Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011i) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
SA:Action plan for South Australian freshwater fishes (Hammer M., S. Wedderburn & J. Van Weenen, 2009) [State Action Plan].
TAS:Galaxiella pusilla (Eastern Dwarf Galaxias, Dwarf Galaxias): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014vf) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (Action Plan for South Australian Freshwater Fishes 2009 list)
Scientific name Galaxiella pusilla [56790]
Family Galaxiidae:Salmoniformes:Actinopterygii:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Mack, 1936)
Infraspecies author  
Reference Unmack P.J. et al.(2012). Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on Dwarf Galaxiella (G. pusilla) Plos One, DOI 10.1371
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.ifs.tas.gov.au/ifs/IFSDatabaseManager/SpeciesDatabase/dwarf-galaxias

The Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria (DSE 2013) lists this species as endangered under Galaxiella pusilla (eastern population) (Dwarf Galaxias (Barwon to Mitchell River)) and vulnerable under Galaxiella sp. (Corangamite Basin westward).

Described as Galaxias pusillus by Mack in 1936 from specimens collected at Cardinia Creek, Victoria. Some other authors have included it in the genus Galaxias or Brachygalaxias (McDowall 1980a).

A genetic study has identified two distinct genetic groups of Eastern Dwarf Galaxias, from the eastern (Victoria east of the Otway Ranges and Tasmania) and western (South Australia and Victoria west of, and including, the Otway Ranges) regions of the species' range (Coleman et al. 2010). Based on substantial genetic differences the study indicates that Eastern Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla (Mack 1936)) as it is currently recognised, may comprise two separate species (Coleman et al. 2010). Explanation of the separation of east and west populations include paleodrainage connectivity and subsequent disconnection, significant geomorphic events or prolonged wet periods that alter drainage basins (Coleman et al. 2010). Within the two groups, the Gosling Creek populations (Barwon basin) appears to have been isolated from the other western populations to the greatest extent (Colemant et al. 2013).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is a tiny, slender, freshwater fish that averages 30-40 mm in length. Like other Galaxiidae, it has all soft-rayed fins, a body lacking scales, and a single dorsal fin positioned well back on the body. The body depth is greatest mid-abdomen, tapering to both head and tail, while the lateral line follows the dorsal profile. The head is short and blunt with large eyes, while the mouth is small, terminal and oblique, with jaws roughly equal in length. The dorsal and anal fins are opposite, shortbased and rounded. The caudal fin is long and rounded, with fleshy flanges extending forward almost to the bases of the dorsal and anal fins. A fleshy abdominal keel (more pronounced in males) extends from the pelvic fin base posteriorly to the vent. Body colour is olive–amber on the dorsal surface and sides, with a silvery-white belly, while the fins are transparent (Saddlier et al 2010).

The species is sexually dimorphic (physical differences between the sexes), with males being smaller and more slender than females, and having three longitudinal black stripes along each side of the trunk, and a distinct orange stripe between the mid and lowest black stripe. The black stripes are less distinct or absent in females (Saddlier et al 2010). 

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is a mid-water, free-swimming species, and the entire life cycle is completed in freshwater. Only one year class has been observed, suggesting that the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is an annual species (Saddlier et al 2010).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias has been recorded from southern Victoria, Flinders Island (Bass Strait), north-east Tasmania (Andrews 1976), north-west Tasmania (Chilcott & Humphries 1996), and south-east South Australia (SA) (McDowall 1980a). On the mainland, it occurs from the Mitchell River Basin in central Gippsland, Victoria, to the Cortina Lakes, near the Coorong in South Australia. The species also occurs in Tasmania, where it is restricted to lowland areas in the far north-west and far north-east of the State, as well as on Flinders Island (Saddlier et al 2010). Distribution of populations is generally disjunct and patchy, due to the nature of its lowland, shallow, swampy habitat (Saddlier et al 2010).

The species has been recorded from the following Australian Water Resources Council (AWRC) river basins (Saddlier et al 2010):

State Catchment Comment
South Australia Millicent Coast Found in most drains in south-east SA, including sheltered estuarine situations (Wager & Jackson 1993)
Victoria Glenelg Muddy Creek, south of Hamilton (Ecology Partners 2008)
Portland Coast  
Hopkins Species much more common in catchment than indicated by Saddlier and colleagues (2010) (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). Collected in Mount Emu Creek, Garvoc (Ecology Partners 2009), the mid-upper and mid-lower reaches of Fiery Creek (Garvey et al. 2010).
Barwon  
Yarra Single historic record (Saddlier et al. 2010).
Bunyip Sites additional to Saddlier and colleagues (2010) include further sites in Dandenong Creek and Lang Lang River (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). Collected from Corhanwarrabul Creek (1986), near Tirhatuan Park Golf Course (1985), Tirhatuan Park swamps (1985), Police Road in Mulgrave (1985), Blind Creek in Wantirna South (1989) and Jells Park Wetland (Monash City Council 2003); sand pits at Cranbourne (McGukin 2008)
South Gippsland  
Latrobe Sites additional to Saddlier and colleagues (2010) include Watson Creek (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.)
Thomson  
Mitchell  
Tasmania Flinders Island  
Piper-Ringarooma Rivers  
Smithton-Burnie Coast  

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias was probably once more widespread and abundant, and populations have probably been substantially fragmented and depleted historically by wetland drainage and modifications (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). Localised extinction or at least severe declines have been noted from a number of systems (Saddlier et al. 2010).

Across most of the range of the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias, there are large numbers of and expansive stretches of waterways that are either unsurveyed or have been surveyed using methods that are not particularly well suited to capture of this species (e.g. electrofishing) (Bloink 2013. pers. comm.). There are many instances of the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias being recorded in catchments where it was previously recorded as absent or extinct. It is plausible that Eastern Dwarf Galaxias could yet be discovered from basins such as the Moorabool, Corangamite, Tambo, Snowy and East Gippsland. Additionally, the species could yet be recorded from other large islands such as French Island, Cape Barren Island and King Island (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias has been poorly surveyed, although the amount of survey varies considerably between and within basins. The overall poor survey effort is attributed to (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.)

  • the species' very small body size, which limits the use of electrofishing, a commonly used general fish survey technique.
  • the habitat of the species (swamps, drains and the backwaters of streams and creeks), which are less commonly surveyed than main channel habitats and are difficult to sample (due to abundant aquatic vegetation, higher electrical conductivities, soft sediments).
  • a lack of funding, which has been identified as a fundamental recovery objective in the species recovery plan (Saddlier et al 2010).

In Victoria, a significant proportion of the Bunyip River basin has been reasonably well surveyed, due to extensive survey in catchments including Dandenong Creek, Eumemmerring Creek, Cardinia Creek, Balcombe Creek, Yallock Creek and Boggy Creek. Surveys of notable extent include those undertaken for Melbourne Water (McGuckin 2002, 2004, 2006, 2010), and for various development and infrastructure projects including Peninsula Link (Venosta et al 2008, Bloink et al 2010), the Victorian Desalination Project pipeline (Steer et al 2008), the Pakenham Bypass (McGuckin 2001) and more recently for the Department of Sustainability and Environment, for the strategic assessment of the Melbourne South Eastern Growth Corridor (Bloink 2012). Additionally, given the proximity to Melbourne and inclusion of Melbourne's urban fringe, a large number of small surveys are undertaken within this basin as part of the development assessment and approvals process (e.g. flora and fauna assessments for residential and industrial subdivisions) (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

Outside of the Bunyip basin, the South Gippsland and Latrobe basins (Stoesell et al 2008) and the Millicent Coast basin (SA) (Hammer 2002a, Hammer 2009) appear to have been better surveyed than most. There are several other basins for which targeted survey for Eastern Dwarf Galaxias have been undertaken over a large geographic area such as the Hopkins, Barwon and Mitchell River basins (Stoesell 2008), however as with many of the surveys within the Bunyip basin, these tend to focus on parts of the basin from which previous (including historic) records exist. Additionally, a number of small targeted surveys are undertaken as part of the development assessment and approvals process in Victoria. These are undertaken for projects such as windfarms, gas and water pipelines, bridge replacements / upgrades and quarries, however such surveys tend to be even more localised in extent. No information on the extent of survey in Tasmania appears to be readily available (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.), although the Tasmanian Inland Fisheries Service conducted surveys in north-east Flinders Island in 1992, and in north-west Flinders Island and King Island in 2000 and 2001 respectively. The species was not found on King Island (Jackson 2004).

It is difficult to determine the number of Eastern Dwark Galaxias subpopulations. Saddlier and colleagues (2010) identified 110 locations. Coleman and colleagues (2013) visited most known populations between May 2009 and May 2010 and collected samples from 50 extant sites. They used samples from 20 geographically distinct populations to characterise genetic variation across the species' range (Coleman et al. 2013).

A population in the thousands occurs near Cranbourne (McGuckin 2008) and at other sites the species occurs in the tens of thousands (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is a short lived species that occurs in ephemeral waterways and wetlands. Populations are known to experience annual cycles, and are absent from some areas at certain times (Wager & Jackson 1993). As such, the distribution and abundance of populations fluctuate annually reflecting variability in habitat desiccation and connectivity, spawning and recruitment success, dispersal and colonisation/recolonisation (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). Within a drainage the species is often patchily distributed due to availability of suitable/optimal habitat (Saddlier et al. 2010) and/or anthropogenic barriers (e.g. weirs or swamp drainage) (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). The patchy, variable distribution makes the species extremely vulnerable to local extincions (Saddlier et al. 2010).

At Tuerong Creek under favourable conditions (strong recruitment and habitat connectivity), local populations can increase dramatically via recruitment from a single season (e.g. a ten fold increase in CPUE) (Bloink 2012). At the same site, declines of similar magnitudes have been recorded following poor conditions (Bloink 2012). In the vicinity of Pensula Link freeway, the species was present in one waterway in 2007-8 (Venosta et al. 2008), two in 2009 (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.), two in early 2010 (Blioink et al. 2010) and seven in August 2010 (Blioink 2010).

Captive populations are maintained at:

  • La Trobe University Wildlife Reserve ponds, sourced from Tirhatuan Swamp (Saddlier et al. 2010)
  • Melbourne Water Retarding Basin wetland at Narre Warren, sourced from Golf Links Road and Centre Road table drains (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.)
  • The Briars 'Crake Pond' at Mount Martha, sourced from a tributary of Balcombe Creek next to Peninsula Link freeway (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.)
  • Watson Creek wetland at Baxter, sourced from Watson Creek downstream of Mornington Tourist Rail (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

Proposed re-introductions sites include:

  • Online (Balcombe Creek tributary) and offline created wetland habitats within Peninsula Link freeway alignment next to original source location, sourced from The Briars 'Crake Pond'

Sixteen of the 110 Eastern Dwarf Galaxias locations identified by Saddlier and colleagues (2010) are in conservation reserves. The species is included in the Tasmanian Forest Practices Board threatened fauna management system, whereby all relevant catchments have management prescriptions to minimise forest operation impacts (Jackson 2004). A population was established in Briars Park in Victoria and is scheduled to be monitored and actively managed until the 2020s (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

As outlined in the recovery plan (Saddlier et al. 2010), the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias has broad habitat requirements and occurs in slow flowing and still, shallow, permanent and temporary freshwater habitats such as swamps, drains and the backwaters of streams and creeks, often (but not always) containing dense aquatic macrophytes and emergent plants (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983; McDowall 1996; Hammer 2002a). In larger pools, the species is usually found amongst marginal vegetation. Some wetlands where it occurs may partially or completely dry up during summer (Humphries 1986) and such wetlands rely on seasonal flooding plus linkages to other sites where the species occurs, for recolonisation (Backhouse & Vanner 1978). Wetlands connected to a more permanent waterbody (such as river or creek) may also be vital to their long-term survival (particularly during extended dry conditions) and must therefore be considered as part of the habitat requirement critical to survival (Saddlier et al. 2010).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias are known to occupy a wide range of habitats, however the species' specific (or 'preferred') habitat requirements are not well known. The national recovery plan (Saddlier et al 2010) lists the determination of the species habitat use at different life history stages and across total range as a key objective of the plan. The determination would include the development of a predictive habitat model and the development of management strategies to maintain, enhance or restore essential habitat requirements (Saddlier et al 2010). In the interim, Bloink (2012) proposed that habitat can be broadly categorised as follows:

  • Transient habitat only - typically parts of floodplains or ephemeral habitats that retain water for less than a month following inundation, or habitats dominated by faster flowing hydraulic habitats (e.g. riffle/run) that do not offer the slow or no flow hydraulic habitats preferred by the species. Transient habitats are important for dispersal and foraging.
  • Spawning habitat only – typically ephemeral habitats with abundant aquatic or fringing terrestrial vegetation (e.g. grasses) that pool for sustained periods (e.g. 1-3 months) following inundation but ultimately dry out and/or contract back into short or long term refuge habitats nearby.
  • Short term refuge habitat – habitats that only retain water for short periods (i.e. 3+ months or throughout wet years), or, habitats that retain water for longer but do not have the required attributes likely to be required to support a permanent, self-sustaining population of Eastern Dwarf Galaxias.  Such habitats are typically colonised or re-colonised following a flooding event.  In the case of short term refuge habitats that ultimately dry out, these can at least initially be extremely productive for spawning and recruitment, however such populations are often lost to habitat desiccation unless a flow/flooding event allows individuals to disperse beforehand.
  • Long term refuge habitat – habitats that retain water and for long periods (i.e. years) or permanently and always support a self sustaining population of Eastern Dwarf Galaxias. Typically these are perennial waterways, or the deepest pools within an ephemeral waterway, or a dam or wetland on a floodplain. Eastern Dwarf Galaxias populations in these habitats are typically referred to as source populations, since it is these populations that persist during dry conditions and from which Eastern Dwarf Galaxias will again disperse during suitable flow conditions (e.g. flood).  The size and viability of Eastern Dwarf Galaxias populations in these refuge habitats varies markedly and is likely to be heavily influenced by a range of factors including habitat size, hydrological regime (e.g. water level variability and timing), connectivity with ephemeral habitats, the degree of cover provided by aquatic and fringing terrestrial vegetation, and fish community structure (e.g. the absence or abundance of pest fish species such as Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki)).

Known Tasmanian sites appear to be associated with sand, gravel and alluvium deposits (Chilcott & Humphreys 1996). In South Australia, this species occurs in shallow waters heavily vegetated with Milfoil (Myriophyllum propinquum).

The species is known to seek refuge in yabbie burrows (Monash City Council 2003) or crayfish burrows (Beck 1985). Where this species occurs in habitats which seasonally dry up, this species can also aestivate (become dormant) for several months in the mud in existing burrows or under logs and stones (Wager & Jackson 1993; McDowall 1996; Inland Fisheries Service 2000).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is the only galaxiid known to exhibit sexual dimorphism (variation between the sexes). Males are smaller and more brightly coloured than females. Males and females are mature by 3 cm and 3.3 cm total length respectively (Backhouse & Vanner 1978).

The species breeds within the first year and adults die after spawning (Humphries 1986). Humphries (1986) reported only a single age-class in a Victoria population and also noted that the maximum size was attained within a year of hatching. Monthly monitoring of the Tuerong Creek population between 2010 and 2012 supports an annual life cycle, with fast growth rates observed and larger fish predominantly disappearing by October/November after spawning (Bloink et al 2012). At some sites such as Tuerong Creek and the Briars Crake Pond, a broad size distribution is evident, which may indicate variable growth rates or an extended spawning season (Bloink et al 2012).

Eastern Dwarf Galaxias are known to spawn in late winter to spring (Andrews 1976; Humphries 1986), however newly hatched juveniles have been detected as early as April and as late as December (Bloink et al 2012).

As outlined in the Recovery Plan (Saddlier et al. 2010), females lay between 65–250 adhesive eggs, one at a time, over a period of 7–14 days. The eggs are attached usually on the underside of aquatic vegetation (e.g. leaves and stems) (Backhouse & Vanner 1978; Humphries 1986) or on a hard surface such as a rock or timber. Pair bonds are of a brief duration (Backhouse & Vanner 1978). The diameter of unfertilised mature eggs are 0.7–0.8 mm while the diameter of fertilised eggs are 1.1–1.3 mm (n = 12) (Backhouse & Vanner 1978). The female may be attended by up to three males, which pass over the eggs to fertilise them, before moving off in search of other spawning females. Larvae hatch after 2–3 weeks and are about 4.5 mm in length (Backhouse & Vanner 1978; Saddlier et al. 2010). Juveniles congregate in groups of up to 20 individuals, but no coordinated schooling behaviour is apparent (Backhouse & Vanner 1978). Newly hatched juveniles (5–10 mm total length) congregate on the surface along the edges of waterways in areas where they are likely to be susceptible to aggression or predation by Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki) (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). Other details on spawning is provided by Andrews (1976), Humphries (1986), Massola (1938) and McDowall and Frankenberg (1981).

This species may aestivate (become dormant) when pools dry up (Beck 1985; McDowall 1980a; McDowall & Frankenberg 1981). In one study, the first fish to be seen after aestivation were adult females, and adult males appeared about 10 days later with pregnant females soon observed. Numerous newly hatched juveniles appeared 4–6 weeks later (Beck 1985).

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is a generalist carnivore and feeds mostly in the water column on a variety of aquatic invertebrates including insect larvae (Chironomid (non-biting midges)), small crustaceans (copepods (small crustaceans), cladocerans (water fleas) and ostracods (seed shrimp)) and terrestrial insects that fall into the water (Humphries 1986, McDowall 1996). In a study of a South Australian population, Beck (1985) recorded the diet to include duckweed (Lemna spp.) and arthropods. In aquaria this species fed on plant material such as filamentous algae, and accepted insect larvae and other freshwater invertebrates (Backhouse & Vanner 1978).

Based on mouth morphology and observation, the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias appears to be a more timid feeder and restricted to smaller prey items than the similarily sized Eastern Gambusia (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

This species is small, sedentary and probably has poor dispersal capabilities (Saddlier et al. 2010). It is unlikely to have achieved its present distribution by migration (Andrews 1976). It does not have any substantial daily or seasonal movement patterns (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). 

Beck (1985) stated that the species is able to travel considerable distances overland between pools and swamps provided that there is a connecting film of moving water no less than 2 mm deep, as is the case in parts of south-east South Australia in very wet years. Anedotal evidence supports this with the species observed in tiny, highly ephemeral floodplain depressions and wheelruts over 50 m from the nearest watercourse (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

The Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish (DSEWPaC 2011i) includes survey design principles when planning a fish survey and includes recommendations for survey methods for the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias and habitat that it occurs in (DSEWPaC 2011i). The following information is additional to the guidelines.

Distinctiveness

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is distinctive, particularly when in breeding colouration. Females and juveniles are less distinctive than males, however, they cannot be easily confused with any other species. Within their natural distribution, size alone is enough to differentiate between Eastern Dwarf Galaxias and other Galaxiid species. Even newly hatched Eastern Dwarf Galaxias measuring 5–10 mm in length are distinctive from juveniles of other fishes (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

Sampling

The species is typically only detectable by capture, as it generally seeks cover in aquatic vegetation or in silt substrates when disturbed (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.). A basic outline of the survey methods and effort required to detect this species was described by the Victorian Government (Vic. DSE 2010l) within the Biodiversity Precinct Structure Planning Kit.

Various standard fish survey methods can be used to capture the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias, but a comparison of the relative efficacy of these methods for this species has not been undertaken. Based on the experience of those who have undertaken considerable work on the species, it is generally accepted that the most effective methods for detecting the species are dip nets and bait traps. Dip netting through aquatic vegetation provides a quick method for detection, but appears less reliable than overnight setting of bait traps when the species is present in lower abundance. It is unknown whether setting bait traps with or without an attractant such as a glow stick makes any appreciable difference to the capture rates (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.; Vic. DSE 2010l).

Other methods can be used, particularly for instances with low coverage of aquatic vegetation. These methods include fine mesh fyke nets (with eel exclusion grills), seine netting and electrofishing (backpack or bank). Newly hatched Eastern Dwarf Galaxias (5-10 mm TL) are readily observed on the water surface along bank edges and through backwater habitat; they can be sampled and counted by filling a white bucket with surface water from these habitats (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.; Vic. DSE 2010l).

Surveys for Eastern Dwarf Galaxias can be undertaken at any time of year, however care should be taken during the main part of the breeding season (May to October) to minimise disturbance to and mortality of eggs laid on aquatic vegetation and newly hatched juveniles. Extremes in conditions should be avoided where possible (Vic. DSE 2010l). As the species occupies ephemeral habitats, the survey of these areas should ideally be undertaken at least twice to obtain a better understanding of habitat extent and usage; once under dry conditions (finding and sampling the nearest refuge pool), and again during conditions where the more ephemeral habitats are inundated (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.; Vic. DSE 2010l).

Threats the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias include (Hardie et al. 2006; Jackson 2004; Saddlier et al. 2010; Unmack & Paras 1995):

  • historical and continued (particularly on the urban fringe) degradation and loss of habitat throughout its range, caused by wetland drainage, wetland inundation, fouling by livestock, ploughing, concreting of waterways, chemical pollution and Carp (Cyprinus carpio) associated degradation
  • historical and continued (particularly on the urban fringe) alteration to flow regime and reduced connectivity throughout its range, caused by dam and levee construction, surface and groundwater abstraction, drawdown associated with forestry/revegetation
  • drying caused by climate change, reducing suitable habitat and connectivity throughout its range
  • increased competition and predation by legally and illegally introduced aquatic species such as the Eastern Gambusia, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta), Rainbow Trout (Onycorhynchus mykiss) and Redfin (Perca fluviatilis)
  • illegal collection leading to localised depletions, possibly intensifying with increased community awareness.

Agriculture has greatly reduced the number of viable habitats for this species in South Australia (Beck 1985). Of seven swamps observed in Hundred of Mingboo in South Australia over a 30 year period, only three still contained the fish in 1985 (Beck 1985). The reduction was attributed to chemical pollution and damage caused by cattle (Beck 1985). 

The Eastern Dwarf Galaxias is short lived and opportunistic. It can disappear from a large area relatively quickly and reduced connectivity and habitat suitability can restrict or prevent recolonisation of many areas. It is likely it was once ubiquitous in suitable habitats throughout its range. Small size and preference for still or slow flowing habitats suggests a considerable overlap in ecological niche with the introduced Eastern Gambusia. In terms of feeding behaviour and mouth morphology, Eastern Gambusia is likely to hold a considerable competitive advantage over Eastern Dwarf Galaxias, particularly in the upper part of the water column (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).

Genetic stocks

Additional biological and ecological comparisons are required to further clarify the taxonomic status, however Coleman and colleagues (2010) emphasise the importance of considering separate conservation strategies for the two sets of populations (east and west), particularly for the fragmented populations in the eastern region where genetic diversity is lower. Coleman and colleagues (2013) produced a management framework to guide future translocation and reintroduction efforts for the species.

Actions undertaken

The national recovery plan for the Eastern Dwaf Galaxias (Saddlier et al. 2010) outlines recovery priorities and actions for the species. Some actions that have progressed since the adoption of the plan include development of basic survey techniques (Vic. DSE 2010), targeted surveys in the south-east growth areas of Melbourne (Bloink 2012), genetic studies (Coleman et al. 2010), long term monitoring at Tuerong Creek and establishment of new populations (Bloink 2013 pers. comm.).


Government funded projects

The Australian New Guinea Fishes Association (ANGFA) received $18 000 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2005-06 for short-term protection of a threatened population in the Eummemmerring and Dandenong Creek catchment until a long-term management plan is enacted.

The national recovery plan (Saddlier et al 2010) outlines land and water management practices that should reduce threats to the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias:

  • No direct loss of habitat through wetland drainage on either public or private land.
  • No physical alteration to Eastern Dwarf Galaxias habitat as a consequence of incidental works on land adjoining habitat.
  • Applications for water abstraction or dam construction do not compromise flow regimes for Eastern Dwarf Galaxias.
  • Habitat and adjoining riparian habitat are fenced off to stock access.
  • Off-stream watering points are provided for stock.
  • No further damage to riparian vegetation.
  • Damaged or depleted riparian vegetation is protected and (if necessary) supplemented by active revegetation works.
  • Plans to clear vegetation lying adjacent to Eastern Dwarf Galaxias habitat will not impact upon water quality (no increase in sedimentation/nutrient levels/pesticides/herbicides etc.).
  • Plans to revegetate with plantation timber/crops will not impact upon overall water yield (and subsequently flow regime of Eastern Dwarf Galaxias habitat).
  • Proposals to translocate aquatic species into Eastern Dwarf Galaxias habitat are subject to relevant risk management processes according to relevant national and State guidelines.

As outlined in Bloink (2012), Eastern Dwarf Galaxias populations and connectivity can be protected and maintained within urban areas, however to do so requires a reassessment of the current approach to the treatment of ephemeral waterways in areas of proposed urban development. The piping of these systems and/or conversion to online chain of pond stormwater wetlands, is clearly inappropriate and will lead to the loss of Eastern Dwarf Galaxias populations on the urban fringe.     

General mitigation

The general design principle used to maintain hydrology values for native fish species, especially in diverted areas, include a diversity of water velocities and depths with relatively deep, slow water areas. Aquatic vegetation, usually occurring along river margins, provides important habitat for native fish species, as does woody debris and other structures that provide complexity of in stream habitat structure. Substrate maintenance is also important. Riparian vegetation is an important component of in stream ecology and provides shading, harbours terrestrial insects and provides a source of organic debris (Hall 1998).

Morwell River diversion mitigation approach (EPBC Referral 2002/903)

During the Hazelwood Mine West Field Project (which affected Morwell River, Eel Hole Creek and Wilderness Creek), a number of mitigation measures were recommended. These measures may be suitable for other small fish sites, or sites with other species of small fish which occur in similar "meandering river channel" (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004) habitat. The design recommendations include:

  • The establishment of off stream wetlands (billabongs or flood-runners) to maximise waterway diversity.
  • Areas of water depth up to 1 m should be available to fish species during low flows, as should areas of slow flowing water (5 cm/sec).
  • Stands of emergent vegetation and submerged weedy areas should be available along the river margins.
  • Where required, grade control structure (rock riffles) and limit slope and drop of these structures.
  • Ensure control structures have rough surfaces (to reduce flow velocity) and the crest should concentrate flows during low flow and spread high flows over a large width.
  • Pools should be available above and below structures to allow resting prior and after migration.
  • Control structures should have a meandering channel across the face with appropriate rock placement and the concentration of low flows to maximise flow depth.
  • A minimum depth of 20 cm should be maintained during winter and spring to ensure that such structures do not act as near permanent barriers to fish passage.
  • Riparian vegetation should have a range of structural elements.
  • Any engineering works should have pre and post construction monitoring to evaluate effectiveness.

Mitigation constructions

Offstream billabongs in the form of flood runners which join meander bends about once or twice a year would provide some refuge for fish during high flows and a source of organic carbon 9in the form of dissolved organic material). This structures also provide habitat for non-fish fauna (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Channels should be constructed to provide to habitat for fish under a range of flow conditions, including low flows. Areas of water depth up to 1 m should be available to fish species during low flows, as should areas of slow flowing water. Stands of emergent vegetation and submerged weedy areas should be available along the river margins. Woody debris is also desirable along bank margins, and a high loading is recommended along pool banks compared to channels between ponds (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Smaller sized debris should be embedded in channel reaches (smaller debris reduces the level of channel instability caused by channel flows). Larger debris is suitable in pools as larger fish are likely to use deeper areas. Smaller fish are likely to use microhabitat patches in channel reaches between pools for shelter (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Migration structures should be deep enough (e.g. > 20 cm) to allow large fish to migrate without surface exposure (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004).

Cover/shelter

Material that can provide areas of cover and shelter includes emergent or submerged vegetation, woody debris, substrate surface depressions, undercut banks and small backwaters (Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd 2004). Riparian vegetation provides cover and also provides a source of future woody debris. This vegetation also provides habitat for terrestrial insects and aquatic macroinvertebrates. Riparian vegetation should consist of diverse structural elements.

Management documents relevant to the Eastern Dwarf Galaxias are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Fertiliser application Field observations upon the dwarf galaxiid Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces:Galaxiidae) in the South-east of South Australia, Australia. South Australian Naturalist. 60(1): 12-22. (Beck, R.G., 1985) [Journal].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Field observations upon the dwarf galaxiid Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces:Galaxiidae) in the South-east of South Australia, Australia. South Australian Naturalist. 60(1): 12-22. (Beck, R.G., 1985) [Journal].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Field observations upon the dwarf galaxiid Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces:Galaxiidae) in the South-east of South Australia, Australia. South Australian Naturalist. 60(1): 12-22. (Beck, R.G., 1985) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Habitat loss/conversion/quality decline/degradation Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish) National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch) National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Salmo trutta (Brown Trout) National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp) National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by fish Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cherax destructor (Freshwater Yabby) National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Observations on the biology of the dwarf galaxiid, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Victorian Naturalist. 95(4):128-132. (Backhouse, G.N. & R.W. Vanner, 1978) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Personal communication (Jackson, J., 2002) [Personal Communication].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alterations to hydrology through water extraction Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage Observations on the biology of the dwarf galaxiid, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Victorian Naturalist. 95(4):128-132. (Backhouse, G.N. & R.W. Vanner, 1978) [Journal].
National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Extraction of ground water Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:drawdown caused by pine plantations National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Environmental impacts due to application of fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Habitat degradation due to agricultural chemical pollution Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006k) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pestitcide application and runoff National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) (Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer, 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes (Wager, R. & P. Jackson, 1993) [Cwlth Action Plan].

Andrews, A.P. (1976). A Revision of the Family Galaxiidae (Pisces) in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 27:297-349.

Backhouse, G.N. & R.W. Vanner (1978). Observations on the biology of the dwarf galaxiid, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Victorian Naturalist. 95(4):128-132.

Beck, R.G. (1985). Field observations upon the dwarf galaxiid Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces:Galaxiidae) in the South-east of South Australia, Australia. South Australian Naturalist. 60(1): 12-22.

Bloink C. (2010). Fish Passage and Impact Mitigation Approaches for Dwarf Galaxias. Report for Abigroup Contractors. Biosis Research, Port Melbourne.

Bloink C., D. Phillips & A. Byrne (2010). Peninsula Link: Follow up targeted survey of Dwarf Galaxias Galaxiella pusilla in the Boggy, Watsons and Balcombe Creek catchments, Victoria. Report for Abigroup Contractors Pty Ltd. Biosis Research Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne.

Bloink, C. (2012). Melbourne's Strategic Assessment: Dwarf Galaxias Surveys of the South East Growth Corridor. Report for the Department of Sustainability and Environment. Biosis Research Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne.

Bloink, C. (2013). Personal Communication. Ecology Australia.

Cadwallader, P.L. & G.N. Backhouse (1983). A Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Victoria. Page(s) 249. Melbourne: Victorian Government Printing Office.

Chilcott, S.J. & P. Humphries (1996). Freshwater fish of northeast Tasmania with notes on the dwarf galaxias. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery. 103:145-149.

Coleman R.A., A.R. Weeks & A.A. Hoffmann (2013). Balancing genetic uniqueness and genetic variation in determining conservation and translocation strategies: a comprehensive case study of threatened dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae). Molecular Ecology. Blackwell Publishing Pty Ltd.

Coleman R.A., V. Pettigrove, T.A. Raadik, A.A. Hoffmann, A.D. Miller & M.E. Carew (2010). Microsatellite markers and mtDNA indicate two distinct groups in dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae), a threatened freshwater fish from south-eastern Australia. Conservation Genetics. 11:1911-1928.

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC) (2011i). Survey guidelines for Australia's threatened fish. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.4 . [Online]. EPBC Act policy statement. Canberra, ACT: DSEWPAC. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-fish.html.

Earth Tech Engineering Pty Ltd (2004). Hazelwood Mine West Field Project - Stream Diversions - Functional Design Report. Enesar Consulting Pty Ltd, ed. West Field Project. Phase 2 of the West Field Development of Hazelwood Mine. Environmental Effects Statement. Volume 3 Supporting Studies 6 and 7t. Hawthorn Rast, Vitoria: Enesar Consulting Pty Ltd.

Ecology Partners (2008). Targeted aquatic fauna surveys of the Muddy Creek Bridge, Hamilton-Port Fairy Road, Hamilton, Victoria. Report prepared for Vic Roads.

Ecology Partners (2009). Fish Survey and Mitigation Measures for the proposed Gas Pipeline Crossing of Mount Emu Creek, Garvoc, Victoria. [Online]. Victoria: Ecology Partners. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/epbc/epbc_ap.pl?name=current_referral_detail&proposal_id=4913.

Garvey N., S. Arber, D. Mossop & C. Bloink (2010). Raglan Elmhurst Road, Raglan, Victoria: Flora and Fauna Assessment. Ballarat: Biosis Research.

Hall, D. (1998). Desirable fish ecology features - Morwell River diversion. Appendix C. Functional design of ecological and morphological features of the proposed Morwell River diversion. Melbourne, Victoria: ID&A Pty Ltd for Sinclair Knight Mertz.

Hammer, M. (2002a). The South East fish inventory: distribution and conservation of freshwater fishes of south east South Australia. Native Fish Australia (SA) Inc., Adelaide.

Hammer, M. (2009). Status assessment for nationally listed freshwater fishes of south east South Australia during extreme drought, spring 2008. Report to Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australian Government. Aquasave Consultants, Adelaide.

Hardie, S.A., J.E. Jackson, L.A. Barmutta & R.W.G. White (2006). Status of galaxiid fishes in Tasmania, Australia: conservation listings, threats and management issues. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 16:235-250.

Humphries, P. (1986). Observations on the ecology of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae) in Diamond Creek, Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 98(3):133-137.

Inland Fisheries Service (2000). Freshwater Fish Facts Number 16, Dwarf Galaxias. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ifs.tas.gov.au/ifs/IFSDatabaseManager/SpeciesDatabase/dwarf-galaxias.

Jackson, J.E. (2004). Tasmanian Galaxiidae Recovery Plan 2004-2008. Inland Fisheries Service, Hobart.

Massola, A. (1938). Description of a new species of Galaxia. Aquarium Journal San Francisco. 11(10):129.

McDowall, R.M. (1980a). Family Galaxiidae Galaxiids. In: McDowall, R.M., ed. Freshwater Fishes of South-eastern Australia. Page(s) 55-69. Sydney, NSW: Reed Books.

McDowall, R.M. & R.S. Frankenberg (1981). The Galaxiid Fishes of Australia. Records of the Australian Museum. 33(10):443-605.

McDowall, R.M. ed (1996). Freshwater Fishes of South-Eastern Australia rev. edn. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

McGuckin, J (2008). Fish survey in the vicinity of Cranbourne Frankston Road between Western Port Highway and Hall Road, Cranbourne. EPBC Referral 2008/4216. Report prepared for VicRoads. Streamline Research Pty Ltd.

McGuckin, J. (2001). Investigative fish, crayfish and aquatic mammal study: Prices Hwy, Pakenham Bypass. Report to VicRoads. Streamline Research Pty Ltd.

McGuckin, J. (2002). Investigative fish survey: Yallock Creek Catchment. . Report to Melbourne Water. Streamline Research Pty Ltd.

McGuckin, J. (2004). Dwarf galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) survey of selected sites in the Dandenong and Eumemmerring Creek systems. Report to Melbourne Water. Streamline Research Pty Ltd.

McGuckin, J. (2006). Dwarf galaxias investigation of the Hallam Valley. Report to Melbourne Water. Streamline Research Pty Ltd.

McGuckin, J. (2010). Dwarf galaxias survey of the Cardinia Creek Retarding Basin and selected locations in the Cardinia Creek catchment. Report to Melbourne Water. Streamline Research Pty Ltd.

Monash City Council (2003). Accounts. Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE. [Online]. Available from: http://www.monash.vic.gov.au/environment/accounts.htm#dwarf.

Saddlier, S., J. Jackson, & M.Hammer (2010). National Recovery Plan for the Dwarf Galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla). [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/dwarf-galaxias.html.

Steer R., S. Koehler, C. Bloink, D. Gilmore, B. Van Praagh & I. Smales (2008). Flora and Fauna Assessment: Desalination Project Transfer Pipeline, Wonthaggi to Cranbourne, Victoria: Existing Conditions and Impact Assessment. Report for GHD/DSE. Biosis Research Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne.

Stoessel D., K. Pittman & P. Tinkler (2008). Distribution of Dwarf galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) in the West Gippsland Catchment, Victoria. Report for the West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.

Stoessel, D. (2008). Assessment of the status of Dwarf galaxias (Galaxiella pusilla) within the Hopkins, Barwon and Mitchell River Catchments, Victoria (2008). Report for the Natural Heritage Trust. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Heidelberg, Victoria.

Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006k). Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Galaxiidae 2006-2010. [Online]. DPIW. Department of Primary Industries, Water: Hobart, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tasmanian-galaxiidae.html.

Unmack, P.J. & G.J. Paras (1995). Galaxiella pusilla: around Melbourne, going, going, nearly gone. Fishes of Sahul. Journal of the Australia New Guinea Fishes Association. 9(1): 398-400.

Venosta M., N. Schnittler, C. Bloink, S. Koehler & C. Meredith (2008). Flora and fauna assessment of the proposed Frankston bypass, Carrum to Mount Martha, Victoria. Report for Maunsell/SEITA. Biosis Research Pty Ltd, Port Melbourne.

Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2010l). Biodiversity Precinct Structure Planning Kit. Melbourne: DSE.

Wager, R. & P. Jackson (1993). The Action Plan For Australian Freshwater Fishes. Canberra, ACT: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Galaxiella pusilla in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 20 Sep 2014 19:05:15 +1000.