). Population sizes are largest in wet years and in springs where the Eastern Gambusia is absent (Fairfax et al. 2007).

The Redfin Blue-eye has been recorded as naturally occurring in eight separate springs. Since its discovery in 1990, five Redfin Blue-eye populations have disappeared and subsequent colonisation has occurred in two spring wetlands. Four springs still contain existing populations (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Where the Redfin Blue-eye has been recorded in the same spring on separate occasions, estimated population numbers (approximately 2000) have fluctuated within a few months with a doubling or halving of the population size (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Edgbaston Station, the location of the last remaining population of the Redfin Blue Eye, has been purchased by the non-government organisation Bush Heritage Australia with contributions from the Australian Government and the Queensland Department for Sustainability, Climate Change and Innovation (Bush Heritage 2008). It will be managed as a conservation reserve.

The Redfin Blue Eye has a very restricted habitat (Fairfax et al. 2007). Individual springs range in size from a few square metres to approximately one hectare. The spring substrate is covered by a globular algae, which forms a loose layer up to 40 mm thick (Wager 1995b).

When the Redfin Blue Eye was first found, the water in the clay-bottomed springs was clear, 26 °C and vegetated by grass tussocks and a small red-leaved plant (Ivantsoff et al. 1991). The water temperature in November 1990 was recorded at 36 °C with a pH of 8 and, in April 1991, varied between 23-25 °C just before darkness (Unmack & Brumley 1991). Water temperatures are extremely variable and the maximum and minimum water temperatures recorded are 38.5 °C and 3 °C respectively. Temperature in the shallow parts of a spring may vary by up to 27 °C over a 24-hour period (especially during the winter months) (Wager 1995b). This species usually occurs in waters with temperatures over 16 °C (Wager & Unmack 2004).

The maximum depth of the water in the pools is 8 cm and the pools are in full sunlight most of the day (Unmack & Brumley 1991). Adults generally occupy water depth between 10 mm and 40 mm, although they can regularly occur in water less than 10 mm deep when summer evaporation restricts the availability of habitat. Juveniles occupy shallower habitats than adults, mostly with a depth ranging between 5-10 mm (Fairfax et al. 2007; Wager 1995b).

The Great Artesian Basin springs provide a limited and very specialised habitat for a suite of endemic organisms, including plants (Fensham & Fairfax 2003), molluscs (Ponder & Clark 1990) and other macro-invertebrates (Ponder 2004). Eight described fish species are considered endemic to Great Artesian Basin spring wetlands and these represent a quarter of the native freshwater fish fauna naturally occurring in the Lake Eyre catchment (with an area of 1.3 million km²) of inland Australia (Wager & Unmack 2000).

Lifespan

Observations from captive populations indicate that the average lifespan of the Redfin Blue Eye seems to be approximately 18 months or less (Fairfax et al. 2007). The longest a Redfin Blue Eye survived in captivity was about 30 months (Robinson 2005 pers. comm.).

Courtship

Males display to any female that enters their territory (Wager 1995b; Wager & Unmack 2004). Courtship displays have been seen throughout the year(Fairfax et al. 2007).

Breeding

Females can breed more or less continuously between 4–15 months of age, and, within that time, have at least a 4–6 week period of laying, with one to three (maximum seven) eggs per day (Tappin 1995). Eggs are opaque and very large for the size of the fish (about 1.5 mm diameter) with filaments that attach to vegetation or substrate (Fairfax et al. 2007). Juveniles hatch after one to two weeks, with egg hatching rates in captivity documented to be between 44% (Tappin 1995) and a little over 60% (Robinson 2004). Individuals can reach half the size of an adult in six to ten weeks (Fairfax et al. 2007). Both eggs and juveniles have been found throughout the year but are more common in warmer months (Wager 1995b; Wager & Unmack 2004).

Captive Breeding

In aquaria, this hardy species has been reasonably easy to breed and rear. Aquarium spawning commences when the fish reaches about 15 mm in length (i.e. sexual maturity). Spawning has occurred at water temperatures between 20 °C and 32 °C. A few eggs are laid daily and take between one and two weeks to hatch, depending on the water temperature (at 28 °C, eggs hatch in seven to ten days). The hatchlings are between 4–5 mm in length. The water depth used to spawn the fish in aquaria is 10–15 cm (Unmack & Brumley 1991). Individuals may reach 15 mm in six to ten weeks (Wager 1995b).

The natural diet of the Redfin Blue Eye is unknown. Individuals have been observed taking a mouthful of substrate, expelling matter from the mouth and then picking particles from the expelled cloud. Individuals have also been observed picking particles directly from the substrate, from the surface of submerged vegetation and from the water column (Fairfax et al. 2007). It is thought that this species is a facultative omnivore (Wager 1995b), having a predatory or herbivorous diet depending on the condition and availability of its food.

Most desert fish are very effective at migration and, during flood, most springs become connected. It is likely that the Redfin Blue Eye relies on flooding to increase its distribution (Unmack 1995).

Males may defend a variable individual space (as opposed to a fixed territory) against other males, usually around emergent vegetation (Fairfax et al. 2007; Wager 1995b; Wager & Unmack 2004).

The distinctive features that separate the Redfin Blue Eye from other Pseudomugilidae include a narrow rounded caudal fin, higher insertion of pectoral fins and frequent absence of ventral fins (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Accurate estimates of population size can be difficult owing to the small size of the fish and vegetation cover, and these difficulties are amplified in larger springs. Redfin Blue Eye populations, since 1992, have largely been estimated on the basis of counts of individuals in small areas multiplied by the area of habitat. Despite possible discrepancies between surveyors and survey conditions, the limited habitat area, depth cover and high visibility permit a credible relative assessment through time. The entire spring complex has been monitored every year between 1992–1997, then again in 2005 and 2006 (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki)

The introduced Eastern Gambusia appears to be the main threat to the survival of the Redfin Blue Eye in the wild (Unmack & Brumley 1991; Wager & Jackson 1993; Wager & Unmack 2004).

The Eastern Gambusia is thought to have invaded springs during extensive flooding of the Aramac region and may invade other springs during further flooding (Wager & Unmack 2004). The Eastern Gambusia is implicated in the extinction of the Redfin Blue Eye from a number of springs (Fairfax et al. 2007; Wager & Unmack 2004). It was present in four of the five springs where Redfin Blue Eye populations have been lost. Four out of the five remaining populations of the Redfin Blue Eye are free of the Eastern Gambusia (Fairfax et al. 2007).

There is evidence of spatial separation within the spring pools where the Redfin Blue Eye and the introduced Eastern Gambusia co-occur, although both species are forced together when seasonal extremes affect spring size and water temperature (Fairfax et al. 2007). It was noted that the length of the tail fin of the Redfin Blue Eye was being reduced through fin nipping by the Eastern Gambusia (Unmack & Brumley 1991). Wager (1994b) also noted that fin nipping by the Eastern Gambusia was common where both species were present, especially where the Eastern Gambusia was larger than the Redfin Blue Eye.

The Eastern Gambusia (up to 60 mm) has shown a preference for the deeper parts of a spring (Wager 1994b). The Eastern Gambusia negatively impacts upon native freshwater fish by utilising similar food resources and occupying the same habitat, preying on eggs or fry and aggressive interactions (fin nipping) (Wager 1994b). It appears that shallow water habitat less than 4 cm deep is the key to the Redfin Blue Eye's survival in the presence of the Eastern Gambusia (Unmack 1992).

Habitat destruction

Habitat destruction due to trampling by domestic livestock and feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) that utilise the springs, and excavation of the springs to increase water storage for stock are also of concern due to the restricted distribution of the species (Wager & Jackson 1993). Domestic stock and Pigs have both been observed to trample and uproot vegetation, increase turbidity and affect depth and flow within springs. Stock and Pig faeces and rotting carcasses have been present in springs containing Redfin Blue Eye (Fairfax et al. 2007) and can result in ammonia levels toxic to fish (Erickson 1985). In 1997 two of the springs were fenced to examine the impact of excluding hard-hoofed animals (Wager 2001 pers. comm.).

Three springs at Edgbaston have been totally excavated although it is not known whether these contained Redfin Blue Eye. Partial excavation has occurred in two springs that contained Redfin Blue Eye. Turbidity appears higher in fully excavated springs (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Declining water levels

Thousands of bores have been drilled to tap the Great Artesian Basin aquifer since 1878, primarily to provide permanent water for pastoral purposes. All artesian bores within 10 km of Edgbaston have reduced aquifer pressure, standing water levels and spring flows (Fairfax et al. 2007).

Over-collecting

Over-collecting for the aquarium trade or scientific research is a potential threat to the species (Wager & Jackson 1993), although probably not a major threat at present (Fairfax et al. 2007). Interviews with keepers of captive Redfin Blue Eye and specimen records indicate that approximately 1000 Redfin Blue Eye have been removed, mostly within the first few years of their discovery. However, the maintenance of captive breeding populations can be a useful method of preserving the species until the populations in the wild are secure (Tappin 1995; Unmack & Brumley 1991; Wager & Jackson 1993), though the success of such efforts has been limited to date (Wager 1994b; Wager & Unmack 2004). Regulations in Queensland now prevent the over-collecting of this species.

Draft recovery plan for the Redfin Blue Eye

Fensham and colleagues (2007) identified a number of priority recovery actions for the Redfin Blue Eye. The implementation of these actions have been discussed by Kerezsy (2010) in relation to the activity of Bush Heritage Australia:

Recovery action (Fensham et al. 2007) Progress
Establish tenure-based security Bush Heritage Australia has secured the tenure of Edgbaston for the purpose of protecting its conservation values (Kerezsy 2010).
Control all bores that will increase groundwater flows A bore has been sunk within 4 km of Redfin Blue Eye habitat and an expression of interest to cap another has been received (Kerezsy 2010). Capping free-flowing bores and piping open bore drains in the Edgbaston region (Pelican Creek catchment) would assist in maintaining spring flows and preventing Eastern Gambusia from entering the springs (Fairfax et al. 2007; Wager 1994b, 1995b). The Queensland State Government Great Artesian Basin Draft Water Resource Plan has scope for restricting water allocations in the vicinity of high-conservation-value springs (Water Management and Use Group 2005).
Develop and implement methods to increase landholder participation in Great Artesian Basin Sustainability Initiative Status unknown
Monitor groundwater flows using aerial photography Detailed mapping of spring wetlands exists for 2006, 2007 and 2008 and will be repeated again in 2011 (Fairfax n.d. pers. comm. cited in Kerezsy 2010).
Eradicate ponded pasture species Para Grass (Urochloa mutica) has been removed from spring SW 40 (Fensham n.d. pers. comm. cited in cited in Kerezsy 2010) and will continue to be managed on an ongoing basis. Programs directed towards the control/removal of Prickly Acacia (Vachellia nilotica) and Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata) have also been established and are on-going at Edgbaston (Kerezsy 2010).
Manage livestock All stock has been removed from the property and the property will remain unstocked in the future. Control of feral animals and stock incursions from neighbouring properties is ongoing (Kerezsy 2010).
Control Pigs to maintain low numbers at all sites A Pig control program involving trapping and shooting is ongoing (Kerezsy 2010).

Upgrade the existing two Pig fences at Edgbaston Springs to ensure they are effective at excluding Pigs

Given that Pigs are being controlled by an ongoing trapping and shooting program this action has been postponed (Kerezsy 2010).

Existing populations of Redfin Blue Eye currently occur in one fenced and three unfenced springs and are monitored bi-monthly. Removal of stock and control of feral Pigs is likely to improve the habitat of these springs, but a rigorous monitoring program has not been implemented. Relocated populations of Redfin Blue Eye currently occur in three unfenced springs that were selected based on their isolation from Eastern Gambusia (Kerezsy 2010).
Establish a new Pig fence Consideration is currently being given to constructing a fence to exclude terrestrial vertebrates from the area between spring NW90s and a creekline immediately to the west (Kerezsy 2010).
Monitor fish populations at least every 2 years Redfin Blue Eye are being monitored on a 2-monthly basis as part of a major recovery effort being undertaken by Bush Heritage Australia. The fish community in all springs is audited annually (Kerezsy 2010).
Study biology and ecology of Redfin Blue Eye An aquatic ecologist has been employed full-time to undertaken a research and recovery program on Redfin Blue Eye and Edgbaston Goby (Chlamydogobius squamigenus). Key research topics include (Kerezsy 2010):
• reducing the potential of Eastern Gambusia to invade pristine springs, eliminating Eastern Gambusia from water bodies that are acting as source populations for further spread of the noxious fish
• removing Eastern Gambusia from springs that are suitable habitat for threatened fish
• undertaking relocation trials of the threatened fish in order to expand their current range and increase their population.
Study interactions between Redfin Blue Eye and Eastern Gambusia Gut content analyses of Eastern Gambusia would be useful in comparing the dietary overlap with Redfin Blue Eye (Wager 1995b). 
Study options for control and quarantine of Eastern Gambusia Two methods have been trialled successfully for removing Eastern Gambusia from springs. Manual use of dip nets has proved successful on small shallow springs in which there is little vegetation. It is however, extremely labour intensive and requires a number of treatments to be successful. The use of the ichthyocide rotenone has been trialled in laboratory experiments and proven successful in euthanasing Eastern Gambusia. The toxicity of rotenone to spring invertebrates has also been trialled (Kerezsy 2010).

Polypropelene barrier fencing has been trialled successfully as a means of quarantining Eastern Gambusia in springs from which invasions are likely to impact existing populations of Redfin Blue Eye and/or Edgbaston Goby (Kerezsy 2010).

Previous attempts have been unsuccessful (netting strategies: Fairfax et al. 2007; Wager 1994), unviable (gene technology impacting reproductive capacity: Thresher & Bax 2003) or untested (using earth walls to prevent entry to pristine springs: Fairfax et al. 2007).
Prevent further spread of Eastern Gambusia Low barrier fences have been erected around source populations of Eastern Gambusia to prevent them migrating during periods of overland flow. Barrier fencing has also been erected around key habitat springs to protect existing Redfin Blue Eye and Edgbaston Goby populations from invasion by Eastern Gambusia (Kerezsy 2010).
Restock Redfin Blue Eyes Trialled successfully and approved under the EPBC Act to be implemented (EPBC Referral 2010/5603). Restocking trials have proved successful. Of the four springs into which small numbers of Redfin Blue Eye were relocated, three have established well with the relocated fish breeding successfully within two months of the relocation (Kerezsy 2010).

Three attempts to translocate Redfin Blue Eye to apparently suitable springs elsewhere within the complex have failed. Changes in water flow to the springs may have accounted for these translocation failures (Fairfax et al. 2007).
Establish an artificial population of Redfin Blue Eyes Status unknown

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Delma torquata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abh) [Internet].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through underground mining Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Acacia nilotica subsp. indica (Prickly Acacia) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Parkinsonia aculeata (Parkinsonia, Jerusalem Thorn, Jelly Bean Tree, Horse Bean) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Urochloa mutica (Para Grass) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Tamarix aphylla (Athel Pine, Athel Tree, Tamarisk, Athel Tamarisk, Athel Tamarix, Desert Tamarisk, Flowering Cypress, Salt Cedar) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Hymenachne, Olive Hymenachne, Water Stargrass, West Indian Grass, West Indian Marsh Grass) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by bamboo Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) Delma torquata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abh) [Internet].
Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan for Queensland Artesian Spring Fishes:52. (Wager, R., 1995b) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rhinella marina (Cane Toad) Comments on draft Inventory of Nationally Significant Environmental Assets (Desert Channels Queensland NRM, 2007) [Paper File].
Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001ab) [Listing Advice].
The Distribution of Two Endangered Fish in Queensland Part B: The Distribution and Status of the Red-finned Blue-eye:32; 65(A). (Wager, R., 1994b) [Report].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Recovery Plan for Queensland Artesian Spring Fishes:52. (Wager, R., 1995b) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Drawdown of aquifer, artesian and/or groundwater system Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of artesian water resources Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat disturbance caused by underground mining Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin (Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax, 2010) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2010). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/home. [Accessed: 30-May-2010].

Bush Heritage (2008). Endangered Australian fish gets $3.5m survival boost with Bush Heritage property purchase. [Online]. Available from: http://www.bushheritage.org.au/bha_news_09sept08.html.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Erickson, R.J. (1985). Evaluation of mathematical models for the effects of pH and temperature on ammonia toxicity to aquatic organisms. Water Research. 19:1047-1058.

Fairfax, R., R. Fensham, R. Wager, S. Brooks, A. Webb & P. Unmack (2007). Recovery of the red-finned blue-eye: an endangered fish from springs of the Great Artesian Basin. Wildlife Research. 34:156-166.

Fairfax, R.J. & R.J. Fensham (2003). Great Artesian Basin springs in southern Queensland 1911-2000. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 49:285-293.

Fensham R., R. Fairfax & R. Wager (2007). Draft Recovery plan for the red-finned blue-eye Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis 2007-2011. Report to the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Brisbane: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.

Fensham, R.J. & R.J. Fairfax (2003). Spring wetlands of the Great Artesian Basin, Queensland, Australia. Wetland Ecology and Management. 11:343-362.

Fensham, R.J., W.F. Ponder & R.J. Fairfax (2010). Recovery plan for the community of native species dependent on natural discharge of groundwater from the Great Artesian Basin. [Online]. City East, Queensland: Department of Environment and Resource Management. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/great-artesian-basin-ec.html.

Ivantsoff, W., P. Unmack, B. Saeed & L.E.L.M. Crowley (1991). A red-finned blue-eye, a new species and genus of the family Pseudomugilidae from central western Queensland. Fishes of Sahul. Journal of the Australia New Guinea Fishes Association. 6(4):277-282.

Kerezsy, A. (2010). Options for restoring populations of endemic fish and controlling the alien fish species Gambusia holbrooki in the Great Artesian Basin springs at Edgbaston, Queensland. Bush Heritage Australia.

Kinhill Engineers Pty Ltd (1997). Olympic Dam expansion project environmental impact statement. WMC (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd: Adelaide.

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 11:18:59 +1000.