Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Murray Hardyhead) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012g) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Murray Hardyhead) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012h) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets The Living Murray Annual Environmental Watering Plan 2009-10 (Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA), 2009) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (124) (03/03/2012) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2012l) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Profiles for species, populations & ecological communities: Murray Hardyhead (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), 2005a) [Internet].
NSW:Critically endangered species - Murray hardyhead (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), 2005d) [Internet].
NSW:Threat abatement plan - Removal of large woody debris from NSW rivers and streams (NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), 2007) [State Action Plan].
SA:Action plan for South Australian freshwater fishes (Hammer M., S. Wedderburn & J. Van Weenen, 2009) [State Action Plan].
SA:Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges South Australia, Threatened Species Profile: Craterocephalus fluviatilis, Murray Hardyhead (South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2008b) [Information Sheet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Critically endangered (Fisheries Management Act 1994 (New South Wales): August 2013 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
SA: Listed as Critically Endangered (Action Plan for South Australian Freshwater Fishes 2009 list)
VIC: Listed as Critically Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Craterocephalus fluviatilis [56791]
Family Atherinidae:Atheriniformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author McCulloch, 1912
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.asfb.org.au/research/tsp/tfp_mhhead.htm ;
http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/thr/species/fn-murray-hardyhead.htm

Scientific name: Craterocephalus fluviatilis

Common name: Murray Hardyhead


Although the Murray Hardyhead was first described by McCulloch in 1912, its status in the genus Craterocephalus, was reviewed by Ivantsoff and colleagues (1987), with those fish from south-eastern Australia previously recognised as C. fluviatilis being re-classified as two distinct species. One was classified as a southern subspecies of the more northerly occurring Flyspecked Hardyhead (C. stercusmuscarum) which was named C. stercusmuscarum fulvus, and the other was classified as a junior synonym of the Lake Eyre Hardyhead, C. eyresii (Ivantsoff et al. 1987). Crowley and Ivantsoff (1990) have since revised these classifications again, concluding that the junior synonym of C. eyresii from the Murray-Darling Basin in fact comprised two genetically separate species, the Murray Hardyhead (C. fluviatilis) and the Darling River Hardyhead (C. amniculus). The separation of the Murray-Darling and Lake Eyre drainage basins allowed speciation to occur, resulting in C. fluviatilis in the lower reaches of the Murray-Darling basin, and C. amniculus in the higher reaches of the same basin (Crowley & Ivantsoff 1990).

The Murray Hardyhead is a small, moderately deep bodied fish which grows to a maximum length of 76 mm, but is commonly 40–65 mm. Males have been recorded at 27–34 mm and females at 41–43 mm caudal fork length (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; Lintermans 2007). Its body is predominantly luminescent silver to dark golden dorsally, with a distinct mid-lateral stripe, and a pale abdomen. It has a small mouth with protrusible lips, a restricted gape (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; FSC 2008a), and a single row of small teeth on the anterior part of both jaws (Crowley & Ivantsoff 1990).

The species is usually found in schools of distinct size classes: juveniles are found throughout lakes, in open areas associated with edge structure; and adults have been observed over shallow habitats including open sand banks (Lintermans 2007).

The Murray Hardyhead is endemic to the mid and lower Murray-Darling system in south-eastern Australia (NSW, Victoria and South Australia) (Ebner et al. 2003; Ivantsoff & Crowley 1996; Lloyd & Walker 1986) and has a large geographic distribution (Wedderburn 2008).

The distribution of the species is characteristically patchy and fragmented according to availability of suitable habitat (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi). Salinity may contribute to fragmentation of hardyhead populations in the River Murray. Salinity affects habitat complexity, the incidence of parasites and affects the metabolism of fish through the physiological consequences of changes in the osmotic environment (e.g. adjustments in osmoregulation or oxygen consumption). Spatial differences in salinity, therefore, could segregate fish species (Wedderburn 2008; Wedderburn et al. 2008b).

The Murray Hardyhead is known from 12 locations: nine in South Australia (in the Lower Murray Region and Lower Lakes Region); and three in Victoria (Round Lake, Woorinen North Lake and Cardross Lakes). All of these are considered to be important to the survival of the species (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

NSW
In NSW, there has only been one record of the Murray Hardyhead in the last 30 years, and the species is thought to be locally extinct. The species has been recorded from the Darling River near Wentworth and the Murrumbidgee River at Narrandera (FSC 2008a).

Victoria
In Victoria, the species has been recorded from Cardross Lakes and Lake Hawthorn near Mildura (Raadik & Fairbrother 1999) and several lakes in the Swan Hill-Kerang district, including Cullen, Elizabeth, Long, Round, Tuchewop, Wandella, Woorinen North and Yando Lakes (Chessman & Williams 1974; Fleming 1990; Hardie 2000; Lyon et al. 2002; McGuckin 1999). In 2009, the species survived in only three lakes (La Trobe University 2009): Cardross Lakes (Ellis 2006), Round Lake and Woorinen North Lake (T. Raadik n.d., cited in Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

South Australia
The species has been recorded from several locations near Renmark, downstream to near the mouth of the Murray River, including the Murray River and tributaries, Finniss River, Angas River, Marne River and Dishers Creek (Lloyd & Walker 1986).

Known populations of the species exist (in South Australia) in two salt evaporation basins near Berri (Disher Creek and Berri) in the Rocky Gully wetland near Murray Bridge and in the Lower Lakes (Bice et al. 2008). The Lower Lakes comprise several more-or-less isolated populations including Hindmarsh Island, Dunn's Lagoon, Lake Albert, Mud Island, Loveday Bay, Jabobs Bight, Finniss River (Toslinis and Reedlands), Scotts Creek, Angas River and Lake Alexandrina. This region holds the largest, most genetically diverse of all Murray Hardyhead populations. All other populations (including the three known locations in Victoria) are effectively isolated from one another (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

Captive Populations
In 2008, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic DSE) began a captive management and breeding program for the Murray Hardyhead with the aim of maintaining representative subpopulations until alternative sites for translocation, or re-watering of the endemic sites (Lake Hawthorn and Cardross Lakes), can be achieved (MDFRC 2009). Up to 200 juvenile fish were captured in the now dry Lake Hawthorn, and taken to a captive management facility at the Murray Darling Freshwater Research Centre, Lower Basin Laboratory (MDFRC) in Mildura (EPBC Referral 2008/4015; La Trobe University 2009). The first captive-born fish began breeding in 2009 and the population appears to be free of diseases and in good genetic health (La Trobe University 2009).

There are no data for population numbers of the Murray Hardyhead although there are estimates that provide an indication of abundance of some populations. Captures of several hundred fish have been reported during survey and monitoring work at several locations in Victoria and South Australia (Hardie 2000; Lyon et al. 2002; McGuckin 1999; Raadik & O'Connor 1996; Wedderburn & Hammer 2003). These captures indicate some populations, especially those in saline lakes in the Murray River Lower Lakes region and in Dishers Creek, were locally abundant and probably contained many thousands of the species (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; Lloyd & Walker 1986; Wedderburn & Hammer 2003). At some locations, particularly those in the Murray River main channel, records were of a few, or single fish only, possibly indicating low numbers of fish in these locations (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

The Murray Hardyhead was once considered widespread and common to abundant throughout the mid and lower reaches of the Murray-Darling River system, but has suffered an extensive decline in range and abundance throughout its distribution (Ebner & Raadik 2001; Ivantsoff & Crowley 1996). Up to 16 populations have become extinct in the past 50 years, including at least five populations since 2000 (see table) (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; MDFRC 2009).

Table: Locations where the Murray Hardyhead is now presumed extinct (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; MDFRC 2009).


Location Last record Bioregion Comments
New South Wales
Darling River, Wentworth 1970s Murray Darling Depression
Bundidgery Creek, Narrandera 1995 Riverina Single fish recorded despite extensive surveys
Victoria
Lake Hawthorn 2008 Murray Darling Depression Lake dry in 2009
Lake Elizabeth 2002 Riverina Formerly common to abundant
Long Lake 1971 Riverina Absent by 1989; lake dry in late 1990s
Lake Tuchewop 1971 Riverina Used as evaporation basin; steadily increasing salinity probably exceeded lethal levels
Golf Course Lake 1999 Riverina Lake dry in 2002
Cullens Lake 1971 Riverina Absent by 1989; lake dry in late 1990s
Lake Wandella 1964 Riverina
Lake Yando 1963 Riverina Lake dry in late 1990s
South Australia
Riverglade Wetland Murray Bridge 2006 Murray Darling Depression Wetland now dry
Rocky Gully Wetland Murray Bridge 2006 Murray Darling Depression Wetland now dry; fish may be persisting in nearby small channel
Murray River Wongulla Early 1980s Murray Darling Depression Original record a single fish
Murray River Mannum 1968 Murray Darling Depression
Marne River Early 1980s Murray Darling Depression Original record a single fish
Lake Littra 2000 Murray Darling Depression Original record a single fish; lake now dry

NSW
The Murray Hardyhead has suffered a reduction in distribution and an extremely large reduction in abundance in NSW such that no viable populations are currently known. The last recorded specimen of the Australian Museum was from the 1970s. In a major survey, only a single Murray Hardyhead was caught at Rockly Waterholes in Bundidgery Creek, near Narrandera in 1995. Since 2000, only one individual has been collected in extensive surveys in NSW. During this period, no Murray Hardyhead were located in the lower Murrumbidgee River catchment where the species had been previously found, and it is now considered locally extirpated (FSC 2008a).

Victoria
Lake Hawthorn dried completely at the end of 2008 and the population of Murray Hardyhead there is thought to have become extinct (MDFRC 2009). The remaining three populations are similarly endangered and have required topping up with environmental water (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; La Trobe University 2009).

South Australia
The Lower Lakes region holds the largest, and probably most genetically diverse of all Murray Hardyhead populations, in South Australia. Most, if not all, remaining populations in South Australia were predicted to become extinct by the end of 2008 (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi) however, the Lower Lakes, Coorong and Murray Mouth have received environmental water to maintain the critical refuge habitat for the Murrary Hardyhead (MDBA 2009).

The Murray Hardyhead is found in the Coorong, and Lakes Alexandrina and Albert Wetland Ramsar Site (SA DEH 2009).

The Murray Hardyhead is able to tolerate a wide range of salines (euryhaline) up to 85 g L-1 but is restricted to moderately saline waters (0.4–20 g L-1). These figures imply a physiological reason for the predominance of the species in inland saline waters but the reasons for its absence from freshwater habitats remain unclear (Wedderburn 2008; Wedderburn et al. 2008b). The species is found around the margins of lakes, wetlands, backwaters and billabongs. The Murray Hardyhead prefers open water, shallow, slow flowing or still habitats, with sand or silt substrates (Lintermans 2007). It can also be found in deeper habitats with dense aquatic vegetation such as Milfoil (Myriophyllum spp.) and Foxtail (Ceratophyllum spp.) (SA DEH 2008b). Eel Grass (Ruppia spp.) in particular appears to be a key aquatic plant species in saline lakes where the Murray Hardyhead occurs, providing shelter, a food source and a substrate for spawning (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; La Trobe University 2009).


The Murray Hardyhead is associated with the Aquatic Ecological Community in the Natural Drainage System of the Lowland Catchment of the Lachlan River, which is listed as endangered in NSW (Fisheries Management Act 1994 (NSW)).

The Murray Hardyhead is thought to be an annual species; most of the fish reach maturity, spawn and die within a year (SA DEH 2008b) though some individuals survive into their second year (Lintermans 2007). A study of the species in the Cardross Lakes system and Lake Hawthorn found that these populations were dominated by 0+ individuals, with no fish aged beyond 18 months (Ellis 2005a).

The species spawns over an extended breeding season (September–April) but breeding usually occurs in late spring–early summer. It is a batch spawner, with ovarian eggs at various stages of development. Murray Hardyhead lay eggs with adhesive filaments amongst aquatic vegetation (Ivantsoff & Crowley 1996). Eel Grass appears to be particularly suitable for the deposition of eggs, with adults in spawning condition captured in strands of the plant, and eggs (presumed to be Murray Hardyhead) removed from strands collected in Lake Hawthorn (Ellis 2005a). Adult fish may display orange fins, briefly, when very ripe or spawning (Ebner & Raadik 2001). The stimulus for spawning is unknown but may, like most fish, correspond with increasing water temperature and photoperiod (Ellis 2005a).

The Murray Hardyhead is omnivorous, eating primarily microcrustaceans but also some aquatic insects and algae (Lintermans 2007).

Little is known about this species' movements, however it is inconspicuous and shy, remaining near the bottom of the water column. The Murray Hardyhead is known to congregate in large numbers where streams flow into still waters (Barnham 1998). There is some evidence of small-scale movement of the species which has been observed to colonise freshly inundated habitat on Hindmarsh Island, South Australia (Hammer et al. 2007).

The major current threat facing remaining populations of the Murray Hardyhead is a lack of water (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi). Other significant, potential threats to the species include increasing salinity, river regulation, high nutrient levels, acid sulphate soils, environmental contamination, sedimentation, barriers to migration/movement, impact of introduced fish and stocking of native fish for recreational angling (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

Current threat

Lack of water
After many years of extensive, dry conditions occurring throughout the Murray-Darling Basin, almost all Murray Hardyhead sites are drying up. While some sites may still hold water, salinity levels are likely to increase to lethal levels (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi). In addition, littoral habitat areas, with aquatic vegetation important for the Murray Hardyhead, become exposed when water levels drop too low and, although water conditions may continue to be suitable for the species, there is no breeding or feeding habitat, and lack of cover renders the fish more exposed to predatory fish and birds (M. Hammer 2002, pers. comm.). The impact of reduced water levels may also be felt through a combination of high salinity, high water temperatures, low dissolved oxygen and fluctuating pH levels having synergistic or compounding effects (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

Potential threats

Increasing salinity
Increasing salinity results when runoff into the lakes decreases, evaporation increases and/or deliberate diversion of saline waters into the lakes occurs (Blakehouse et al. 2008zzi). The Murray Hardyhead can tolerate a wide range of saline conditions but all remaining populations of the species occur in slightly saline to moderately saline waters (0.4–20 g L-1) (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; Wedderburn 2008; Wedderburn et al. 2008b). Adults have been recorded in waters with a salinity of up to 85 g L-1, but whether they can survive and reproduce in such high salinities is not known. While adults may be relatively salt-tolerant, the early life stages, particularly eggs and fry, may be more sensitive to high salinity levels (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi; T.A. Raadik 2002, pers. comm.).

River regulation
River regulation, through reduced and altered flooding and run-off, reduces connectivity between floodplain habitat and the main river channel. Reduced flooding can lead to a number of potential problems for the Murray Hardyhead, including floodplain lakes drying out and causing local extinction of populations, fragmentation and isolation of populations, decreasing chances of dispersal and recolonisation, and increasing salinity (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

High nutrient levels
Lakes enriched with nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) from urban and agricultural run-off or biological sources such as large numbers of water birds, can often be subject to excessive growths of phytoplankton (algal blooms). These algal blooms can affect the ecology of a lake system through excessive diurnal fluctuation in pH and dissolved oxygen, which can stress or eliminate sensitive species. Other problems include oxygen depletion resulting in the death of fish and other aquatic fauna, and reduced light penetration that can lead to macrophyte decline (ANZECC 2000).

Acid sulphate soils
When oxidised, elevated levels of sulfidic materials can cause a number of water quality problems such as acid formation and low dissolved oxygen levles. This has the potential to cause serious harm to aquatic organisms. Although it is not known which Murray Hardyhead habitats contain sulfidic materials, preliminary indications are that at least some populations occurring in saline lakes may be at risk from this phenomenon. This is considered to be a possible cause of the apparent local extinction of Murray Hardyhead populations, in recent years, in several saline lakes in Victoria (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

Environmental contamination
Environmental contaminants such as petrochemicals and pesticides can accumulate in terminal lakes through storm water run-off, spray drift and transport through the irrigation system. The lakes supporting Murray Hardyheads are at risk from contamination. Some contaminants, such as organochlorins, are known to be very persistent in the environment, toxic in high concentrations and, because of their fat solubility, can accumulate readily in the fat tissue of organisms (ANZECC 2000). High rates of spinal deformities have been observed in Murray Hardyheads in Lake Hawthorn and Cardross Lakes (Victoria) (Ebner & Raadik 2001). The cause is not known, but may be due to an environmental contaminant (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

Barriers to migration/movement
The Murray Hardyhead is not known to be a migratory species, and is able to complete its life cycle in isolated lakes. However, barriers to movement may affect recolonisation after local extinction of populations. River regulation, construction of levee banks, barriers and weirs have almost certainly reduced the ability of the Murray Hardyhead to disperse along river systems and across floodplains. The largest, most diverse remaining population in the Lower Lakes region (South Australia) is effectively isolated from the rest of the Murray River (except in high flows) by Lock 1 (B. Zampatti n.d., pers. comm. cited in Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

Impact of introduced fish
Several introduced fish species, including Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Goldfish (Carrasius auratus), Redfin (Perca fluviatilis) and Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki), occur with Murray Hardyheads. The precise impact of introduced species on Murray Hardyheads is not known, but its small size, pelagic habit and requirement for aquatic vegetation in which to spawn, renders it susceptible to predation and habitat degradation, often through the very high densities some introduced species, such as Common Carp, can reach (MDBC 2003).

Stocking native fish for recreational fishing
Due to its small size, and hence susceptibility to predation, the Murray Hardyhead is potentially at risk from stocking of larger native species such as Murray Cod (Macullochella peeli peeli) and Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua) for recreational angling (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi).

The National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocuphalus fluviatilis, (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi) provides the following recovery objectives and actions:

  • Investigate and manage threats to populations and habitats.
  • Determine population persistence and trends.
  • Determine habitat preference.
  • Investigate important life history attributes.
  • Establish and maintain the Murray Hardyhead in captivity.
  • Establish new populations of Murray Hardyhead in the wild.
  • Increase commuity awareness of Murray Hardyhead conservation.

A captive breeding population of Murray Hardyhead was established, in 2009, at the Murray-Darling Freshwater Research Centre in Victoria. Several generations of the species have successfully bred, and the population appears to be disease free and in good genetic health (EPBC Referral 2008/4015; MDFRC 2009; La Trobe University 2009).

The NSW Department of Primary Industries has suggested the following priority recovery strategies for the Murray Hardyhead in NSW (NSW DPI 2005a):

  • Compile existing information on the distribution, biology and ecology of the Murray Hardyhead to identify priority areas for research and investigation.

  • Undertake detailed survey work to establish the known and potential distribution of the Murray Hardyhead in NSW and develop a GIS-based map of both known and potential habitats.

  • Establish and commence a long-term monitoring program for the Murray Hardyhead to assess their conservation status and the success of recovery actions.

  • Investigate and implement options for integrated management of introduced species and actions to prevent their spread into other areas.

  • Ensure compliance with the ban on collecting the Murray Hardyhead by communicating with aquarium enthusiasts using a number of communiaction mediums (e.g. aquarium industry journals, newsletters, conferences).

  • Establish a strategic conservation stocking program for the Murray Hardyhead, including a strategy to ensure maximum viability of stocking events.

  • Implement the Threat abatement plan - Removal of large woody debris from NSW rivers and streams (NSW DPI 2007).

In addition, under the Living Murray Initiative, the Murray-Darling Basin Authority has implemented environmental watering activities for the Lower Lakes, Coorong and Murray Mouth to maintain critical refuge habitat for the Murray Hardyhead (MBDA 2009).

Conservation actions taking place as part of the South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage's (SA DEH) drought action plan for threatened native fish include (SA DEH 2009a):

  • Negotiating with the Victorian Government and Murray-Darling Freswater Research Centre (MDRFC) to establish the first captive breeding program for the South Australian population of Murray Hardyhead.
  • Developing a working group for interstate agencies to collaborate on native fish conservation and management, with a special interest in the Murray Hardyhead.
  • Emergency actions to maintain critical habitat for Murray Hardyhead populations at Boggy Creek and Rocky Gully wetland near Murray Bridge by securing water from Healthy Rivers Australia and from the Australian Government.

At the end of 2008, SA DEH, was given responsibility for developing a long term plan for managing the Coorong, Lower Lakes and Murray Mouth region. The context of this work is the Australian Government's commitment of $200 million for "Lower Lakes and Coorong Recovery", one of the five Murray Futures projects. In early 2010, SA DEH was close to finalising the long-term plan for the region (SA DEH 2010).

The National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse et al. 2008zzi) and the Background and Implementation Information for the Murray Hardyhead Craterocephalus fluviatilis National Recovery Plan (Backhouse et al. 2008a) provide a biological overview and management recommendations. In addition the Threat abatement plan - Removal of large woody debris from NSW rivers and streams (NSW DPI 2007) is also available.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Drought National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Droughts:Natural and artifically induced reductions to surface water availability National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Sea level rise:Inundation associated with climate change Inundation study (Environmental Resources Information Network, 2007) [Database].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Temperature Extremes:Elevated water temperatures National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Craterocephalus fluviatilis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fo) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat degradation caused by desilting of dams National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat deterioration due to soil degradation and erosion National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Reduced dissolved oxygen levels in waterways National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Carassius auratus (Goldfish) National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Craterocephalus fluviatilis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fo) [Internet].
Family Atherinidae: Silversides or Hardyheads. In: McDowell, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Page(s) 123-133. (Ivantsoff, W. & L.E.L.M. Crowley, 1996) [Book].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Macquaria ambigua (Golden Perch, Yellowbelly, Callop) National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp) National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Craterocephalus fluviatilis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fo) [Internet].
Family Atherinidae: Silversides or Hardyheads. In: McDowell, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Page(s) 123-133. (Ivantsoff, W. & L.E.L.M. Crowley, 1996) [Book].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Algal blooms National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Maccullochella peelii - murray cod Maccullochella peelii (Murray Cod) National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Habitat modification due to levee construction and associated hydrology changes National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Salinity National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Personal communication (Raadik, T.A., 2002) [Personal Communication].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Changes in hydrology leading to rising water tables and dryland salinity Craterocephalus fluviatilis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fo) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Other Ecosystem Modifications:Removal of wood snags from waterways Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Habitat clearance resulting in increased levels of sediment runoff National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pesticide application National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Pollution due to run off of agricultural chemicals National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Acid sulphate soils National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Habitat degradation and loss of water quality due to salinity, siltaton, nutrification and/or pollution National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Personal communication (Raadik, T.A., 2002) [Personal Communication].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Craterocephalus fluviatilis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006fo) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant, 2008zzi) [Recovery Plan].

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resouce Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ANZECC) (2000). An Introduction to the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality. [Online]. Available from: http://www.mincos.gov.au/publications/australian_and_new_zealand_guidelines_for_fresh_and_marine_water_quality.

Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant (2008a). Background and Implementation Information for the Murrray Hardyhead Craterocephalus fluviatilis National Recovery Plan. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment.

Backhouse, G., J. Lyon & B. Cant (2008zzi). National Recovery Plan for the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis. [Online]. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/murray-hardyhead/index.html.

Barnham, C. (1998). Freshwater Fish of Victoria - Hardyheads. Fisheries Notes. Page(s) 1-2. Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.

Bice, C., P. Wilson & Q. Ye (2008). Threatened fish populations in the Lower Lakes of the River Murray in spring 2007 and summer 2008. [Online]. Adeliade, South Australia: South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences) (SARDI). Available from: http://www.sardi.sa.gov.au/_media/pdf/sardi_internet/our_org/publications/research_report_series/2008/No301_Threatened_fish_populations_in_lower_lakes_Murray2007_08.pdf.

Chessman, B.C. & W.D. Williams (1974). Distribution of fish in inland saline waters of Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 25:176-172.

Crowley, L.E.L.M. & W. Ivantsoff (1990). A review of species previously identified as Craterocephalus eyresii (Pisces:Atherinidae). Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW. 112(2):87-103.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Ebner, B., & T. Raadik (2001). Threatened Species Profile: Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis. Australian Society for Fish Biology Newsletter. 31(2).

Ebner, B., T. Raadik & W. Ivantsoff (2003). Threatened Species of the World: Craterocephalus fluviatilis McCulloch, 1913 (Atherinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 68:390.

Ellis, I. (2005a). Ecology of the Murray hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis (McCulloch), Family Atherinidae. [Online]. Albury, NSW: Murray-Darling Freshwater Research Centre. Available from: http://mic.malleecma.vic.gov.au/documents/R290.pdf.

Ellis, I. (2006). Age structure and dietary analysis of the Murray Hardyhead, Craterocephalus fluviatilis, (McCulloch), Family Atherinidae, in two lakes near Mildura, Victoria. MDFRC LBL Report 7/2006. [Online]. Albury, NSW: Murray-Darling Freshwater Research Centre. Available from: http://mic.malleecma.vic.gov.au/documents/R291.pdf.

EPBC Referral 2008/4015 (2008). Capture of Juvenile Murray Hardyheads to Establish a Captive Management and Breeding Program. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/epbc/epbc_ap.pl?limit=999999&name=current_referrals&text_search=2008%2F4015.

Fisheries Scientific Committee (FSC) (2008a). Final Determination Craterocephalus fluviatilis - Murray Hardyhead. Ref. No. FD38. [Online]. Nelson Bay NSW: Fisheries Scientific Committee, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre. Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/251341/FD38-Murray-hardyhead.pdf.

Fleming, G. (1990). The aquatic invertebrate and fish faunas of the Kerang Lakes area. Report No. 3, to Kerang Lakes Working Group. Bendigo, Victoria: Department of Conservation and Environment.

Hammer, M. (2002). Personal communication.

Hammer, M., S. Wedderburn & J. Van Weenen (2007). Action Plan for South Australian Freshwater Fishes: 2007-2012. Draft. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Native Fish Australia (SA) Inc. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/draft_fresh_fishsa.pdf.

Hardie, S.A. (2000). Examination of fish and invertebrate fauna in seven lakes in the Swan Hill-Kerang region, Northern Victoria. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Ivantsoff, W. & L.E.L.M. Crowley (1996). Family Atherinidae: Silversides or Hardyheads. In: McDowell, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Page(s) 123-133. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

Ivantsoff, W., L.E.L.M. Crowley & G.R. Allen (1987). Description of three new species and one subspecies of freshwater hardyhead (Pisces: Atherinidae: Craterocephalus) from Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum. 13(2):171-188.

La Trobe University (2009). Hardy little fish is struggling. La Trobe Bulletin. Winter:19. [Online]. Available from: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/bulletin/2009/winter/news9.html.

Lintermans, M. (2007). Fishes of the Murray-Darling Basin: an introductory guide. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Murray Darling Basin Authority. Available from: http://www.mdba.gov.au/files/publications/MDBA-Fish-species-book.pdf.

Lloyd, L.N. & K.F. Walker (1986). Distribution and conservation status of small freshwater fish in the River Murray, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 110(2):49-57.

Lyon, J., T. Ryan, P. Papas, D. Tonkinson, T. O'Brien & R. Lennie (2002). Aquatic Fauna of the Woorinen Lakes: Survey and Recommendations for Management. Report for Goulburn-Murray Water. Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

McGuckin, J. (1999). The Fish fauna of Round, Golf Course, North Woorinen and South Woorinen Lakes. Report to Department of Natural Resources and Environment. Melbourne, Victoria: Streamline Research.

Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) (2009). The Living Murray Annual Environmental Watering Plan 2009-10. [Online]. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Murray-Darling Basin Authority. Available from: http://www.mdba.gov.au/files/publications/MDBA_TLMWateringReport.pdf.

Murray-Darling Basin Commission (MDBC) (2003). Native Fish Strategy for Murray-Darling Basic 2003-2013. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Murray-Darling Basin Commission. Available from: http://www2.mdbc.gov.au/__data/page/65/Fish-Strat_ful.pdf.

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NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) (2005a). Profiles for species, populations & ecological communities: Murray Hardyhead. [Online]. Available from: http://pas.dpi.nsw.gov.au/Species/Species_Profile.aspx?SpeciesListingID=2.

NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) (2007). Threat abatement plan - Removal of large woody debris from NSW rivers and streams. [Online]. Orange, NSW: Threatened Species Unit, NSW Department of Primary Industries. Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/179357/Threat-abatement-plan---Removal-of-large-woody-debris-from-NSW-rivers-and-streams---May-2007.pdf.

Raadik T.A. & J.P. O'Connor (1996). Third aquatic fauna survey (fish and decapod crustacea) of Cardoss Lakes near Mildura, Victoria. Report for Cardross Lakes Task Group. Heidelberg, Victoria: Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

Raadik, T.A. (2002). Personal communication.

Raadik, T.A. & P.S. Fairbrother (1999). Cardross Lakes Aquatic Fauna Monitoring - November 1998 (Southern Purple-spotted Gudgeon, Freshwater Catfish, Murray Hardyhead). Consultancy report to Cardross Lakes Task Group. Victoria: Freshwater Ecology, Parks Flora and Fauna, Department of Natural Resources and Environment.

South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2008b). Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges South Australia, Threatened Species Profile: Craterocephalus fluviatilis, Murray Hardyhead. [Online]. Biodiversity Conservation Unit, South Australia Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/pdfs/regional_recovery/fauna/fw-fish/murray-hardyhead.pdf.

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Wedderburn, S.D. (2008). Population fragmentation in the Murray Hardyhead Craterocephalus fluviatilis McCulloch, 1912 (Teleostei: Atherinidae): Ecology, Genetics and Osmoregulation. [Online]. Ph.D. Thesis. Adelaide, South Australia: School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide. Available from: http://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/54232.

Wedderburn, S.D., K.J. Walker & P. Zampatti (2008b). Salinity may cause fragmentation of hardyhead (Teleostei: Atherinidae) populations in the River Murray, Australia. Marine & Freshwater Research. 59:254-258.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Craterocephalus fluviatilis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 21:41:02 +1000.